Effective Prevention and Treatment of Stretch Marks
How can you prevent and treat stretch marks?
How can you prevent and treat stretch marks?You have a better chance of finding a solution that truly prevents or can effectively get rid of stretch marks only if you understand what our biology dictates. Many people feel they've been ripped off and you may as well be the next if you don't read this page carefully!Stretch marks are visible signs that appear on the surface of the skin. They are scars left behind by skin repair within the dermis, below the surface of the skin (epidermis).Unlike normal functional skin, scars are quickly created by the body to reconnect collagen and elastin skin fibres that were torn because of an inability to withstand stretching.More specifically, stretch marks are tears in a skin matrix that have been affected by atrophy. This is a condition characterized by weakness, thinning, roughness, stiffness, a noticeable decrease in tissue size, diminished cellular proliferation and a decreased functionality.Stretch marks are the signs of the local degeneration of both cells and the fibrous connective tissues of the dermis and epidermis. The epidermis is thinner and the dermis-epidermis junction is decreased and eventually disappears. The survival of the epidermal cells that synthesis keratin (keratinocytes) is greatly lowered.The marks you see on the surface are linear atrophic lesions that span from a few millimetres up to fifteen centimetres (0.6 inches) in size.The main anomaly occurs at the level of elastic fibres and collagen network.The collagen network is positioned in the direction of the mechanical constraint, disorganized and fragmented. Collagen fibres become shortened with a smaller average diameter from 100 nanometres (normal) to 40 nanometres in the case of stretch marks.The fibres look like a string of beads. At the cellular level, fibroblasts are deeply modified with atrophies and very low metabolic activity. Indeed, synthesis of the fibre substratum is almost nil. The result is a persistency of stretch marks after they appeared.Four main factors trigger the appearance of stretch marks: Age, sex, corpulence and metabolic state have an incidence: * Mechanical factors linked to skin's fragility: weight increase, pregnancy, growth. These enhance the dislocation of the skin's fibrous network. They also cause inflammation that further breaks down collagen as also do infections on the skin; through the release of enzymes in great quantity. * Endocrine factors due to malfunction of the pituitary-hypothalamic complex. As a result, disregulation of cortisol (hypercortisolemia) triggers the degradation (proteolysis) of the collagen network. * Clinical factors: local or systemic treatments with corticoids. * Metabolic factors, such as glycation or sugar metabolism disorders which inhibit the biosynthesis activity of fibroblasts and non-enzymatic glycosylation, the Maillard reaction, leading to cross-links in proteins such as in collagen between the amino-acids arginine and lysine that reduces skin's elasticity. The Skin Matrix is in Charge of the Mechanical Properties of the SkinYou can wisely choose how to prevent and treat stretch marks once you understand that the skin matrix is composed of the intercellular elements that serve as scaffolds for the different structural elements of the skin and is in charge of the skin's mechanical properties. These properties include firmness, strength, suppleness, and elasticity.The skin matrix is a precious resource which is both produced and consumed quite often during our lives. On one end the skin matrix is continuously synthesized by fibroblasts and on the other the skin matrix is broken down into particles and further into their amino-acid components whenever it is damaged, malformed or worn out and then recycled. This breakdown is done by collagenase and gelatinase enzymes, also known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). By digesting key matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin, MMP enzymes play an underappreciated yet critical function in skin physiology.A Balance between Collagen Synthesis and Collagen DegradationIn healthy or youthful skin, the synthesis and degradation of the skin matrix are balanced: damaged or redundant matrix is degraded while the deficit is replenished by the continuous synthesis. Unfortunately, this complicated balance gets interrupted because of endocrine (hormonal), mechanical, clinical and metabolic factors.As we age not enough of the matrix is synthesized and too much is degraded. As with any supply-demand imbalance, it can be brought back to balance by either augmenting supply (boosting synthesis of the matrix) or reducing demand (inhibiting the breakdown).In particular, the synthesis of elastin is physiologically important, although elastin is only 2% of the total protein in the dermis. These skin fibres supply the resiliency of skin. Elastin synthesis and the regulation of the quantity of cross-linked insoluble elastin and collagen fibres depend on the interaction between three factors.
