Philippine Agrarian Problem to Mindanao Crisis

Agrarian unrest to Crisis

Agrarian Unrest

Agrarian problem in the Philippines started when the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil. The numerous petty rebellions as history would show are proofs that agrarian problem is not new. Yet our government has never learned from history. The insatiable desire of the landed few to amass more lands never end. The laws to benefit the colony were never implemented by unscrupulous Spanish officials. The friar’s longing for funds from their large estates to support their missionary zeal added to this dilemma.[1] The coming of the Americans did not change the situation. The American collaborators were given the opportunity to enrich themselves while telling the world of their benevolence assimilation policy.[2] The years prior to the Japanese Occupation witnessed agrarian related unrest in Luzon and in the Visayas.[3]

The Japanese Occupation

Just as the Huks were able to make the war with the Japanese as their actual training opportunity in armed struggle and to gather up arms, the same was true in Mindanao. The Moros were also able to gather as many arms that they could.[4] Since majority of the Moros who fought against the Japanese were not inducted into the USAFFE but as recognized guerrillas only (except for the group of Pendatun and a few others), the government had no way of knowing the number of arms and ammunition they were able to acquire. Except the arms and ammunition issued to the USAFFE members the Moros did not surrender their weapons that became part of their armory used against the Christians later.

Postwar

The agrarian problem was so severe that it became the rallying point of the postwar Huk or HMB (Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan) rebellion that (according to exaggerated reports) almost topple down the established government. Yet, the Moros just like during the time of the Philippine Revolution did not do anything because there was no agrarian problem in Mindanao.[5] When the Huk or HMB rebellion was over, the government resettled the rebels who surrendered to Mindanao through their resettlement program to ease the tension in Central Luzon. This solution was similar to what the Americans implemented early in the century order to neutralize the unrest in Luzon and the Visayas. The Moros did not react right away for they found an easy source of farm workers. But the number of new settlers grew that they became only a minority in their own territories. The migrants prospered in their midst, while they remained impoverished. Thus, they accuse the government of neglecting them.

Land Reform Laws

The following are the different laws passed from the American period until Martial Law Regime. If we have to analyze carefully the implications of these laws we will realize that they were intended to serve the landed few and not the landless majority.

  1. Philippine Bill of 1902 – This bill limited private individual landholding to 16 hectares and 1,024 hectares to corporate landholdings. However, it gave the Americans the right to acquire and own agricultural lands giving them the opportunity to control large tracts of lands for large-scale farming.
  2. Land Registration Act of 1902 – Landowners were required to register their landholdings and acquire Torrens titles. However, small farmers were not aware of the law or too poor to pay for the documentation failed to register their ownership of their lands. Since their lands were not registered, unscrupulous individuals applied for ownership through fraudulent surveys.
  3. Friar Land Act of 1903 - Taft Commission purchased from the religious orders of the so-called friar estates that amounted to $7 million for 400,000 acres. Small portion were sold to 60,000 tenants and the bigger portion were allocated to the veterans of the 1896 Revolution. This was intended to diffuse the unrest that resulted in the 1896 Revolution. However, the greatest beneficiaries of these law were the men of Aguinaldo, while the small farmers could not understand why they have to pay for the land that their fathers owned.
  4. Public Lands Act of 1903 – This Act offered Filipinos up to 16 hectares of uncultivated public land through the homestead program. However, there was no financial assistance to the settlers and the government was also slow in conducting surveys. Because of this, the settlers could not show any document that would prove his ownership of the land he is farming. Again, unscrupulous individuals took the opportunity to register these lands.[6]
  5. Land Registration Act of 1905 – An Act for issuing land titles that limits to three titles only. The hidden agenda behind it was to determine the limits of private lands and classify those beyond them as public lands under their arbitrary disposition and control;
  6. The Cadastral Act of 1907 – was passed to carry out further the U.S. seizure of land. This is just another way of knowing what lands are cultivated but were not registered.
  7. Commonwealth Act 4113 or the Sugar Tenancy Act of 1933 – was approved to regulate the sugar tenants and landlord relationships. Tenants were not aware of this law or dismissed if they demand so much rights under this law. The Negros and Panay tenants were the ones affected by this.
  8. Commonwealth Act No. 21 in 1936 – The law authorized Quezon to purchase homesites on large landed estates for resale to occupants and called for the appropriation of one million pesos for the purpose. Only in 1939 when he created the Rural Progress Administration to implement it and was dissolved in 1950. It acquired 37,736 hectares only.
  9. Republic Act No. 31 – Provided for 70-30 sharing if the tenant provided for his own work animal (70% of the harvest goes to the tenant and 30% to the landlords).
  10. Rice Tenancy Act in 1933 (Act No. 4054) - Provided for 50-50 sharing, but it only took effect in 1946.
  11. *National Land Resettlement Administration was organized in 1939 in order to operate two settlement projects in Southwestern Mindanao and one in Cagayan Valley that were designed as exile areas for rebellious peasants.
  12. *Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) in 1950 was also created to resettle landless peasants in Mindanao.
  13. *Economic Development Corps (EDCOR) was also a resettlement project that brought farmers and peasants to Mindanao.
  14. Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 (RA No. 1199). This was the land reform program of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay concerned with rent and interest rate reduction and the resettlement of the Huk rebels. It limited rent to 30 percent at eight to ten percent a year, but it was a failure under his successor.
  15. *National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) in 1954. The creation of the NARRA is one of the provisions mandated by RA No. 1199 under the government of Magsaysay in order to neutralize the agrarian unrest in the Huk covered areas in Luzon. Those who surrendered were uprooted from their lands and resettled in Mindanao and somewhere else.
  16. Agrarian Relations Act of 1954 is the law that sets the 30% sharing of the harvest after deducting the expenses.
  17. Land Reform Act or 1955. It created the Land Tenure Administration for expropriating landed estates whose size exceeded the maximum retention limit of 300 and 600 hectares. But it was not able to leap off because of the lobbying of the landlords in congress. This is the famous “Land for the Landless” Law.
  18. The Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (RA No. 3844). It sets an order of priority in expropriating lands but it only covered rice and corn lands:

