1. shansnrmp profile image60
    shansnrmpposted 5 years ago

    The Sindhu civilization was born in the banks of the river Sindhu.At the same time, the Dravidian civilization was established its culture in South India. The Murrain Empire who conquered the Greeks and chased away from Indian soil would not Claim their power in Tamilnadu. They able to established their Empire only up to Karnataka.  Because the three Empires raised their strong protection against the other invaders...

    One of the three empires, Cholas ruled Tamilnadu with great pride. Not even in Tamilnadu, they have furled their tiger flag in Ceylon and Lakshadweep. Historians categorized Cholas' periods in two, earlier and latter Cholas...

    Early Cholas.

    King Velpal Thadakkai Peruviralkilli who was sung by the Sangam period poets Paranar and Kalathalaiyar was identified as the first king in Chola dynasty. Here after the second King Ilanchetcheni succeeded Murrain and Kosar. This is learnt from a song in Agananooru.
    Also, the following song praises the fame of Ilanchetcheni in tambourine sound.

    .....எழாஅத் திணிதோள் சோழர் பெருமகன்
    விளங்குபுகழ் நிறுத்த இளம்பெருஞ் சென்னி
    குடிக்கடன் ஆகலின் குறைவினை முடிமார்
    செம்புஉறழ் புரிசைப் பாழி நூறி
    வம்ப வடுகர் பைந்தலை சவட்டிக்.....

    He is the father of Karikalcholzhan.

    Karikal Cholan.

    In the second century, Karikal Cholan was an important king in the dynasty. The king as a well-known even to the school children. Having interesting stories in his adolescent life escaped from an assassination during his adolescent, delivered judgment with in the make-up of an old are well known legends.

    Sangam Period song has exposed his victory in Vennipparanthalai   battle over the two kings,  Cheran Peruncheralathan and Pandian.
    The following (Agananooru  246: 8-12.) song  has observed  his unparalleled victory...

    காய்சின மொய்ம்பின் பெரும் பெயர்க் கரிகால்
    ஆர்கலி நறவின் வெண்ணி வாயில்
    சீர் கெழு மன்னர் மறலிய ஞாட்பின்
    இமிழ் இசை முரசம் பொரு களத்து ஒழிய
    பதினொரு வேளிரொடு வேந்தர் சாய

    (அகநானூறு, 246: 8-12.)

    (மொய்ம்பு = வலிமை; பெரும்பெயர் = பெரிய புகழ்; வெண்ணி வாயில் = வெண்ணிப்பறந்தலை என்னும் இடம்; வேந்தர் = சேர, பாண்டியர்.)

    He invaded up to Himalayas and engraved his tiger logo. He as well captured Ceylon and established his glory. Where, he got  12000 Singhalese in Ceylon, as war prisoners and used them to construct Poompuhar... The Kallanai stands in the banks of Cauvery speaks the marvelous of his Engineering technology.
    This is not to be an exaggeration that Karikal Cholan is the profounder of the Cholas dynasty...


    Before knowing the interregnum of Cholas we have to know about Kalabhras say  in Tamil Kalapirargal...The Historians describe the Kalapirargals’ period, is a darken one.

    Kalabrhas captured Velvikkudi from the king Salai Mudu Kudumip Pervazhuthi who is the last emperor in Sangam Age.Because of this victory over the Pandian king; they have ruled Tamilnadu for two hundred years.   

    (The only sources available to the historians are the jain and buddhist literature. The kalabhras ruled South Indian peninsula for about 300 years which is not a small time from the point of history but the history of this kalabhra period was completely a dark chapter. So the period of kalabhra rule in South Indian history was termed by historians as DARK AGE)

    With the only limited sources available to the historians are helping to know that these Kalabhras are patron to the Pali language and the two religions Jain and Budhist were flourished in their period.
    They ruled Tamilnadu for three hundred years. (A.D.300-A.D.600)

    The inscription founded at Poolankuruchi village near Puthukottai is helping to know the authentically news about Kalabhras.This would be lit a light to the History researches in Tamilnadu. Learnt this inscription age is A.D.442.This is in the name of the king Kochenthan Kootran.

    Pandian ukira peruvaluthi ,Cholan Senganan,Cheraman Kokkothaimarban,Kongu Kanaikal Irumporai were the kings who ruled Tamilnadu at the end of Kadaisangam period. Kalapirargal displaced all the three emperors and took reign of their power in Tamilnadu for three hundred years...

    Because of this experience, Cholas met a long interval about three hundred years and we didn’t get any least ideas about the Cholas... Pathetically, the Cholas were diminishing in very meager value in, fifth and eighth century and they have lived only at Pazhaiyarai and Uragapuram.

    There is no significant identification about the Cholas at the period from the fifth to eighth century. During this period, ironically they lived in Palaiyaru and Urugapuram only in meager. Without any glory, they lived in the banks of the Cauvery. Some of them migrated to Karnataka for their livelihood. These Cholas termed as Renanda Cholargal.


    Pazhayarai is the capital city to the Cholas in the early Sangam period. This is the one of the five selective towns where the Chola kings coronation ceremonies were held. In the Pallavas dynasty the Cholas were under kingdoms in Palzhaiyar.Palzhaiyarai was the Second capital city in later Cholas. The palace place is called Cholar Maligai... This would turn as individual town. Rajendra Chola was brought up by his aunty Kundavai Piratiyar in this town.
    Better to know about the inscriptions while entering the midlevel period. Because the Chola dynasty has its own lengthy path say from c. 150 CE to 1279 A.D. When comparing to the, in   India, Tamilnadu, having an enormous inscriptions.

    Professor Hultzsch from the latter part of 1886 when he was appointed Epigraphist to the Government of Madras started a systematic collection of Inscriptions of Southern India.  The Publication of these documents with texts and translations was taken up simultaneously and the following fascicule of South Indian Inscriptions were issued between the years 1886 and 1903. They included 321 records edited critically and supplied all the material that may be practically necessary for constructing the rough outlines of Chola and Pallava history.

    Subramanian Aiyar known as father of Tamil inscriptions. Neelakanda Sasthiri author of Chola History marked in many places in his works from subramanoya Aiyar’s citations... There was confusion when the Sangam Age Prahami inscriptions unearthed. Because, the language were in found is in mixed with Prahirtham and Tamil. But fortunately all the inscriptions were in fifteenth and other following centauries in Tamil. Subramanian Aiyar cleared the suspicions that all the inscriptions were found after the fifteenth centuries were in Tamil languages only...

    Thank to Mr.K.V. Subramanian Aiyar for  an unravel of this confusion.

    By Sivashanmugam.India.