* Presence of active fibroblasts, which exude the soluble precursor of elastin, tropoelastin.
* Relative amount of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, fibronectin and laminin among other skin matrix components within the dermis also exuded by fibroblasts.
* Enzymes that are in charge of both the cell degradation progressions that allow the breakdown of dead cells into their component amino-acids and their renewal for the creation of new proteins (amino-acid chains).So be careful of any "stretch mark cream" that contain soluble collagen and/or elastin, they will NOT do the trick. What is needed is the biosynthesis and appropriate self-assembly of complex skin structures from inside out your body.The first step in elastic fibre formation is the manifestation of small cell surface-associated elastin cells (soluble tropoelastin) that enlarge in size with time (microassembly). The elastin cells are afterwards transferred to pre-existing elastic fibres in the extracellular matrix where, through an intricate and coordinated biological process, they coalesce into larger structures (macro-assembly) and become cross-linked functional fibre-like polymers with reversible deformation and high resilience.Hormonal changes affect skin metabolism. This occurs especially during pregnancy, growth spurts, puberty, weight lifting while also taking steroids, or sudden weight gains.Not much is known about what can be done to modulate those hormonal changes during puberty or pregnancy, but of course weight lifting & taking steroids is under your control as well as sudden weight gains.Nutrition to Counteract InflammationGood nutrition is also under your control. Foods that provide antioxidants can help reduce inflammation, which is your body's immune system response to injury. Our biological system reacts to injury with inflammation and cleans up damaged proteins and destroys pathogens that may infiltrate damaged sites. Although, with no care for beauty but for survival, it may also destroy some of our own connective tissues to then quickly replace them with brand new collagen scar tissues in the process (as it occurs with stretch marks).Professional Techniques to Treat Stretch MarksDermabrasion, microdermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing are among the controlled skin damage techniques that can strip away the outer layer of skin and give your body no choice but to trigger its replacement from within and therefore take away superficial marks or the redness of stretch marks that are not older than a few weeks, but they can not do the same for deep stretch marks. They work well for newly formed stretch marks only if there is a vigorous post therapy regenerative response by the damaged skin.Can specific topical products help to avoid stretch marks and/or regenerate damaged tissues?Although there are many temporary "skin tensor" products on the market, our biology dictates that there are only a few alternatives for actually firming, strengthening the skin, making it more resilient, plumper, thicker, appear smoother and more refined also taking away the marks of damage.What may be truly effective to prevent & get rid of stretch marks?The only products that may work for preventing and treating stretch marks are those focused on ingredients that may dissolve existing scars and replenish skin matrix by stimulating fibroblasts and the connective tissues we know as collagen and elastin skin fibers, which when assembled in an orderly or orchestrated way, minimize scars and marks.Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans are the water holding molecules in the skin responsible for providing binding, hydration and swelling pressure to tissues. Enabling them to withstand compression and stretching preventing tearing and scarring of the deep layers of the skin during pregnancy, sudden weight changes and growth spurts.When skin is wounded fibroblasts change their characteristics and help repair the damaged tissue and assist in the process of forming new tissue. Fibroblasts never completely lose this ability even in mature skin. As you grow older, your collagen and elastin levels dwindle and that taut, dewy pre-adolescent skin dries out, tears and wrinkles.Why do skin fibroblasts slow down their collagen production as we get older, (even though they can still produce it)? Scientists found out that in aged tissue they start acting old themselves. But when they are isolated from aged tissue in the lab and exposed to the same stimulating factors the body uses to kick them into gear, skin fibroblasts once again start producing significant quantities of collagen. With this knowledge cosmetic scientists started exploring ways to stimulate fibroblasts in living skin on living people, not just in Petri dishes in the laboratory.Up to this day the following ingredients for topical application may be of interest (to be used on the skin so that they are absorbed into the skin). *Absorbable, stable and active forms of Vitamin C together with zinc & bioflavonoids for topical application. You cannot stimulate the skin's fibroblasts by increasing your oral intake of Vitamin C, however ensure an adequate supply of this nutrient to avoid your body leeching it from your skin.