a. idle or abandoned lands;

b. those whose area exceeds 1,024 hectares;

c. those whose area exceeds 500 hectares but is not more 1,024 hectares;

d. those whose area exceeds 144 hectares but is not more than 500 hectares; and

e. those whose area exceeds 75 hectares but is not more than 144 hectares.

Under this code the offices of the National Land Reform Council and the Land Authority were created. Three years after the approval of the Land Reform Code that the Land Bank was organized that later received only 13.6 million pesos out of the 400 million pesos that was supposed to have been appropriated to it. From 1966-1969, the bank was only able to buy 10 agricultural estates of about 997.6 hectares.

The National Agricultural Council was created and abolished the Share Tenancy and replaced it with Leasehold System that is merely similar with the Share Tenancy System.

Credit institutions like the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Financing Administration and private rural banks were established but all of these offices served the landlords, merchants and politicians than the peasants.

The Agricultural Credit Administration has taken the function of the ACCFA but no fundamental changes happened.

The Agricultural Land Reform Code assured the farm works of the daily minimum wage that the hacenderos did not follow

  1. Code of Agrarian Reform in 1971 - Marcos changed the Land Reform Code to Code of Agrarian Reform through Rep. Act. No. 6389. Rep. Act. No. 6390 on the other hand created an agrarian reform’s special account that encourages the creation of cooperatives later known as Samahang Nayon.
  2. PD No. 2 on 26 September 1972 – declares the entire Philippines as a land reform area.
  3. PD No. 27 on 21 October 1972 –declares all share and lease tenants as owners of “family-sized farms of five hectares if not irrigated and three hectares if irrigated.”
  4. PD No. 57 on 19 November 1972 – exempts the landowners from taxes the proceeds from land transfer.
  5. DAR Memorandum on 2 January 1973 –declares that leasehold should prevail over all rice and corn lands pending land transfer and that share tenancy is illegal for these said lands.
  6. 21 October 1973 Land Transfer – which was previously covered landholdings over 50 hectares of rice and corn lands, was extended to holdings from 50 down to 24 hectares.

The different laws and memoranda outlined above show the weakness of the agrarian and land reform laws in the Philippines. The oligarchs that controlled the legislative body through the sponsorship of the Americans saw to it that their land holdings will never be affected. But the programs that made a great impact on the Moros were implemented by the following offices; 1) the National Land Resettlement Administration in 1939, 2) Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) in 1950, 3) Economic Development Corps (EDCOR) a resettlement project, and 4) National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) in 1954 was created in line with RA 1199. These offices implemented the resettlement programs of the government that brought more people in Mindanao. These resettlement sites are in Lanao and in Cotabato (in the present North and South Cotabato areas). The influx of tenants, peasants and seasonal workers in these areas awakened ethnocentrism due to “intense competition between ethnic groups for the occupation of social niches.”

