Minotauros the Minotaur: Overview and Background

Minotauros
Minotauros | Source

Introduction

Minotauros is really a misunderstood character in Greek mythology. Because of his gruesome myth, he has received a bad reputation. This segment of writing about Minotauros will only cover the very basic aspects of Minotauros. More about Minotauros is covered in subsequent articles.

Genealogy

Minotauros comes from a line of divinity. Zeus managed to find his way into the family tree of Agenor, the king of Phoenice (Andrews 60). Agenor and his wife Telephassa are the parents of two well-known children, Europa and Cadmos (60). Because she is so irresistible, Zeus comes to Europa in the form of a bull and takes her off to Crete where no one will be able to find her (60). The result of their union is Minos who eventually rules Crete, “but [is] rebuffed” by his followers (“Greek Mythology” 1; Lexicon 570). Helping to continue the line of partial divinity, Minos marries Pasiphae, the daughter of the Sun—also known as Helios (Andrews 60). Minos and Pasiphae’s union results in two daughters, Phaidra and Ariadne (60). In order to fully cover how the myth of Minotauros comes to be, a closer look at his father and mother is needed.

Like many other mythological beings, Minotauros’ birth is the result of divine influences. As required by all Greeks, King Minos needed to perform a sacrifice to please Poseidon. Minos’ followers lacked faith in their leader, so Minos had to increase his status to prove his worthiness. In order to confirm his special abilities, Minos tells his people that he is blessed by the gods, and to validate it he claims that whatever he asks for he will receive ("Greek Mythology" 1). Minos prays to Poseidon to send him a bull that he can sacrifice (1). Poseidon answers Minos’ prayer and sends down an extraordinary bull that Minos can use as the perfect sacrifice. According to Burkert, the author of Greek Religion, the animal to be sacrificed should be perfect, and the most respectable sacrifice is the ox or bull (55-56). However, Minos passes up the perfect sacrifice for Poseidon because the bull is too beautiful. So, Minos tries to pull wool over Poseidon’s eyes, much like Prometheus did with the gods (Burkert 57), by sacrificing an ordinary bull from his flock. Minos’ attempt to keep the beautiful bull is of course noticed by Poseidon. Therefore, Poseidon seeks revenge. First, Poseidon turns the bull he sent free to roam the countryside; second, he devises a plan to punish King Minos (“Greek Mythology” 1). Poseidon makes Minos’ wife, Pasiphae, fall madly in love with the bull he set free (Lexicon 570). Pasiphae becomes intent on having intercourse with the bull and seeks the professional craftsman, Daidalos—also spelled Daedalus—, to help her. Daidalos constructs a hollow wooden cow that has a real cowhide on the outside for Pasiphae to fit into (“Greek Mythology” 1). Surprisingly, or not so much so, the bull impregnates Pasiphae who gives birth to Minotauros (Lexicon 570). The actual life of the infamous Minotauros, also known as Asterios, is just as intriguing as his conception.

His Appearance: What Led to the Myth

Since Minotauros does not look like a regular human, Minos needs to do something with his wife’s illegitimate son. With the head of a bull and the body of a human, Minotauros would be a constant reminder of Minos’ selfishness and disapproval from his followers. Therefore, Minos, with the guidance of an oracle, asks Daidalos to build a separate home for Minotauros (“Greek Mythology” 1). Daidalos builds a labyrinth under the Knossos palace of Minos that Minotauros is confined to for life (Harris and Platzner 46). This labyrinth is no ordinary residence. There are so many disorienting twists and turns and no means of escape in this maze (well almost) that Minotauros will never live to see the outside world again. The word labyrinth originates from labrys which means “double-headed axe” (Harris and Platzner 325). Therefore, the literal translation of “labrys” can be used to argue that the labyrinth not only confines Minotauros but foreshadows Minotauros’ life and death.

Theseus and Minotauros
Theseus and Minotauros | Source

However, Minos still needs to feed his growing baby boy bull. Luckily, Minos recently conquered Athens and could use his power to make the Athenians sacrifice their children to feed Minotauros (Andrews 60). The Athenians were demanded to send seven boys and seven girls to Crete every nine years (Harris and Platzner 324), “unarmed, to be served as food for the Minotauros” (qtd. in “Greek Mythology” 1). Then one year the young Athenian Theseus volunteers to be one of the multitude to be sacrificed. Ariadne, upon seeing Theseus, cannot allow her sweetheart to be killed by Minotauros and begs Daidalos to tell her how to exit the labyrinth (“Greek Mythology” 1). Even more amazing is that Minos allows his daughter to go on a one-way trip to her death. Nevertheless, Theseus needs the guidance of a female and Minos can do without a monstrous son whatever the cost. Daedalus instructs Theseus on how to slay Minotauros and escape from the labyrinth by using an unraveled ball of string to find his way back to the exit (Harris and Platzner 325). However, within the same text, there is confusion as to who actually gives Theseus the information for killing Minotauros and escaping (Harris and Platzner 343). Minotauros, after a long battle with Theseus, is “killed…with jabs of [Theseus’] fists” (“Greek Mythology” 1). Jabs can hardly account for slaying a human-eating monster and is only one interpretation of the battle that took place. Other interpretations will be covered in the section that includes illustrations of Theseus and Minotauros.

