"When certain indefinite pronouns (all, none, any, some, more, most) . . . are used as subjects, you may have to look at an intervening phrase or clause to determine whether the verb should be singlular or plural.
All, none, any, some, more and most may be singular or plural, depending on the noun that they refer to. (The noun often occurs in an 'of' phrase that follows.)
In formal usage, none is still considered a singular pronoun. In general usage, however, none is considered singular or plural, depending on the number of the noun to which it refers. No one or not one is often used in place of none to stress the singular idea.
None of the merchandise was stolen.
None of the packages were properly wrapped.
None were injured. (Meaning none of the passengers.)
Not one of the associates has a good word to say about the managing partner."
The Gregg Reference Manual, Tenth Edition.
When writing, if I can say not one, I would normally use was--not one of the passengers was injured. Was is singular. Here we're talking about the condition of each "individual" passenger. If you want to group the passengers, you would say "all." All of the passengers were injured. Were is plural. This would solve the singular or plural question and make it easy to select was or were.
So, it would seem that it could be either depending on the usage or whose English you're speaking. I vote was.