Neo-colonizers

The resettlement programs of the government as part of the “civilizing mission” increased tremendously the population of Mindanao from 2,010,223 in 1948 to 6,294,224 in 1970.[7] However, this was not the start of the migration to Mindanao as argued earlier. As early 1913 internal immigration to Mindanao was encouraged through official resettlement programs of the Americans. There were 357 people per year that moved to Mindanao through the National Land Settlement Administration. More people came later as a result of improved roads and other infrastructures. After 1935, resettlement was encouraged not just to relieve the going tension and the population growth in Luzon but it was also conceived as a means of “civilizing” the Muslims and other indigenous peoples in Mindanao[8] through what I called as internal “cultural imperialism,” and internal colonization or neo-colonization. Evidence of social tension was already emerging in the early decades of the 20th Century because of internal migration.

The EDCOR resettlement scheme was basically a strategy of the government to soften the Huk supporters. But it also encouraged more people from other parts of the country to migrate to Mindanao, so that by late 50s there were more Cebuano speakers in Mindanao than in Cebu itself,[9] and by “1975 census 6 million of Mindanao’s 9.7 million people had their origins in Luzon or the Visayas.”[10] By 1960s some 3,200 migrants per week arrived in Mindanao. The prewar settlers, the Lumads and the Moros found themselves dispossessed of their lands through dubious collaborations of community leaders with the newcomers. These new settlers found themselves being taxed by local datus simply because the area was formerly their ancestral lands. To get away from this problem the new settlers applied for the titles of the land they are tilling making them owners of the lands they are farming. As stated somewhere in this study, the Muslims did not understand this. For them all lands are God (Allah) given. Tension between the new settlers and the Moros began to surface. There were those who took the opportunity of the tension prevailing in the resettlement sites by raiding isolated Christian settlers and robbing them of their harvest and their working animals. Illegal logging operations that also flourished during this period destroyed the natural resources of the traditional homeland of the Indigenous Peoples. Those who were able to amass big landholdings and succeeded in entering politics, hired goons and private armies, while the Muslims and tribal groups (i.e., Pulangions) organized themselves along kinship system. Thus, the cattle-rustlers and farm raiders were known by the names of their families or tribal group rather than by their group’s names.

Christian Response

Case # 1

In the later part of 1960s, the family of Santos Navigar migrated to Wao, Lanao del Sur because their homestead in Cotabato was plague with numerous cattle rustlers and farm-raiders. They stayed in the Muslim Village in Wao and the only Christian family among the Maranaos. Navigar and his family worked on the land owned by Datu Tao, the traditional leader of the Royal Clan of Wao. They gained the respect of the Maranaos because they are honest in dealings with them. When the Moro resurgence started, and cattle rustlers took refuge in the village, Navigar’s carabao was one of the victims. The people around knew who took his work animal but refused to tell him, least they will get the ire of the culprits. Navigar, search for his animal and found it in the residence of one of the rustlers. He took his animal and walked without saying anything. Later, when asked about this incident, he said that he did not say anything because it would have put the rustler into shame and putting a Maranao to such a predicament is enough reason for his death.[11]

Case # 2

When the MNLF started to attack Christian settlers in Wao, Lanao del Sur in the middle of the 1970s, Guillermo Ganancial was the first victim in Wao. One night, at around 11 PM, they were awakened by the commotion of their work animals. As they started to scamper for their weapons, Garand cal. 30 M1 and homemade shotguns, they observed that there were a number of nozzles of guns inserted in the walls of their hut. They ignored the commotion and pretend to sleep. They found out later that all their work animals were taken away by the cattle rustlers. They solicited the help of their Maranao landlord but only one was returned.[12]

Case # 3

The younger sister of Bernardo Baylosis, a nun, came home for the Christmas to visit her parents and spend the holidays with them. At this time the Moros in their areas started raiding the Christian settlers. To defend themselves they organized their home defense units. Every night they assigned guards to look into their security in case of raids. Whenever one observes that somebody is stealing their carabaos, he must warn others by lighting the torch they planted in front of their houses, until such time that the whole village is surrounded by lights. In this manner they were able to catch cattle rustlers.