The end of this myth is like others, shrouded in uncertainty and tragedy. Unfortunately, after all her help, Ariadne is only to be with Theseus a short while. Hesiod, in the Theogony, claims that once Ariadne helps Theseus kill Minotauros, he leaves Crete with her only to abandon her on the island of Dia (Harris and Platzner 267). To make the myth even more like a soap-opera, Harris and Platzner agree with other interpretations of the myth that say after Theseus abandons Ariadne he marries her younger sister, Phaedra (343). To bring a typical ending to those involved in the myth of Minotauros, some versions of the myth claim Ariadne commits suicide upon learning what Theseus has done. So, like most myths, Minotauros’ story does not end with him. The focus on and existence of Minotauros is fleeting. Minotauros’ myth is just one point in the life and timeline of a greater entity—Theseus.

More Information About Minotauros

Coverage of the images associated with Minotauros

Coverage of how Minotauros is depicted after the myth and how his namesake continues

Bibliography

Andrews, P.B.S. “The Myth of Europa and Minos.” Greece & Rome. Spring 1969: 60-66. JSTOR, Web. Mar. 5 2004.

Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Trans. John Raffan. Harvard UP: Cambridge, 1985. Print.

Harris, Stephen L. and Gloria Platzner. Classical Mythology: Images and Insights. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill: Boston, 2004. Print.

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. 8 vols. Switzerland: Artemis Verlag Zurichund Munchen, 1992. Print.

Note: Some sources listed in the main text are no longer available online, so they are not listed in the bibliography.

Stephanie Bradberry

Source

About the Author

Stephanie Bradberry is first and foremost an educator and life-long learner. Her present work is as an herbalist, naturopath, and energy healer. She spent over a decade as a professor of English, Literature, Business and Education and high school English teacher. She is the founder and owner of Naturally Fit & Well, LLC and former owner of Crosby Educational Consulting, LLC. Stephanie loves being a freelance writer and editor on the side.

More by this Author


36 comments

Alexander Brenner profile image

Alexander Brenner 4 years ago from Laguna Hills, California

Interesting hub,

I just took a class on ancient world literature. I read Illiad, Odyssey, the Seven Famous Greek Plays, The Tale of Genji, and Gilgamesh. What I've notice from ancient mythology is that the more fantastic and magical aspects of the literature occurs away from the familiar. The farther Odysseus is from Greece, the more magic he encounters. It is interesting to read of such a clearly fantastic character so "close to home" as it were. I look forward to reading the more in depth article on Minotaurs, also I would consider writing more or mythology. It is such an interesting subject


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Alexander Brenner, I love mythology and wish I could have majored in it. Eponymous heroes are popular, but I like the stories of the lesser covered figures too. I also think there should more coverage of Norse and Celtic mythology, although I am most versed in Classical mythology.

I think in all tales no matter the origin, the farther from "home" the more exotic, magical, and unusual things get. I think it is part of being human that resounds in writers throughout time and around the world.

Parts two and three will be coming soon. But I have not decided how I want to split of the remainder yet. I don't want to overwhelm readers with too much at once.


alocsin profile image

alocsin 4 years ago from Orange County, CA

Wow, very nice description of an iconic Greek personality. Voting this Up and Awesome.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Thanks, alocsin. Don't forget there are two more parts to this saga--at least the way I have broken it down. Thanks for reading and glad you found it interesting!


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

I've always been a fan of mythology and you have written a great description of the beginning of minotaurs. I also think you really nailed it when you said it was like a soap opera. All mythology is with its love triangles, incest, sacrifices, punishments, and on and on. Voted up and interesting.


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

I've always been a fan of mythology and you have written a great description of the beginning of minotaurs. I also think you really nailed it when you said it was like a soap opera. All mythology is with its love triangles, incest, sacrifices, punishments, and on and on. Voted up and interesting.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Thanks, tillsontitan. I really love mythology too and wait for the day I can teach it at the post-secondary level. I think someone could make a lot of money turning mythology's stories into real life characters.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Very interesting and well written hub Stephane.

Have you ever looked for the story of Theseus in the Bible?


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello Sagittarius 2012. Thanks for reading, commenting, and the nice compliment. I have never looked for the story of Theseus in the Bible. Have you come across it? It would be interesting information to add to one of the articles.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Hello Stephanie, and you are welcome.

Yes, one of the chapters of Biblical Book of Genesis was the base not for one, but for several mythological figures.

You will find there not only Theseus, Belus, Iobates, but also Egyptian Osiris, Horus and their families.

In the Bible Theseus is called Sophar.

The Bible, Genesis 36:11 reads:

“11 And the sons of Eliphas were Thaeman, Omar, Sophar, Gothom, and Kenez....