*A naturally occurring serum secreted by land snails to regenerate their skin, packed with soluble antioxidants, enzymes, copper peptides, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, oligoelements. The serum has growth factor like activity that triggers fibroblast proliferation. It is noteworthy to mention that snail's skin happens to be made of molecules and skin fibres that are very similar to those in human skin.
*Palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 & oligopeptidesAlong with the chains of amino acids and antioxidants already present in your skin these ingredients are supposed to stimulate the skin's fibroblast cells and provide the raw materials they need to proliferate, increase mobility and produce high quality living collagen and all the structural elements in healthy skin.
So! Let's check if they are up to their claims.
There are two known forms of Vitamin C that can be applied topically :* ascorbic acid * ascorbyl palmitateAscorbic acid is a water-soluble form of Vitamin C, while ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble form of ascorbic acid and also non-water-soluble. Consequently, ascorbyl palminate can be deposited in cell membranes until it is needed by the body.Despite the fact that it would be advisable to add ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to your daily skin care treatment, it is unbelievably difficult to maintain its therapeutic potential. Furthermore, there are only a handful of patented methods licensed to a small number of companies.Vitamin C is a primary antioxidant which makes it inherently unstable and inclined to rapid and visible oxidization. To camouflage the inevitable break-down some manufacturers add colouring and fragrances to their product. Nonetheless, once the product is opened and exposed to air and light the vitamin will begin to lose its worth leaving you with nothing more than a jar of orange or yellow tainted cream.Another buffering technique used to protect the vitamin against decay is to mix ascorbic acid with a cream base hoping that other ingredients will keep it safe from the environment. The only problem is that ascorbic acid does not absorb properly into creams, and therefore mixing it in a cream can only yield a false sense of preservation.It's important to keep in mind that oxidized and denatured ascorbic acid does NOT have any anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, or collagen-producing antioxidant properties.Oxidized and denatured ascorbic acid is more than a useless extract. Degraded ascorbic acid engages and steadily fatigues glucose-powered metabolic processes within the skin consuming alpha lipoic acid, glutathione and other elements of its synergistic antioxidant system. The skin is simply forced to convert oxidized ascorbic acid back into usable ascorbic acid.The use of fresh ascorbic acid gives skin a fresh, radiant, and relaxed appearance, unlike oxidized ascorbic acid which leaves your skin looking grey and tired.Oxidized Ascorbic Acid Speed-ups Skin's Aging Process by : * Fostering decreased collagen synthesis; * Encouraging increased collagen breakdown; * Creating an environment that is characterized by enhanced metalloproteinase activity, responsible for rapid and unnecessary depletion of: - peptides; - growth factors; - antioxidant nutrients and - an overabundance of other biologically essential molecules too poorly understood to warrant extensive modification to their volume and function. How have cosmetic companies dealt with the puzzle? * For more than 50 years most companies have ignored the importance of Vitamin C. They've claimed that it is "too hard" and have allowed their clients to purchase "anti-aging" products in vain;
* Once Vitamin C entered the mass market, companies began including tiny and insipid amounts of Vitamin C in their products so that they could at least state that their product contained the nutrient. This also led to the misbelief that any amount or formula of Vitamin C would help treat certain skin conditions; however, those that used inferior products saw little or no change at all.
* Another popular misconception is the theory that "more is better". This caused manufacturers to incorporate an excess of 20% of Vitamin C in their products. The only problem was that even though Vitamin C is recommended as an antioxidant agent, too much can irritate skin and cause unpleasant side-effects. A lower percentage of Vitamin C will actually be more effective than an excess.To see positive effects you need the pure Vitamin C molecule, in the right amount, neither unaltered by other ingredients nor affected by external factors. You also need it to be at the right pH and free from any type of masking agents. * There are less than 20 effective products containing Vitamin C out in the market today. Now, if you take into account that not all products are meant for your skin type, the number of effective products is even fewer.
