Growing Tomatillos: From Tomatillo Seeds to Salsa Verde
A Ripe Tomatillo
Growing Tomatillos: A Tangy and Nutritious Fruit
Tomatillos are round, green fruits with a papery husk. Some varieties of tomatillo will turn purple or red when fully ripe, while others will turn yellow. When grown from seed, tomatillos will take quite a while to produce fruit: northern gardeners should start seeds indoors about six weeks prior to the last frost.
Tomatillos go by several other names, including ground cherry, jamberry, and tomate verde (green tomato). The tomatillo is a relative of the tomato, though the taste of the fruit is very different from tomatoes. Tomatillos have a sharp, citrus-like tang and are the primary ingredient in salsa verde (green salsa).
Tomatillos are indeterminate, which means they will produce fruit constantly through the growing season.
There are several varieties of tomatillos, including:
Turns purple and sweet when fully ripe. Makes a unique salsa (in both color and flavor).
Toma Verde Tomatillo
The classic, tangy tomatillo. Excellent for sauces and salsa
A sweet, large tomatillo. Excellent for salsa.
Pineapple Ground Cherry
Very small fruit – becomes sweet when ripe. Excellent for salsa or jam.
Purple Tomatillos in Various Stages of Ripeness
Planting Tomatillo Seeds
Plant the tomatillo seeds about ¼” deep. For those who live in areas without frost, the seeds can be sown directly into the ground. Northern gardeners should sow seeds into peat pots for later transplantation. The seeds will take a little longer than a week to germinate. Keep the soil moist and protect young seedlings from frost.
Transplanting Tomatillo Seedlings
Once the danger of frost is past, move the tomatillo seedlings outdoors. Transplant the seedlings into rows where the plants are about 2 feet apart. When transplanting tomatillo plants, cut off the bottom few leaves and bury the plant in the ground, leaving only the top few leaves exposed. This will cause the bottom of the plant to produce more roots, which will create a better support system for the young plant as it grows.
Tomatillo plants are quite vigorous and spreading: the plants will quickly “take over” any other plants in the bed, so be sure to provide them with their own place to grow. As tomatillo plants become quite large and sprawling, it is a good idea to use a tomato cage. This helps to keep the tomatillo plants contained and upright, and makes finding the fruit easier in the plants.
Tomatillo Plant Care
Tomatillos require similar growing conditions to tomatoes. They like warm (or hot) weather. Water frequently, and use a fertilizer high in phosphorus and potassium once the plants begin to flower.
Tomatillos are quite resistant to insects and diseases – they are a joy to grow because they are nearly maintenance-free. Some tomatillos will have problems with fungal diseases in areas with high humidity: any fungicide will work to eliminate the problem. Planting the plants with sufficient room for air circulation will help to prevent fungal problems with the plants.
Tomatillo Fruit Development
Many first-time tomatillo gardeners will panic: “My tomatillos have started to grow, but the husks are empty!”
Tomatillos grow by producing the husk first, and then the berry develops inside and gets larger as it matures. Empty husks are not a problem: they are simply the very beginning of the process! After a few weeks, the tomatillo berry will get bigger and bigger. Soon, the husks will be tight around the tomatillo fruit.
When Are Tomatillos Ripe?
Green varieties of tomatillo are ripe when the husk is tight and the fruit begins to split the husk. The husk will turn from green to a muted straw color, and will begin to appear dry. If the fruit remains on the plant, it will eventually turn yellow. The tangy flavor is lost as the fruit becomes over-ripe, so be sure to pick the berries when they are firm, green, and the husk has been split.
Purple varieties are ripe when the fruit splits the husk and the fruit is purple. Some purple varieties need exposure to strong sunlight to develop the full purple color. Note that purple tomatillos become sweeter when fully ripe: if a traditional (tangy) tomatillo flavor is desired, pick the fruit before it turns purple.
As tomatillos are indeterminate, it can take a week or two to obtain enough fruit to make a sauce or salsa. Tomatillos store very well, as long as the husk is kept in place. Simply pull the fruit off the plant, leave the husk in place, and store on the counter for a week or two. Once enough fruit is gathered, make a tomatillo salsa or can the tomatillos for future use. Discard any fruit that appears soft or wrinkled.
Preparing Tomatillos for Use
Tomatillos contain a very sticky substance under the dry husk. To prepare tomatillos for use, remove and discard the husks. Submerge the tomatillos in clean water and rinse the sticky film off the fruit. Drain in a colander and proceed to use in salsa or can the fruit.
Salsa Verde Recipe (Tomatillo Salsa Recipe):
- 2 cups water
- 1 pound of prepared, husked tomatillos
- 2 cloves of garlic
- 1 jalapeno pepper, chopped with seeds removed*
- 2 tablespoons chopped cilantro
- 1 Tablespoon oregano
- ½ teaspoon cumin
- 2 teaspoons salt
Place all ingredients into a saucepan and heat over medium heat. Cook until the tomatillos are tender. Skim any foam off the top of the salsa, as the foam can contain a bitter flavor. Once the tomatillos are tender, place the mixture into a blender and puree until smooth. Serve with tortilla chips.
*The “heat” of jalapeno peppers can vary – test your salsa and adjust the level of pepper as desired. Some people prefer “hot” salsa, and others prefer a milder flavor. Serrano chili peppers can be substituted for a milder version of this recipe.
Tomatillo Nutrition Facts
A medium sized tomatillo will contain:
- 7% of the daily recommended intake for Vitamin C
- 1% of the daily recommended intake for Vitamin A
- 4% of the daily recommended intake for Vitamin K
- 1% of the daily recommended intake for Iron
- 3% of the daily recommended intake for Niacin
- 3% of the daily recommended intake for Selenium
- 3% of the daily recommended intake for Potassium
- 1g of fiber
- 1 gram of sugar
- 11 calories
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