15 These are the chiefs of the son of Esau, even the sons of Eliphas, the first-born of Esau; chief Thaeman, chief Omar, chief Sophar, chief Kenez,

16 chief Core, chief Gothom, chief Amalec.

These are the chiefs of Eliphas, in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Ada.”

Bible tells us that Esau, Sophar’s (Thesous’) grandfather, was the firstborn and beloved son of Isaac, the promised son of Abraham.

Genesis 25 reads:

“19 And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac:

20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife…

24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.

25 And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau…

28 And Isaac loved Esau..”

Ada was a Hittite; she was the second wife of Esau and mother of Esau's firstborn son Eliphaz.

Eliphaz become the king of Thaemaneans and Sophar (Thesous) was his third son.

The best version of the Bible to trace mythological figures is the Greek Septuagint, LXX.

The Septuagint, LXX is the most ancient translation of Old Testament books to Greek, and consequently is invaluable to critics for understanding and correcting the Hebrew text (Massorah).

The Septuagint was translated into Konya Greek for the newly established library of Alexandria during the reign of King Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 BC.). Its oldest existing manuscript (Codex Vaticanus) was written in the fourth century AD.

http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Genesis/index.htm

With help of Septuagint LXX we can also trace Belus and Iobates.

Genesis 36 reads:

“31 these are the kings which reigned in Edom, before a king reigned in Israel.

32 And Balac (Bela – Belus), son of Beor, reigned in Edom; and the name of his city was Dennaba.

33 And Balac died; and Jobab (Job – Iobates), son of Zara, from Bosorrha reigned in his stead."

The best historical description of Job (Iobates) comes from The Book of Job in Septuagint - LXX.

This ancient version of the Book of Job, chapter 42 verse 17, provides us with detailed genealogical information and social position of Job. However, this verse has been removed from the present Bible.

http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Job/index.htm

The missing verse from the Book of Job, preserved in the Septuagint - LXX, Arabic and Coptic Bible reads as followed:

" 17 And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up.

This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam.

And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim.

And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans,

Sophar (Thesous) king of the Minaeans (Minoans)."

As a mythological figure you will find Job (Iobates) in Hesiod's great mythological compendium, the Catalogues of Women.

“And he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted Iobates, the worshipful king . . . lord (of) . . . and she bare . . '”

http://www.theoi.com/Text/HesiodCatalogues.html

“FRAGMENT 7: BELLEROPHON

Berlin Papyri, No. 7497; Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 421: 3

(ll. 1-24) `....Eurynome the daughter of Nisus, Pandion's son, to whom Pallas Athene taught all her art, both wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silvern raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from her eyes. Her, then, Glaucus sought to win by Athena's advising, and he drove oxen4 for her. But he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the aegis. So Glaucus came seeking her to wife with gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless gods, bent his head in oath that the . . . son of Sisyphus should never have children born of one father.5 So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the house of Glaucus blameless Bellerophon, surpassing all men in . . . over the boundless sea. And when he began to roam, his father gave him Pegasus who would bear him most swiftly on his wings, and flew unwearying everywhere over the earth, for like the gales he would course along. With him Bellerophon caught and slew the fire-breathing Chimera. And he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted Iobates, the worshipful king . . . lord (of) . . . and she bare . . '”

In the Bible, Iobates is Job, and there is the whole book, the oldest book of the Bible, which has been authored most likely by Job (Iobates).

http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Job/index.htm

Job (Iob)

Chapter 1

“1 There was a certain man in the land of Ausis, whose name was Job; and than man was true, blameless, righteous, and godly, abstaining from everything evil. 2 And he had seven sons and three daughters…”

Chapter 2 – tells us about Sophar (Theous) the king of Minaeans (Minoans) visiting Job (Iobates) the second king of Edom, in his afflictions.

“11 Now his three friends having heard of all the evil that was come upon him, came to him each from his own country: Eliphaz the king of the Thaemans, Baldad sovereign of the Saucheans, Sophar king of he Minaeans: and they came to him with one accord, to comfort and to visit him.”

In the Catalogues of Women –

FRAGMENT 15: ARABUS – we read:

Strabo,13 i. p. 42:

`And the daughter of Arabus, whom worthy Hermaon begat with Thronia, daughter of the lord Belus.'

It was the daughter of Arabus who was married to Job (Iobates) (Job 42:17). With this marriage Job inherited form Bela (Lord Belus), the first king of Edom, the throne of Edom.

You may ask Stephanie, where the proof is that Sophar, the son of Eliphaz and the king of Minaeans is mythological Theseus.

To answer this question we have to look in to another book, The Book of Jasher;

Referred to in Joshua and Second Samuel

"Is not this written in the Book of Jasher?"--Joshua, x. 13.

"Behold it is written in the Book of Jasher."--II. Samuel, i. 18

SALT LAKE CITY:

PUBLISHED BY J.H. PARRY & COMPANY 1887.

http://sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/jasher/index.htm

This is one of the apochrypal Books of Jasher. There are several (as many as five) separate works by this title, all composed much later than Biblical times. This particular one is a translation of a Hebrew book printed in 1613. Sepir Ha Yasher, the Hebrew title of this book, means the 'Book of the Upright', or 'the Upright or Correct Record'.