* Keeping things in perspective will help you find the product that's right for you. By informing yourself you will be able to avoid inferior products and find your way to real solutions.Or you need to use other antioxidants with properties that are similar to Vitamin C. A good alternative is the low molecular weight antioxidants in a surprising ingredient we review further below, after we take a look at copper peptides which are also in the natural complex that a little creature uses to regenerate its own skin. Copper PeptidesPeptides are small fragments of proteins which are the building blocks of most living tissue. Certain kinds of peptides have an avid affinity for copper to which they bind very tightly. The resulting compound consisting of a peptide and a copper atom has become known as a copper peptide.A distinctive feature of bio available copper peptides is that they reduce scar tissue formation while stimulating normal skin remodeling restoring the damaged area to its original look. The mechanism of copper peptide action is relatively complex. Copper bound to aminoacids increases the activity of metalloproteinases that remove damaged cells and proteins inducing the degradation of "extra-large" collagen aggregates found in scars. It increases the size of vellus-producing hair follicles which produce new skin cells. It also promotes the synthesis of smaller more regular collagen found in normal skin and the synthesis of elastin, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, new capillary formation, and other components of the skin matrix.Other important effects of Copper Peptides include the ability to regulate the growth rate and migration of different types of cells; significant anti-inflammatory action; and the ability to prevent the release of oxidation-promoting iron into the tissues. The net result is a faster, better and "cleaner" healing.Copper peptides must be combined with the use of Alpha or Beta Hydroxy Acids or with microdermabrasion crystals which take away damaged tissues. However, this process may take up to 4-8 months to produce the best effects. Stronger hydroxy acid will speed the procedure but also increase the chances of irritation or chemical burns.Peptides that are similar in action to TGF-beta 1 and fibronectin binding peptides, are the newest gimmick in the cosmetic industry. Such peptides were tested extensively for uses in wound healing but produced unacceptable skin thickening, hardening, and scarring. It is not enough to push more protein into the skin therefore the damaged skin components must be removed.The good news today is that certain types of copper peptides possess all the necessary biochemical actions that can, in a morphological sense, restore skin to a younger state without causing skin irritation. Such types of copper peptides are increasingly used in cosmetic skin care products such as Neutrogena Active Copper line and Skin Biology's second generation copper peptides. Unlike many other purported skin improvement therapies where the "science" of the products is just not credible, the skin remodeling actions of such types of copper peptides are documented by numerous well-controlled, published studies.Using Vitamin A/Retinol to reduce excessive metalloproteinase activityThe application to the skin of retinol (vitamin A) or retinoic acid (vitamin A acid) helps restore a more normal (younger) balance between the skin's structural protein biosynthesis and breakdown, and also keeps a normal balance between healthy and dying skin cells. The applied vitamin A binds to receptors in the skin which then transfer genetic instructions from DNA to the cell's protein producing machinery which restores the characteristic proteins needed for healthy skin cells.This is a prescription ingredient that can NOT be used during or before pregnancy and requires proper medical supervision. Retinoid medications can be effective, however skin irritation is a common side effect. Therapeutic retinol is an alternative for it removes damaged skin and rebuilds skin structures but like topical Vitamin C, therapeutic retinol suffers from inherent instability and rapidly degrades into a useless molecule when exposed to light. In fact, even many skin care products containing therapeutic retinol are unlikely to be formulated and certainly aren't packaged in the absence of light and air.Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 (Pal-KTTKS)Chemically speaking palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 is a relatively small molecule and is so called because it is made of 5 amino-acid linked together and attached to a fatty acid to enhance oil solubility for the sake of better skin penetration. It is structurally related to the precursor of collagen type I (a.k.a. procollagen type I). Researchers found that when added to the culture of fibroblasts (the key skin cells), palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 it gets them to pump out the synthesis of the key constituents of the skin matrix: collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycans.How exactly palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 does that remains unclear, although a number of theories exist. The ability to improve the productivity of skin cells in the test tube, does not always translate into an effective in vivo treatment. Unfortunately less than one in ten promising test tube discoveries ever becomes an established therapy.Palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 was brought to fame for eliminating stretch marks by StriVectin. However, the only studies proving StriVectin's benefits for stretch marks were sponsored by Klein-Becker (Proctor & Gamble), the company that distributes StriVectin, and by Sedema the company that makes palmitoyl pentapeptide-3. This does not necessarily make the studies biased, but potential conflict of interests is always a red flag. Unfortunately, this situation is typical. Early studies of patented chemicals or natural actives are almost always sponsored by manufacturers. It usually takes a long time before completely independent research is conducted.But though there is no way to be sure, it seems Klein-Becker simply decided that the market for a stretch mark product wasn't as lucrative as one for an anti-wrinkle product. So the company modified their ads, stating they were surprised to find that not only was StriVectin-SD getting rid of women's stretch marks, but it also got rid of their facial wrinkles, and we now have the astounding "anti-wrinkle breakthrough of the decade." Problem with this is there are too many flaws in the marketing profile of StriVectin.A Note about Guarantees offered by many of those offering mere moisturizers for stretch marks treatment and prevention: They return neither your time nor the missed opportunity to protect and regenerate genuinely better skin.
