PARENTAL RAGAS IN CARNATIC MUSIC

Introduction

Carnatic music is one of the traditional music in our Indian culture. It is an art. Basically music is made up of 7 swaras. They are

  • Sa(low)
  • Ri
  • Ga
  • Ma
  • Pa
  • Dha
  • Ni
  • Sa(high)

Where sa is shadjam

ri is rishabham

ga is gandharam

ma is madhyamam

pa is panchamam

dha is dhaivatham

ni is nishadam.

*Since sa comes in both low and high pitches. We should not take it as two swaras.


In this 7 swaras

Ø  sa(low), pa, sa(high) are CONSTANT swaras.(only one type)

Ø  ri, ga, ma, dha,ni are VARIABLE swaras.(more than one type).

TYPES OF EACH  VARIABLE SWARAS:

            Rishabam(ri): 1. shuddha rishabam(R1)  

                                   2. chathusruthi rishabam(R2)

                                   3. shatsruthi rishabam(R3)

            Gandharam(ga):1. shuddha gandharam(G1)

                                      2. sadharana gandharam(G2)

  3. anthara gandharam(G3)

            Madhyamam(ma):1.suddha madhyamam(M1)

                                          2. prati madhyamam(M2)

            Dhaivatham(dha):1. suddha dhaivatham(D1)

                                         2. chathusruthi dhaivatham (D2)

                                         3. shatsruthi dhaivatham(D3)                   

            Nishadham(ni):1. suddha nishadham(N1)

                                     2. kaisiki  nishadham(N2)

                                     3. kakali nishadham.(N3)

Only with this constant and variable swaras. 72 parent ragas in carnatic music was formed.

                                                            Aarohanam                        Avarohanam         

 1st cycle                    
 1. kanakAn'gi            S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S
 2. rathnAn'gi            S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S
 3. gAnamUrthi            S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G1 R1 S
 4. vanaspathi            S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G1 R1 S
 5. mAnavathi             S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G1 R1 S
 6. thAnarUpi             S R1 G1 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G1 R1 S
 --------------------------------------------------------------------
 2nd cycle
 7. sEnAvathi             S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S
 8. HanumathOdi           S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S
 9. DhEnukA               S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S
10. nAtakapriya           S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R1 S
11. kOkilapriya           S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G2 R1 S
12. rUpavathi             S R1 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G2 R1 S
3rd cycle
13. gAyakapriya           S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S
14. vakulAbharaNam        S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S
15. mAyAmALava gowLA      S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S
16. chakravAkam           S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S
17. sUryakAntam           S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S
18. HAtakAmbari           S R1 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R1 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 4th cycle
19. Jan'kAradhvani        S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S
20. naTabhairavi          S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S
21. kIravANi              S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S
22. KaraHarapriya         S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S
23. gowrimanOHari         S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S
24. varuNapriya           S R2 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G2 R2 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 5th cycle
25. mAraranjani           S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S
26. chArukeshi            S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S
27. sarasAn'gi            S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S
28. HarikAmbhOji          S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S
29. DhIrashan'karAbharaNamS R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S
30. nAgAnandhini          S R2 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R2 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 6th cycle
31. yAgapriya             S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S
32. rAgavarDhani          S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S
33. gAn'geyabhushani      S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R3 S
34. vAgaDhIsvari          S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R3 S
35. shUlini               S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R3 S
36. chalanAta             S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R3 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 7th cycle
37. sAlagam               S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S
38. jalArnavam            S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S
39. JAlavarALi            S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G1 R1 S
40. navanItham            S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G1 R1 S
41. pAvani                S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G1 R1 S
42. raGupriya             S R1 G1 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G1 R1 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 8th cycle
43. gavAmbodhi            S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S
44. bhavapriya            S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S
45. shubhapanthuvarALi    S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S
46. shadhvidha mArgiNi    S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G2 R1 S
47. suvarNAn'gi           S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R1 S
48. dhivyAmaNi            S R1 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G2 R1 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 9th cycle
49. dhavalAmbari          S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S
50. nAmanArAyaNi          S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S
51. kAmavardhini          S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R1 S
52. rAmapriya             S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S
53. gamanashrama          S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R1 S
54. vishvAmbhari          S R1 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R1 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 10th cycle
55. shyAmaLAngi           S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S
56. shanmuKapriya         S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S
57. simHendra madhyamam   S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S
58. HemAvathi             S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S
59. DharmAvathi           S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S
60. nIthimathi            S R2 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G2 R2 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 11th cycle
61. kAnthAmaNi            S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S
62. rishabhapriya         S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S
63. lathAngi              S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R2 S
64. vAchaspathi           S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S
65. mEchakalyANi          S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S
66. chithrAmbari          S R2 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R2 S
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 12th cycle
67. sucharithra           S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S | S N1 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S
68. jyothisvarUpiNi       S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S | S N2 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S
69. dhAtuvardhani         S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S | S N3 D1 P M2 G3 R3 S
70. nAsika bhUshaNi       S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S | S N2 D2 P M2 G3 R3 S
71. kosalam               S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S | S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R3 S
72. rasikapriya           S R3 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S | S N3 D3 P M2 G3 R3 S