There is also another spurious Book of Jasher, published 1750, in which Jasher is treated as the name of the author.

This text covers much of the same ground as the traditional Mosaic books of the Bible, from the creation of the world to the death of Moses, albeit with several minor variations.

This book tells us about adventures of Sophar (Thesous), who is called in this book Zepho, between the time he was born, and visited Job as the king of Minaeans (Minoans).

http://amightywind.com/treasure/jasher/jasher57.ht...

The Book of Jasher

Chapter 57

“1 And it was after this that the sons of Esau waged war with the sons of Jacob, and the sons of Esau fought with the sons of Jacob in Hebron, and Esau was still lying dead, and not buried.

2 And the battle was heavy between them, and the sons of


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Wow Sagittarius 2012, I was not expecting this level of detail. Since you have already done the research, are you going to do a hub about it. If not, I will copy your response from here and add it to my article and of course credit you, which anyone could tell since your response is here in the comment section.

Thanks for the truly awesome follow-up!


Vlad 4 years ago

Madam Crosby.

It is interesting about some writers presenting information about marginal characters even fictitious and neglecting most important figure like our Lord Jesus, Son of living God, which on whom eternity depends.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Hello Stephanie, I don't think I will write a hub about this topic. It is just a part of my larger project, so you are welcome to copy and use my comments whichever way you want. 

I'm not a good writer and English is my second language, so please feel free to make edits and improve whatever needs to be corrected.

I wish you success with your upcoming hub.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello Vlad.

Well, I guess it comes down to research and personal interest for writers. As for me, I was an English major and not a philosophy or religion major. And I always had an affinity for mythology. But some people do read the Bible and characters in the Bible as myth.

But in terms of marginality, wouldn't Jesus be considered one of the most prominent? The marginalization is historical and continued as many wars and battles are waged over religion simply based on slight differences in belief. So, in actuality there is connection in these fictitious and marginal characters to the one you view as the most important...at least for writing purposes. For example, when I wrote this article, I had no idea of the religious connection, but a paper that started as part of an assigned character has produced meaningful conversation almost a decade later.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello again Sagittarius. Thanks for offering your research to my hub. I will let you know when it has been updated. Thanks again!


Vladimir Uhri profile image

Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago from HubPages, FB

Madam StephanieBCrosby, don't you think the Satan always tries to dilute scriptures and twist it? He works in our mind, trying to play with it. He tries to keep us away from God. God is also jealous God. But I am not teacher of fear of judgement.

I did signed myself to uncompromising Word of God and I never regret it. I am harvesting reward. YesHuVaH is coming back probably sooner as we think.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello again Vladimir Uhri. I am not one that likes to comment about matters concerning religion, as I have just come to believe in being nice and doing good. I try to stay unbiased and hear what all religions have to say. However, I will say that in my past of attending several churches, of differing denominations, they all tend to rely on a religious text to support what they preach. But in many of these churches and denominations, the beliefs are based on a text that has been heavily edited for centuries and therefore followers are not allowed to decide for themselves the truth or discern what is applicable or not. If religion is about presenting the "truth" and a "reality," then certain aspects should not be glossed over, deleted, burned, and etcetera at will by a human hand.


Vladimir Uhri profile image

Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago from HubPages, FB

Hi madam S.

I am very interested about statements which said the biblical texts were supposedly edited. They were not as far I know the past history. I found that people believed to alter Biblical text would have consequences of eternal separation from God. The transcriptionists did make some misspelling errors but in different places, easy to correct. If there would be nothing left, only what was found in Dead Sea scrolls would be sufficient and it is intact Isaiah book and Luke Gospel. They are identical what was found with our Bible.

What love, faith, forgiveness, peace could be edited and replace with....? As a matter of fact there are many religions (Jewish, Catholics) who would have reason for edition and omission but they could not. (It is conflicts with their unbelief). The Bible is written not in analog but digital mode and could not be altered. This is how God protected His Word.

God bless.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

I do not have much response to this. But I do know over the years I have learned tidbits, like how sections containing information about Lilith were omitted. But, again, I am not religious scholar, just someone who listens to different information and rattles it around in her brain.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Vladimir Uhri,

If you are truly interested in the Biblical texts which had been edited, or even worse, entirely omitted from the present Bibles, one of the best examples will be Chapter 2 and the the ending of the Biblical Bool of Job. 

The Book of Job, written in poetry, is the oldest book of the entire Bible, and masterpiece of world literature.

This book was written around 1500 BCE  in one of the oldest alphabetical scripts.

Poetic middle section of this book is a beautiful and inspiring work of literature. 

The leading English poet of Victorian age, Alfred Lord Tennyson, who studied Hebrew having a mind to translate The Book of Job, called it, the 

"...greatest poem of ancient and modern times."

