Using Holly in Your Landscape
Holly has long been associated with the Christmas holiday. Its red berries and green leaves have become the colors of Christmas. Holly grows in most parts of the world, so you should have no trouble finding a variety that is right for your landscape.
The Celts brought sprigs of holly into their homes in the winter in the belief that they sheltered woodland fairies.
Originally, holly was associated with the winter solstice in the myth of the twins, the Oak King and the Holly King. The Oak King reigned as long as the oak leaves remained on the trees but when they fell, the green of the Holly King was revealed through the bare oak branches. Druids wore holly wreaths during their solstice ceremonies in honor of the Holly King.
The Romans used holly to honor Saturn, their god of agriculture. They celebrated him during their Saturnalia festivals which took place near the time of the winter solstice. Like the Druids, the Romans wove holly into wreaths which were given as gifts to be worn on the head.
With the coming of Christianity, people were unwilling to give up their holly associations with the winter solstice so they used it to celebrate Christmas. The sharp points of the leaves represented the Crown of Thorns worn by Jesus and the red berries symbolized drops of blood like that which he shed to redeem believers of their sins.
The Ilex (holly) family is found all over the world, on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. They grow in habitats ranging from temperate to tropical. Depending on the variety, they can be grown in zones 3 through 11. The holly that is traditionally associated with the Christmas season is native to Great Britain. Most hollies are evergreen. There are some hollies that are deciduous, most of which are found in North America.
Hollies are shrubs that range in size from 6 feet to more than 70 feet making it easy to find one suited to your landscape. The smaller varieties can be used for foundation plantings. The larger ones make excellent hedges. Hollies prefer full sun (6 to 8 hours daily), but can tolerate a little shade. All types prefer acidic soil.
Hollies are dioecious, meaning that the plants are either male or female. If you want your female holly to produce berries, there must a male holly within 40 feet. Most hollies sport red berries, but some have yellow berries. All berries are poisonous to humans and can make you very ill if you eat them. Birds love to eat holly berries. The seeds pass through them undigested and are spread around the area through bird excrement.
If you want to create a bird friendly environment in your yard, plant hollies. You will attract wild turkeys, cedar waxwings, thrushes, blackbirds, goldfinches, bobwhites and mourning doves. The holly berries are too hard for the birds to eat in the summer and fall, but after a few frosts, they soften up and provide a wonderful winter food source when food is difficult for them to find. Evergreen hollies also provide protection during winter storms. Birds shelter in the shrubs, protected from wind and predators.
In heraldry, holly is the symbol for truth.
Pruning can be done to give your holly an attractive shape. You should do your pruning in the late winter to ensure maximum flower production which, if there is a male shrub close enough, will result in a bumper crop of berries. Hollies can withstand a hard pruning or rejuvenation pruning and make excellent topiaries.
Hollies are known as plants with four season interest thanks to their evergreen glossy leaves and brightly colored berries. Birds also appreciate hollies, so they can be used when creating a wildlife friendly landscape. And, of course, we all appreciate holly at holiday time.
© 2014 Caren White
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