Further Details

It is difficult to understand the swara arrangement of this 72 ragas. Let us show an easy way how the swaras are arranged. First we divide this 72 ragas into two 36 according to madhyamam(M).

§  First 36 ragas have shuddha madhyamam(M1)

§  Next 36 ragas have prati madhyamam(M2)

Actually all this 72 ragas is grouped inside 12 cycles in which the first cycle has first  6 ragas(1-6) and 2nd cycle has next successive 6 ragas(7-12). Like that all the 72 ragas can be categorized under 12 cycles.

First let us take first 36 ragas having shuddha madhyamam. In this first 36 ragas we are going to take only 6 ragas and see how the other 30 ragas are formed by that. That six ragas are

1.      kanakAn'gi                         - 1st raga of 1st cycle

8.   HanumathOdi                     - 2nd raga of 2nd cycle

15. mAyAmALava gowLA      - 3rd raga of 3rd cycle

                        22. KaraHarapriya                    - 4th raga of 4th cycle

                        29. DhIrashan'karAbharaNam  - 5th raga of 5th cycle

                        36. chalanAta                            - 6th raga of 6th cycle

Similarly we take other six ragas in the next 36 ragas having prathi madhyamam.

                        37. sAlagam                              - 1st raga of 7th cycle

                        44. bhavapriya                           - 2nd raga of 8th cycle

                        51. kAmavardhini                     - 3rd raga of 9th cycle

                        58. HemAvathi                         - 4th raga of 10th cycle          

                        65. mEchakalyANi                   - 5th raga of 11th cycle

                        72. rasikapriya                           - 6th raga of 12th cycle          

Note: we are taking Aarohanam since avarohanam is just the reverse of that.

For kanakAn'gi we have to add kanakAn'gi(1st raga of 1st cycle) and kanakAn'gi(1st raga of 1st cycle)..i.e.

 kanakAn'gi + kanakAn'gi = (S R1 G1 M1) P D1 N1 S + S R1 G1 M1 (P D1 N1 S)

      = S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N1 S

For rathnAn'gi we have to add kanakAn'gi(1st raga of 1st cycle) and .   HanumathOdi (2nd raga of 2nd cycle).

kanakAn'gi + HanumathOdi = (S R1 G1 M1) P D1 N1 S + S R1 G2 M1 (P D1 N2 S)

                                              = S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N2 S.