In the Westminster Abbey, on his monument, are written the words,

"I know that my Redeemer liveth,"  

from The Book of Job, which he had asked to have been written upon his tomb.

Tennyson’s opinion about this book was shared by Victor Hugo, who wrote: 

"Tomorrow, if all the literature was to be destroyed and it was left to me to retain one work only,  I should save Job".

However, the crucial informations, which provide us with the context of the book, have never made to the present Bibles.

Unedited Book of Job, preserved in Septuagint LXX and ancient Coptic version of the Bible, provides us with informations about descendants of Esau / Edom, the true carriers of Abrahamic  religion. 

This book gave us insight in to ancient religions of Minaeans / Minoans,  and Thameans  - the famous people of Ad from the early Bronze Era; in to the times before the massive volcanic eruption of Thera on Santorini Island in 1628 B.C.E. (Plato's Atlantis), which have destroyed the early Bronze civilizations.

Those informations can make the Bible alive again, and can awake interest in the God of Abraham and Abrahamic religion in the younger generation.

Vladimir, the Bible tells us that Esau was the firstborn and beloved son of Isaac, the promised son of Abraham.

Genesis 25 reads:

“19 And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac:

20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife… 

24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.

25 And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau…

28 And Isaac loved Esau..”

Vladimir Uhri, how dare you call Esau marginal character? Esau, known in Arabic as Essa, was the founder of Edom, and his descendants - Essaios race, known also as Essenes were the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Unfortunately, 80% of the Dead Sea Scrolls had been withhold from the public for over 50 years, to be released only after being heavily edited by Jewish scholars, the avid enemies of the Nation of Edom.

It makes you wander, who in fact was Esau.

I have been searching for Esau's footsteps for the last twelve years, and what I have found is fascinating.

From history and archeological excavations we know that Esau is the same person as Egyptian Osiris and Sumerian  Lipit-Esthar, bringers of our civilization.

Jews in general hate Esau, and have created all kinds of lies about him; however, so they did about Jesus as well.

If you read Genesis and apply Christian values to Esau, you will find out that he represents the image of Christ. 

From history and archeology, this person - Esau, is very interesting individual:

In the archeological records of Summer, Esau is mentioned as Lipit-Ishtar, son in law of Ishme-Dagan.

He was the fifth king of the First Dynasty of Isin. 

Esau instigated legal and economic reform trough his "Code of Lipit-Ishtar".

"Esau / Lipit-Ishtar drafted a formal legal code for Summer and Akkad in 1930 B.C., which precedes the famous Low Code of Hammurabi a couple centuries later.

His Code was the first legal code to deal substantially with the inheritance of children of plural wives, including slaves wives."

Esau was the fist king to create law which allowed daughters to inherit from fathers. 

It was the reason why the beautiful daughters of Job could share  Inheritance along their brothers.

Job 42

New International Version (NIV) - reads:

" 13 And he (Job - Iobates) also had seven sons and three daughters. 

14 The first daughter he named Jemimah, the second Keziah and the third Keren-Happuch. 

15 Nowhere in all the land were there found women as beautiful as Job’s daughters, and their father granted them an inheritance along with their brothers."

It was also the reason why the first Duke of Edom was a woman - Timna (Genesis 36).

The law created by Esau opened a window on social development of the period, including the first legal provision for child support."

However, what do we know today about Esau?


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Welcome back to the discussion Sagittarius 2012!

Thanks for weighing in where I have extremely limited knowledge. In college as part of an interdisciplinary course we were assigned the Book of Job (it is a stand alone bound text). It sits on a shelf in my bedroom now. So maybe I will revisit the text. However, I am not sure how this text has been edited since I have not read or studied it in a long time.

Thanks for all the detailed information, yet again.


Vladimir Uhri profile image

Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago from HubPages, FB

Sag it is evident how bias you are. Look to genealogy of Jesus in Hub I wrote.

I wrote book about Job and so called missing part is in my Slovak and Czech Bible. Do you know that Kralicka Biblia was printed before KJV? The text is here but nobody understands Book of Job except few. But they will not be condemned and place to Hell since they do not understand. The information is not crucial to salvation. Yes Job is oldest book of the Bible. But it does not dislocate the truth. There is important think and not important. Let say Law vs Grace in present time.

Jesus is Lamb of God who was slain for our iniquities. He did not and could not sin since He would be unable to be resurrecting which is the key point for salvation. Sin in Paradise was sin of broken faith (disobedience fallowed) and believe in supernatural resurrection of Jesus is the way returning to eternal paradise.

You are promoting Esau like being Jesus. It all false religious do and enemy of true line. Notice the changing priority occurred all the time. First Adam was replaced with Jesus; First born Cain was replaced with Set, Ishmael with Isaac, Esau with Jacob, and Manasseh with Ephraim. It is matter of faith not the flesh line. We are what we believe. Wrong belief disqualifies all.

BTW you English is fine better than mine, but you do not want to write for some specific reason.

To Madam S.