A Surprising Solution by Life's Genius - Validated By Science
A complex solution that not even the most sophisticated biochemical laboratory can possibly replicate
A natural serum packed with antioxidants, enzymes, copper peptides, collagen, elastin boosters and cell communicating ingredients has been discovered. It contributes to orchestrate the intricate balance between the degradation of cells that are dying periodically and/or cells that have become damaged by overstretching. And it further uses the constitutive amino-acids of degraded cells for the reproduction of new cells and all the crucial skin matrix elements that supports healthy skin.
It is NOT a chemical, pharmaceutical, herb, clever concoction of isolates, man made drug, moisturizing botanical oil or extract produced in a cosmetic industry. No. It is a natural compound of biologically active molecules that is soluble in water, or serum, and the most balanced and complete solution created by a living creature to protect and fully repair and regenerate its skin when damaged.
Moreover, although this creature is in an evolutionary stage different from humans, nevertheless its skin is made of the same crucial elements we find in human skin: collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans.
Science Confirms Rationale for Using Snail Serum in Skin Care Formulations
For years Spanish Dermatologists have been working to analyze, compare and detect the molecular activities that may unveil the intricate skin-regenerative properties of the secretion of the snail Cryptomphalus Aspersa - more widely known by zoologists as Helix Aspersa Müller.
Several of their findings were reported in Dermatology Journals in Spain (1996-2001) and now they have been confirmed by colleagues in the USA. A research published on the January 2008 issue of the Journal of The International Society of Skin Pharmacology (founded in 2004) reports that the secretion of the snail possesses skin regenerative properties. (Skin Regeneration Properties of Mollusk Secretion Copyright © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel )
The secretion has multiple modes of antioxidant action, acting at the level of free radical production and also sequestering free radicals.
It also stimulates fibroblast proliferation, and the morphology of human dermal fibroblasts, inducing actin reorganization, bundling and microfilament alignment, which results in cell elongation.
Additional mechanisms involved in the regenerative effect of the secretion include the stimulation of extracellular matrix assembly and the action of regulatory proteins known as Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs) responsible for the reversible inhibition of metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic activities, and copper peptides which limits the extent of the damage during wounding and scar formation and attenuates the signs of aging by reducing the degenerative effects of excessive MMP activity. (It has been contended that the presence of copper peptides in the snail serum is a natural validation of the science behind products that contain synthetic copper peptides isolates).
The serum also antagonizes the inflammatory proteolytic enzymes responsible for tissue degradation (trypsin, chymotrypsin - mast cell degranulation and leukocyte elastase - macrophages) that are released and activated even before stretch marks are visible and continue as they appear on the skin from a pink color fading to white.
Treatment with this "solution" also works through a removal process known as hydroxylation. By persistent application of the serum on damaged tissues messenger molecules recognize damaged proteins and act in concert with enzymes that gently strip the skin to remove the build-up of scar tissues.
These enzymes go to work like biological catalysts on each individual cell. They clean out the debris, open clogged pores, consume the dead and damaged material and open up the vascular system to bring new oxygen into the cells. They degrade the proteins scar tissues are made off and breakdown their component amino-acids liberating them for your fibroblasts (which are activated by the serum) to use them to generate new skin matrix components.
Clinical Evidence shows snail serum exerts a positive activity on existing stretch marks
Skin collagen is best monitored by skin thickness measurements. This parameter was used to verify the theoretic skin benefits of snail serum for stretch marks.