Then the unexpected happened. While Baylosis and some of his friends were visiting a neighboring barrio the raiders came. They tied his parents to the post of their house and raped his sister in front of them. Thinking that she is dead, they cut her right breast and shoot his parents. When Baylosis came home, he found his parents dead and his nun sister almost dead. He did not know what to do to find justice for his family. From that time on the different home defense units were strengthened and assumed the name Ilaga. His sister did not die but joined the anti-Moro group under the nom de guerre Commander Ligaya.[13]

According to the Fact-Finding Mission Report, “The Ilaga, literally meaning rat, is a ragtag band of pseudo-religious cultists, mostly of Ilongo (Visayan) descent founded in the late 60’s by Bernardo Baylosis, popularly known as Commander Toothpick. The Ilaga is derived from an eclectic amalgamation of folk culture, animism, distorted Christianity and Islam. The central focus of this cult is the belief that certain rituals and objects will make its members invincible. Commander Toothpick himself was said to have received an amulet from a mountain hermit.”[14]

In the work of May he alleged that the Ilaga was organized by an ex-PC named Manuel Tronco under the blessing of the PC Commander of Cotabato named Carlos Cajelo who subsequently became governor. They were both Ilonggos.[15] However, according to Commander Ligaya,[16] the sister of Commander Toothpick or Bernardo Baylosis and corroborated by the account of Commander Joe (named withheld) the Ilaga was basically organized as a home defense unit of the new settlers in response to the raids and cattle-rustling activities of the Moros. Nuñez has the same findings, except that the term “lawless” description of the Ilaga is a term of contention[17] not because they were allegedly sanctioned by the government[18] but the Moro raids and cattle rustling were as lawless as the operations of the Ilagas but the Moros were never accused as such. Anyway, the Ilaga became the model in the organization of the CHDF or the Civilian Home Defense Force later.

The Ilaga was disbanded when Toothpick surrendered sometimes in mid-70s. Marcos assigned him and his sister Commander Ligaya as agrarian problem troubleshooters. That was the time when I met Commander Ligaya when she went to settle the land disputes in Malagana, Balingasag, Misamis Oriental. It was later alleged that Toothpick died in Surigao, but others do not believe the story. But it did not end the story of the Ilaga. Not all of the members laid down their arms. They hide them ready to be used again once the atrocities will commence. But because the members were also relocated in other parts of Mindanao as they were identified in Cotabato, they are still ready when called to duty. Some splinter groups appeared with different names. The most famous of them is the Sagrada Corazon de Jesus or the so-called Tadtad (hacking). They are found in Muslim areas where there are Christian residents, in Iligan City, Zamboanga peninsula, Basilan and even in Misamis Oriental. I met a certain Boy (name withheld), who told me about the presence of Ilaga members in Basilan.

The land reform programs under the succeeding presidents did not solve the problem as well. The Martial Law of Marcos even brought more problems than solution. The allowed landholdings of the farmers became even smaller while the landlords who could manipulate the law were increasing their landholdings. The Aquino administration on the other hand did not help alleviate the problems of the peasants. Even their family owned hacienda, the Hacienda Luisita that supposed to be the model for the CARP was converted into a corporate farm where tenants were being paid farmers or workers and not as tenants.

The Mujahiden (The Holy Warriors)

The roots of the encounters between Muslims and Christians in Mindanao started even way back during the Spanish regime when the colonizers sent to Mindanao the Christianized Indios to fight the Moros. The present started when the government sent to the south the peasants, farmers and the Huks (HMB) who surrendered after their uprising in Luzon and the Visayas. As stated earlier, majority of those who settled in what is now North and South Cotabato came from the Ilocos, Panay and Negros. The Maguindanaons at first welcome them and some even bartered their lands with goods from the new settlers. However, tension arose when the natives of the area started demanding that they would like to get back their lands since they are already productive, which the settlers refused because they had already spent so much money and efforts to develop their farms.[19] The Moros started harassing them and stealing their harvest and work animals. The Christians responded and they organized the Ilaga (rat or pejoratively, Ilongo-Ilocano LAnd Grabbing Association ).[20] The organization of the ILAGA coincided with the training of the MNLF Top Ninety in Malaysia, so much so, that when the offensives of the MNLF started, their baptism of fire happened to be against the Ilagas and not with the government forces.[21] Because of the hatred of the Ilagas against the Moros and their skills in battles, politicians hired them in their private armies.

But in the eyes of the Moros this is not the cause of the present problem in Mindanao. For them this present Jihad or Holy War is divided into three phases:


First Phase: the Moro Jihad against the Spanish invasion (1521-1898) 377 years.