Hi again. I do not trust very much Google. But it said truth that Lilith is imaginary fiction mythology. Before Adam and Eve sin it is not possible to have nonexistent wife. They were perfect and not conflict happen until Serpent came to garden. The story exists in Hebrew Jewish Talmud (commentaries), but it is falls.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilith


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Vlad, after looking in to genealogy of Jesus in the hub you have written, I have to say that if you consider both genealogies, in Luke and Matthew to be reliable and true, then you deny that Jesus was the Son of God. They both lead to Joseph; the true Christians believe that Jesus was the Son (Word)) of God, not physical son of Joseph. 

In addition, what you believe in is mythological Joseph and Mary.

The historical Mary was dedicated by her mother Hannah to service at the temple at Sepphoris where she was raised as a young novice under the care of her uncle Zechariah who lived in Hebron, Capitol city of Idumea (Edom); not just an ordinary priestess given over to active service in the Greek fashion, she was instead raised to serve as a virgin oracle. 

Before her coming of age lots were cast by the priests to determine her guardian when she came of age. It was determined that the man should have an honorable character and be of noble birth, married, and with a good family. 

The lot fell to Joseph II the grandson of Joseph Phasael the Edomite Governor of Jerusalem whose wife was Salome the daughter of Herod the Great. 

It is interesting to note that Salome was present during the crucifixion of Jesus.

Vlad, if you want to discus any further the genealogy of historical Joseph, and his Edomite origin, then be my guest; however, we will have to ask first Stephanie for her permission, because it has nothing to do with mythological Minotaur.

Vlad, I don't know what you see, but i don't see the Missing part of Job in your Karlicka Bible:

Bible Kralická (1613).

Job Chapter 2

"11. Když pak uslyšeli t?i p?átelé Jobovi o všem tom zlém, kteréž p?išlo na n?j, p?išli jeden každý z místa svého: Elifaz Temanský, a Bildad Suchský a Zofar Naamatský, na tom z?stavše spolu, aby p?ijdouce k n?mu, politovali ho a t?šili jej."

Job Chapter 42

"16. Byl pak živ Job potom sto [a] ?ty?idceti let, a vid?l syny své, a syny syn? svých, [až do] ?tvrtého pokolení.

17. I um?el Job, stár jsa a pln dn?."

Karlicka Bible was translated from the Jewish Hebrew Bible, while The Book of Job was originally written in Edomite Hebrew, language much more advanced then the Jewish Hebrew. 

It is the reason why the Jewish Hebrew translation, and translations which are based on it, are so difficult to understand. 

Voltaire assumed that The Book of Job was originally written in Arabic, language much closer to Edomite Hebrew, when almost 250 years ago he wrote:

“ARABS; AND, OCCASIONALLY, ON THE BOOK OF JOB. 

- Voltaire, The Works of Voltaire, Vol. III 

(Philosophical Dictionary Part 1) [1764]

http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&st...

• Author: Voltaire

• Introduction: Oliver Herbrand Gordon Leigh

• Translator: William F. Fleming

On Job, the Arab.

It is clear that the Arabs at least possessed 

noble and exalted ideas. 

Those who are most conversant with the oriental languages think that the Book of Job, which is of the highest antiquity, was composed by an Arab of Idumæa. 

The most clear and indubitable proof is that the Hebrew translator has left in his translation more than a hundred Arabic words, which, apparently, he did not understand. 

Job, the hero of the piece, could not be an Israelite for he says, in the forty-second chapter, that having been restored to his former circumstances, 

he divided his possessions equally among his sons and daughters, which is directly contrary to the Israelite  law.

A yet stronger proof

—one to which there is no reply—

is the knowledge of astronomy which appears in the Book of Job. 

Mention is here made of the constellations which we call Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades, and even of those of “the chambers of the south.” 

Now, the Hebrews (Israelites)  had no knowledge of the sphere; they had not even a term to express astronomy; 

but the Arabs, like the Chaldæans, have always been famed for their skill in this science.

It does, then, seem to be thoroughly proved that the Book of Job cannot have been written by a Jew, and that it was anterior to all the Jewish books, 

Philo and Josephus were too prudent to count it among those of the Hebrew canon. 

It is incontestably an Arabian parable or allegory.

This is not all. 

We derive from it some knowledge of the customs of the ancient world, and especially of Arabia. 

Here we read of trading with the Indies; a commerce which the Arabs have in all ages carried on, but which the Jews never even heard of.

Here, too, we see that the art of writing was in great cultivation, and that they already made great books... “

  

Vladimir Uhri, you say that I'm promoting Esau, Edom and his culture. from your writing and your hub: Christians for Israel, it is clear that you are promoting Jacob and Israel; shall we have a close look in to what you are promoting?


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Hello Stephanie,

I hope you will enjoy revisiting The Book of Job. It is truly a masterpiece of world literature. 

      This Old Testament Book, which has been translated in over 2000 languages and printed in over a billion copies, makes the character of Job well known all over the world. 