A study conducted with 15 mothers who had stretch marks for 12 to 18 months and during their first pregnancy demonstrated that the application of a emulsion containing 5% snail serum twice daily leads to an increase of skin thickness of more than 9.9% relative to day 1 after 2 months and 11.8% after 3 months. This is an excellent result. Application of snail serum was also able to improve significantly (p < 0.05, compared to the emulsion without snail serum) other skin parameters like elasticity, roughness and streaks depth.
The anti-stretch mark efficacy was assessed by echo graph and dermatological evaluation
Color - 22.9% p<0.05
Relief - 22.2% p<0.05
Width - 27.6% p<0.01
Skin thickness + 9.9% p<0.05
Stretch mark depression - 71.8% p<0.07
Another study this time on the effects of the serum in the prevention of stretch marks was conducted with 15 pregnant women and the results were positive: 85% had no stretch marks at child birth and for the other 15% some streaks appeared but without roughness or redness, and the white lines tended to fade within 2 months by applying a cream with the same serum.
In 1999 a report of the clinical efficacy of snail serum for anti-wrinkle and skin firming in the treatment of prematurely aged skin and the rejuvenation of skin affected by photo-aging was published in Spain.
Evaluation of the Anti-Wrinkle and Reaffirming Efficacy of a Cryptomphalus Aspersa-Based Product in the Treatment of Skin Photoaging . M.J. Tribó, E. Serra-Baldrich, M. Asin, J.A. Camarasa. Dermatología & Cosmética, March (vol IX), 1999.
A cream formulated with the snail serum was applied to the face of 32 individuals who showed signs of facial photoaging for an eight-week period on a continuous basis. The subjects were evaluated at 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment using a clinical evaluation method and the results were correlated with those seen with the use of instrumental techniques. Subjects also kept a subjective journal of their own observations and feelings towards the product which were evaluated at the end of the study.
A cosmetic product is rarely confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. These in-vivo studies with 15 women aged 35-65 of Fitzpatrick skin types II and III confirm that treatment with the snail serum leads to significant subjective (clinical signs and satisfaction) and objective (profilometry) improvements in skin photoaging, confirmed by the improvement of subjects histopathological condition.
Confirmed Efficacy of Snail Skin Care Serum in Acute Radio-Dermatitis Treatment
A clinical study done by a group of oncologists & dermatologists in a Hospital in Spain with 96 women, an average of 55 years old, diagnosed with breast carcinoma and undergoing radio therapy for cancer has shown the snail secretions work well and better than corticosteroids and other current treatments to relieve the side effects of radiation: fragility of the skin with its consequent blistering, dryness, bleeding & soreness.
Acute radiodermatitis represent an important skin toxicity factor in patients undergoing radiotherapy, as they cause important loss of life quality and delays on radiotherapy schedules. Radiation induces skin damage and reduces its regenerative capability, affecting normal wound healing. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of the secretions snails use to protect themselves from ionizing radiation in blocking deterioration, prevention and treatment of acute radiodermatitis.
Unfortunately, the clinical tests on existing stretch marks and in preventing stretch marks done only by one of the companies promoting their product and on a small number of subjects are still too skimpy to view snail serum as a clinically proven stretch mark treatment at this time.
So, should you wait? Or are these products worth a try today?
There is no universal answer to this question. If your skin care budget is tight, you may not want to spend your hard earned cash on "perhaps-effective" products. On the other hand, if other alternatives didn't work, this product with its good safety profile, may be worth a try.
The snail serum may also be considered as a nonirritating fall back option for people who develop skin irritation in response to alpha-hydroxy acids.
If you decide to try any product with active ingredients keep in mind that the concentration in a product should be sufficiently high (e.g. matching the levels used in the clinical studies) and if you try the snail serum it should be of the highest quality.
Combined methods that consist of some form of peeling or abrading to chemically or physically break down some of the more superficial scarring and a topical product that includes not just moisturizing enhancers or collagen synthesis boosters, but also cell communicating ingredients, enzymes that ‘dissolve' damaged cells and scar proteins. Skin regenerating activators (snail serum, synthetic 2nd generation copper peptides or Vitamin C in a bioavailable form), can yield significant improvements. Such stretch mark products are also effective in preventing stretch marks.
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NOVA scienceNOW | Snail Slime | PBS
May be more harmful than helpful
stretch marks song
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