Like this

 1. kanakAn'gi             = kanakAn'gi             + kanakAn'gi
 2. rathnAn'gi             = kanakAn'gi             + HanumathOdi
 3. gAnamUrthi             = kanakAn'gi             + mAyAmALava gowLA       
 4. vanaspathi             = kanakAn'gi             + KaraHarapriya
 5. mAnavathi              = kanakAn'gi             + shan'karAbharaNam
 6. thAnarUpi              = kanakAn'gi             + chalanAta
 7. sEnAvathi              = HanumathOdi            + kanakAn'gi
 8. HanumathOdi            = HanumathOdi            + HanumathOdi
 9. DhEnukA                = HanumathOdi            + mAyAmALava gowLA       
10. nAtakapriya            = HanumathOdi            + KaraHarapriya
11. kOkilapriya            = HanumathOdi            + shan'karAbharaNam
12. rUpavathi              = HanumathOdi            + chalanAta
13. gAyakapriya            = mAyAmALava gowLA       + kanakAn'gi
14. vakulAbharaNam         = mAyAmALava gowLA       + HanumathOdi
15. mAyAmALava gowLA       = mAyAmALava gowLA       + mAyAmALava gowLA       
16. chakravAkam            = mAyAmALava gowLA       + KaraHarapriya
17. sUryakAntam            = mAyAmALava gowLA       + shan'karAbharaNam
18. HAtakAmbari            = mAyAmALava gowLA       + chalanAta   
19. Jan'kAradhvani         = KaraHarapriya          + kanakAn'gi
20. naTabhairavi           = KaraHarapriya          + HanumathOdi
21. kIravANi               = KaraHarapriya          + mAyAmALava gowLA       
22. KaraHarapriya          = KaraHarapriya          + KaraHarapriya
23. gowrimanOHari          = KaraHarapriya          + shan'karAbharaNam 
24. varuNapriya            = KaraHarapriya          + chalanAta         
25. mAraranjani            = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + kanakAn'gi
26. chArukeshi             = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + HanumathOdi
27. sarasAn'gi             = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + mAyAmALava gowLA       
28. HarikAmbhOji           = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + KaraHarapriya
29. DhIrashan'karAbharaNam = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + shan'karAbharaNam
30. nAgAnandhini           = DhIrashan'karAbharaNam + chalanAta
31. yAgapriya              = chalanAta              + kanakAn'gi
32. rAgavarDhani           = chalanAta              + HanumathOdi
33. gAn'geyabhushani       = chalanAta              + mAyAmALava gowLA       
34. vAgaDhIsvari           = chalanAta              + KaraHarapriya
35. shUlini                = chalanAta              + shan'karAbharaNam
36. chalanAta              = chalanAta              + chalanAta
37. sAlagam                = sAlagam                + sAlagam
38. jalArnavam             = sAlagam                + bhavapriya
39. JAlavarALi             = sAlagam                + kAmavardhini
40. navanItham             = sAlagam                + HemAvathi
41. pAvani                 = sAlagam                + mEchakalyANi
42. raGupriya              = sAlagam                + rasikapriya
43. gavAmbodhi             = bhavapriya             + sAlagam
44. bhavapriya             = bhavapriya             + bhavapriya
45. shubhapanthuvarALi     = bhavapriya             + kAmavardhini
46. shadhvidha mArgiNi     = bhavapriya             + HemAvathi
47. suvarNAn'gi            = bhavapriya             + mEchakalyANi
48. dhivyAmaNi             = bhavapriya             + rasikapriya
49. dhavalAmbari           = kAmavardhini           + sAlagam
50. nAmanArAyaNi           = kAmavardhini           + bhavapriya
51. kAmavardhini           = kAmavardhini           + kAmavardhini
52. rAmapriya              = kAmavardhini           + HemAvathi
53. gamanashrama           = kAmavardhini           + mEchakalyANi
54. vishvAmbhari           = kAmavardhini           + rasikapriya
55. shyAmaLAngi            = HemAvathi              + sAlagam
56. shanmuKapriya          = HemAvathi              + bhavapriya
57. simHendra madhyamam    = HemAvathi              + kAmavardhini
58. HemAvathi              = HemAvathi              + HemAvathi
59. DharmAvathi            = HemAvathi              + mEchakalyANi
60. nIthimathi             = HemAvathi              + rasikapriya
61. kAnthAmaNi             = mEchakalyANi           + sAlagam
62. rishabhapriya          = mEchakalyANi           + bhavapriya
63. lathAngi               = mEchakalyANi           + kAmavardhini
64. vAchaspathi            = mEchakalyANi           + HemAvathi
65. mEchakalyANi           = mEchakalyANi           + mEchakalyANi
66. chithrAmbari           = mEchakalyANi           + rasikapriya
67. sucharithra            = rasikapriya            + sAlagam
68. jyothisvarUpiNi        = rasikapriya            + bhavapriya
69. dhAtuvardhani          = rasikapriya            + kAmavardhini
70. nAsika bhUshaNi        = rasikapriya            + HemAvathi
71. kosalam                = rasikapriya            + mEchakalyANi
72. rasikapriya            = rasikapriya            + rasikapriya .
 
 
 
Hence by this way we can identify how the swaras are arranged. Hope that this is done to learn some basic knowledge about carnatic music in an easy way.
 

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