     The Book of Job has been written in a dialect distinct from the Jerusalem dialect, used for most of the Old Testament. In the opinion of Sir John William Dawson, Canadian scientist of worldwide reputation, the language and theology of the Book of Job can be better explained by being a portion of Minaean (Minoan)[Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. 

      There is a general opinion that Job himself was the author of the book. This is supported by the date of the events in the book, which leans toward a patriarchal age. The foreign tone of the book also indicates that it could have been written by Job, (Arabic words, nomadic habits, illustrations from sandy plains, awareness of nature and the arts). 

It was also Job’s desire to preserve the story of his trial. In the Book of Job, Ch.19, ver. 23-24 Job says:   

   "23 Oh that my words were now written! oh that they were printed in a book!

24 That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever!"


Martus 4 years ago

MadamStephanieBCrosby, your hard work is achieving a spectacular sphere of words activity.

In your words...had intention to " no idea of the religious connection "--and it has happened. By not a chance . A great idea of Greek mythology a very interesting reading to those interested to know and above.

Abviously "habugabandagu" would try to mix "religion" of it's agenda at any given chance to create a level of confusion.

One of the definition of "religion" suggests that at any point of history of mankind a gro of people can put together some-kind of "guideline" for "different religion" -and here it is another one.

A-proof-of - it-- countless religious groups. Some less successful some more successful , depends on the mystical power of a spiritual-control evil one. ( an Evil has many names....)

Just look at someone in time of past has said: "I know my Redeemer liveth "-and other one down the road is attempting to create another religion out of other man sincere confession of faith!

Not many "religion " do have serious intention to present the truth of righteous living toward the life eternal, getting sinners out of lasting damnation.

On the other hand some presumptuous individuals are quoting portions of the "Bible" apart of the Holy Spirit revelation, thus creating of mixtureofdoubt and confusion presented under the " real- thing" which usually creates further search for reality...

Every reader needs solid base of diserments.

Let's be honest: is any " missing" literature of any kind really helpful.??? Why to talk about what isn't, and not to values what we have?

Just-plenty - enough is available for wisdom, godliness, and compassing toward life eternal.

These hubpages generously present the opportunity for classical wisdom , saying : A good healthy tree cannot bear bad, worthless fruit, nor can a bad deceased tree bear excellent fruit-- worthy of admiration...

...therefore you will fully know them by their fruit.

Madam Stephanie B Crosby, You've succeeded! You've don good job for now and consequently for all eternity. Congratulations.

Up to the last comment is evident, that a good man from his inner good treasure flings forth good things, and the evil man out of his inner evil storehouse flings forth evil things--says the Anointed-One...

The day is commimg, we wll will meet on the day of judgment when all men will have to give account for every idle --inoperative, non--working word they speak. ( ohmm... howabout " word they write???" For by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned and sentenced, says the One who Was, who Is and IS TO COME. Fair enough?

Agape, Martus


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Martus, thank you for your kind words.


Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago

Martus, amen, excellent comment. Thanks.


Vladimir Uhri profile image

Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago from HubPages, FB

& StephanieBCrosby. Thank you for your patience using of unrelated to original piece of your work. I am not interested to discuss further since there are many umbilical errors presented. I do nor hate Jew or Arabs or other race. I love people but I hate sin. It includes misconception. The family tree of Mary and Joseph proved Joseph could not be Jesus father, but God. Thank you again for allows me to participate.


Vladimir Uhri profile image

Vladimir Uhri 4 years ago from HubPages, FB

Sag. I never disseminate hate of man. Hate is my enemy.

I treasure the Bible I know how to read it. The Book was closed and sealed. It is opening now at the end.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Good Morning Stephanie,

If you will read the Book of Job again, I would like you to note something about author of this book.

I've found this story very interesting.

"Considering that this book is one of the oldest book in existence, the question who was author of this book, could be enigma with no answer at all; nevertheless, this book is worth searching for one.

 The oldest fragments of manuscripts of The Book of Job found among the Dead Sea scrolls in the Qumran caves are dated back to the second century B.C.; some of them are written in Aramaic, a language commonly use at that time, but some fragments are written in Edomite Palo-Hebrew, a language which was in use before the time of the Exile (six century BC). “This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, 600 B.C.” (Easton)  

In this case one may as well look for the author of The Book of Job between the stars in the sky; fortunately there are verses in Job Chapter 9, in which Job admires the work of God and says:

          “8 Who (God) alone spreadeth out the heavens, 

and treadeth upon the waves of the sea;

         9 Who maketh Arcturus, Orion and Pleiades…”

A short note about these celestial bodies: PLEIADES, ORION and ARCTURUS.

The seven stars of the PLEIADES are in reality a grouping of 250 stars. Photographs reveal that 250 blazing stars in this group are all traveling together in one common direction. From Lick Observatory came this statement of Dr. Robert J. Trumpler:                             

“The Pleiades stars may thus be compared to a swarm of birds,  flying together to a distant goal. This leaves no doubt that the Pleiades are not a temporary or accidental agglomeration of stars, but a system in which the stars are bound together by a close kinship”.

