The Basics of Laundry Stain Removal
Cranberries, red wine, and gravy, oh my!
We know all too well the frustration of having a favorite wardrobe item ruined by a stubborn stain. Let's say you're wearing that brand new blouse that you bought to wear to a friend's holiday party, and you cringe to find you've spilled a glob of cocktail sauce from the shrimp hors d'oeuvres right down the front! What do you do?
Ideally, it would be smart to carry a stain stick or wipes for these accidents, but too often this is an afterthought. The best approach is to carefully blot, never rub, the excess and wait until returning home to treat the stain more thoroughly. If the item is "dry clean only," take it to the cleaners and describe the type of food stain. The most important thing, regardless of the stain type, is to take care of it as soon as possible before it has time to set into the fabric and oxidize.As tempting as it may be to remove irritating garment tags inside the side seams near the waist, this is where the laundering instructions and fabric content are.
In a pinch, common things like a dab of hand sanitizer, alcohol wipes, or a spritz of windex can be effective on grease and fat stains like lipstick, salad dressing and gravy. Cold water rinses are best for emergencies involving coffee, tea, wine, and fruit juices. The most important thing is to act quickly!
Once home, the best way to tackle a stain is to first carefully remove any hardened residue like grease, mud, spit-up, foodstuff etc. by gently lifting it or scraping it off with a plastic knife, then dab the stain with cold water. Lay the garment on a clean white towel, and blot it with another soft white cotton cloth. Gently blot from the outside in so as not to spread the stain. A spray bottle of water set on the stream nozzle can be used with care here. Continue to wet and blot until most of the stain is loosened, then wash as normal with the recommended water setting for the particular fabric. Pre-wash stain removers like Spray&Wash or Shout can also be used on protein-based stains like blood and oil-based ones like salad dressings. It is important to remember that the clothes- dryer will set any residual stain and make it permanent. The best approach is to remove the item from the wash and hang it to dry in case it should need additional stain treatment. Also, any item having gas or diesel stains should be air-dried until all fumes or residues are gone. They're still considered flammable and should never be put in the dryer.
Stain absorption with dry substances is also effective especially on oily stains like fuel and difficult materials like suede and leather. Again, common household materials such as corn starch, talcum powder, chalk, or baking soda can be used. As the powders absorb the stains, they will become caked. At this point, carefully remove with a soft brush. Depending on the severity of the stain, this can take anywhere from a few hours to reapplications over a few days. Be patient. Once the stain is visibly gone, launder or clean as usual. Red wine stains on holiday tablecloths are best absorbed with basic table salt.
Corn starch is wonderful for removing fuel stains on leather and suede.
Difficult stains on shoes, handbags, upholstery, and motorcycle gear can be effectively removed with the dry absorption method.
Use concentrated laundry powder or baking soda and work in with an old toothbrush:
Spot removal technique w/ bleach and a Q-tip
Stains can be categorized as dye-based, oil-based, water-based, protein-based, tannin-based, and wax-based. Many are combination stains such as chocolate which is a dye/oil or wine which is a water-base tannin. Effective stain removal must take into consideration both the nature of the stain and the type and condition of the fabric. The following are guidelines:
Chocolate,lipstick, and make-up: prepare detergent paste by adding a bit of water to powder or using a full-strength liquid detergent, apply to stain and rub or brush gently with soft toothbrush. Let stand for 5-10 min. and wash as usual.
Acrylic or latex paint: apply rubbing alcohol to loosen paint. If heavy cotton, use a soft brush. Rinse well and wash as usual.
Grease and oils: apply a degreasing detergent like Dawn with cold water to help break up the stain or try the dry absorption method described above. On fine apparrel fabrics, apply a dry clean spray or dry stick, let set, and blot or brush as instructed. Laundry can be pre-treated with a stain removing spray then washed as normal.
Wax; harden wax with an ice cube and scrape off as much residue as possible. Using an iron on low, cover and back the stain area with clean soft cloths. Iron over the area to melt wax and allow it to blot into the cloths. Reposition often until the stain is minimized. Treat with a citrus-base cleaner like Goo-Gone then wash in the hottest setting recommended for the fabric.
Proteins ie egg, creamy sauces: treat with cold water to loosen stain, treat with pre-wash spray, and wash as usual. Do not use hot water to treat as it will cook the stain into the fabric.
Sweat rings: mix together 1/3cbaking soda, 1/3c peroxide, 1/3 c water. Apply to underarm stains, let set, then wash as usual. Oxiclean works well too. Drying the shirts outdoors in the sun will increase the whitening effect.
Pollen: lift off the pollen grains with tape or a chenille pipe cleaner being careful not to rub into fabric. Use a pre-wash spray and wash as usual
Ink and marker: unless the marker is a washable water-base variety, start by blotting with isopropyl alcohol. Hand sanitizer or alcohol wipes work well in emergencies. If ineffective, carefully try nail polish remover or acetone, rinse and apply a baking soda paste. This is recommended for cotton and natural fabrics. If in doubt, dry clean.
Urine: blot with cold water and club soda, then wash as usual.
Grass: soak in milk and rub gently, wash as usual when stain is gone.
Always read the laundering label for the item in question before treatment. Certain household products can ruin fabrics. Chlorine bleach is harmful to silk and wool. Nail polish remover will melt acetates and synthetics. Club soda on tannins like red wine, coffee, and dark juices can set the stain because of the salt content. Hot water will set protein stains. Chlorine bleach can be used as a spot treatment on white cottons and linens but will leave a yellow residue on polyester. A bleach-soaked Q-tip is a great tool for pinpointing the smallest areas and has allowed me to restore favorite pieces to "like new" status.
A handy travel size kit can handle your stain emergencies.
Stain removal doesn't have to be rocket science, but it does require thought and patience. Once the correct solvents are used, it's important to remember the following:
1.Treat a stain as soon as possible.
2.Don't overload the washer and be sure to use the correct temperature as per the garment label.
3.Hang the items to dry until sure that the stain has been removed.
4. When taking a soiled garment to the cleaners, be prepared to describe the cause of the stain.
Relax, live life, get dirty. With the prompt and proper stain treatment, your clothes will stay fresh looking and you can rest assured that your investment in your wardrobe is a worthwhile one.
© 2011 Catherine Tally
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