– Is the most common cause of a croup and typically affects children younger than 5 years old
– Inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
– Most common type of croup and may be viral or bacterial
– Gradual onset that may be preceded by an upper respiratory infection.
– fever, low-grade to high
– irritability and restlessness
– hoarse voice
– seal bark and brassy cough
– inspiratory stridor and suprasternal retraction
– use of accessory muscles for breathing
– crackles and wheezing on lung auscultation
– anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
– upper respiratory infection
– maintain a patent airway
– assess respiratory status, monitoring for nasal flaring, sternal reaction, and inspiratory stridor
– monitor for pallor or cyanosis
– elevate the head of the bed and provide bed rest
– provide humidified oxygen via cool-mist tent for the hospitalized child
– instruct the parents to use a cool-air vaporizer or humidifier at home; other measures include having the child breathe in the cool night air or air from an open freezer or taking the child to a cool basement or garage.
– provide and encourage fluid intake; intravenous fluids may be prescribed to maintain hydration status if the child is unable to take fluids orally.
– administer nebulized epinephrine (racemic epinephrine) as prescribed for children with severe disease, stridor at rest, retractions, or difficlty breathing.
– administer antibiotics as prescribed, nothing that they are not indicated unless a bacterial infection is present have resuscitation equipment available
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