Garrett P. Serviss, the noted astronomer, wrote about the bands of ORION in his book Curiosities of the Sky: (Garrett P. Serviss, Curiosities of The Sky). 

 “At the present time this band consists of an almost perfect straight line. In the course of time, however, the two right-hand stars, Mintaka and Alnilam, will approach each other and form a naked-eye double;                                  but the third, Alnitak, will drift away eastward  so that the band will no longer exist.”

ARCTURUS, one of the greatest stars in the universe, is a runaway whose speed of flight is 257 miles per second; our Sun is traveling only 12 ½ miles a second, but Arcturus is traveling 257 miles a second;     it could only be stopped by collision head on with a body of enormous mass. Barring such accidents, it must, as far as we can see, keep on until it has traversed our stellar system, whence it may escape and pass out into space beyond to join perhaps one of those other island universes. 

Charles Burckhalter, director of the Chabot Observatory atOakland, added an interesting note regarding this great star:

“This high velocity places Arcturus in that very small class of stars that apparently are a law unto themselves. He is an outsider, a visitor, a stranger within the gates; to speak plainly, Arcturus is a runaway. Newton gives the velocity of a star under control as not more than 25 miles a second, and Arcturus is going 257 miles a second. Therefore, combined attraction of all the stars we know cannot stop him or even turn him in his path.”

In epiphany, The Book Job Ch.38, God reviles to Job some more secrets of the universe by merely raising questions concerning the wonders of His creation. 

Three of these questions found in  Job 38:31- 32, are:

“Canst thou bind the sweet influences of PLEIADES,                          

or loose the bands of ORION?

Canst thou guide ARCTURUS with his sons?”

When Mr. Burckhalter had his attention called to this text in The Book of Job, he studied it in the light of modern discovery and made a statement that has attracted worldwide attention:

“The study of The Book of Job and its comparison with the latest scientific discoveries has brought me to the matured conviction that Job is an inspired book and was written by the One who made the stars.”"


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Well, discussion is what is important. And I love discussion, even if I am not educated enough on the topic to weigh-in.


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Sagittarius 2012, I will keep this in mind when I read it again, but no promises on reading the Book of Job soon. But I did used to teach a course that used the Bible as the primary text; however, it was a literature class and not a religion class. I bet you can guess how the discussions started to lean when asked to read the Bible as literature.


Sagittarius 2012 profile image

Sagittarius 2012 4 years ago from Canada

Stephanie, I can imagen what has happened when you were trying to teach Bible as literature, however, it is worth to noticed that The Book of Job is very unique one; although deeply spiritual, it is not a religious one; there is no mention made of institution of Israel, whether temple, monarchy, prophets or priesthood.

 In the Bible, it is placed between the books of Poetry and Wisdom, however, in the scholarly opinion it “stands alone among the books of the Old Testament” (Alexander 319 Erdmans). 

Matthew Henry  wrote about this book in his Commentatory of the Bible, that this book “Most likely it was written by Job himself, and it is the most ancient book in existence.”

Someone added that "The Book of Job is a didactic poem set in a prose framing device; it is one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, heavenly-replenished storehouse of comfort and instructions, the precious momentum of patriarchal theology. Though JOB has been called the most difficult book of the Bible, it is a beautiful and inspiring work of literature."

Someone else is trying to put together website about Job: 

thejobland.com  and would appreciate constructive comments. 

When this work is studied carefully and critically, it becomes clear that The Book of Job is not a historical document, but a parable based on the life of a man well known in history. Job was historical person; locations and names mentioned in the book were real and not fictitious.

Now, if we add that one of Job's visitors, Zophar the king of Minaeans / Minoans, was turned later in to mythological Theseus who killed Minotaur, it can awake curiosity to study this book.

Anyway Stephanie, I feel like I'm preaching again and it is getting early; time to finnish my sleep.

Have a nice day :)


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello again, Sagittarius 2012. I cannot say that all the discussions were totally unfocused, but I did find myself making the same comment that this was not a philosophy class or a religion class. But it really did not make a difference because those who wanted to espouse their beliefs or try to convert people were dead set on it.


Martus 4 years ago

Stephanie B Cosby,

Thank you for being such an productive educator.

Your latest answer to a comment, is greatly composed--much said in a few words.

Very helpful to people like me ( learning English language past 41+ years)

The arrangement of you last sentence, gives total understanding of correctly usage of this rich in idioms language. [Will stick in my memory for all my life.]

You are being much appreciated.

Do continue a great work.

Martus


StephanieBCrosby profile image

StephanieBCrosby 4 years ago from New Jersey Author

Hello again Martus. It is always nice to meet someone who loves learning as much as I do. Your compliments are much too kind!

I hope you experience continued success in mastering the English language. You are more than welcome to join me on my journey to do the same. I know you may find this odd since I am an English professor, but I actually chose this major because I wanted to find the easiest ways to show people how to complete writing tasks and find meaning in writings, since no one really showed me and I was stuck learning things the hard way, and English is my first language. So never get discouraged.

Thanks for reading and commenting.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working