Second Phase: the Moro Jihad against the American colonisers (1898 - 1946) 47 years.


Third Phase: the Moro Jihad against the Philippine crusade (1970 - present).

Since the granting of the Philippines Independence in the year 1946, the Manila government launched “settlement programs” for the Christians from Luzon and Visayas in the Moroland. Prior to that the Moro Muslims had been enjoying the administration of the region by themselves as the Provincial governors, the Municipal mayors and the Barangay captains were among themselves. The Christian settlers, with the assistance of the Manila government, started to take over the strategic politic and socio-economic posts soon after their influx into the Moroland.[22]

It is clear from this statement of Hashim Salamat that they have a different view of Philippine history and their history. There is no commonality of the struggle of the Filipinos and their struggle. Thus, the least importance of history as a subject in schools appeared to have contributed to the Mindanao problem. The opening of Madrasahs (private Islamic Schools), further advances these teachings. These and other factors, i.e. neglect of the government, dragged the problem too long with no solution at hand as shown by the emergence of the new MNLF splinter group, the MNLF-ICC (Islamic Command Council).

MNLF

According to Rudy B. Rodil, a member of the GRP-MNLF negotiation panel, The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)-led revolution:

was the maturation of a series of Moro protests against the discriminatory treatment that they experienced within the Republic, the most infamous being the Jabidah massacre wherein an undetermined number of young Moro recruits undergoing secret military training in Corregidor were massacred for alleged mutiny. . . but the groundswell of Moro protests spiced with reports of secret military training became one of two excuses for President Marcos’ declaration of martial rule. Martial law for its part provided the valve for the eruption of the Bangsamoro armed struggle for national liberation from the clutches of alleged Philippine colonialism.[23]

The trainees code named Jabidah Forces, were composed of Muslim youth, trained in Corregidor Island for marine maneuver and attack to penetrate and reclaim Sabah,[24] as well as to split the Islamic ranks. This was the last option of Marcos if the Malaysian government rejects the peaceful settlement of the Sabah Case. The lone survivor of the Jabidah Massacre on March 18, 1968,[25]explained that the trainees were shot after they refused to invade Sabah. This incident was the eye-opener of the Muslims that the government did not care for them if it is for the security of the state. The first to react to this incident was Datu Udtog Matalam of Cotabato. He declared the Mindanao Independence Movement or MIM.[26] Other Moro aristocrats and politicians thought of organizing a guerrilla type organization to defend Mindanao. Then Congressman Rashid Lucman, according to Nuñez “responded to a Malaysian offer to train and arm dedicated young Moros for war against Manila.”[27] Negotiations were done and the first trainees, according to instructions must come from the villages.[28] However, the trainees were all “City boys,” called the “Top Ninety.”[29] The Moro aristocrats and politicians were mad upon learning that the trainees were educated ones. But they could not do anything because they already left. This group later on is known as the MNLF or the Moro National Liberation Front. It is perhaps the reason why Lucman organized the Bangsa Moro Liberation Organization,[30] in anticipation of the possible moves of the educated Moro youths sent for training to Malaysia. However, in the study of Taher, he wrote that “the selection of the Top Ninety was based on the recruit’s physical and intellectual capabilities to spearhead and implement a guerrilla-type warfare in their respective territorial jurisdictions with the ultimate goal of maintaining the nationhood and independence of the Bangsa Moro Homeland.”[31] I was by a member of the Top Ninety, that in they were not the only group being trained for clandestine operations. There were other nationalities too, and their trainers were mostly British Army Officers.[32]

What the Moro aristocrats and politicians were afraid of happened. The trainees organized themselves into the Moro National Liberation Front, with Nur Misuari, Hashim Salamat and Abulkhayr Alonto as the prominent figures. Misuari was a UP professor, Hashim Salamat, an active student leader in Cairo University and Alonto, the son of former Senator, Domocao Alonto Sr. It was at first, Muslim National Liberation Front, but since their ultimate aim is the liberation of the whole Mindanao from the imperial Manila, they changed it to Moro because anybody coming from Mindanao, is considered by Manilans as a Moro, whether he is a Muslim or not.[33] The organization of the MNLF implied the breakaway of the youth from the traditional-politicians who happened to be their benefactors of their training. Another feared event that came true was the proclamation of Martial Law. But, the politicians did not read Marcos right. Marcos solicited for their help. Hence, Princess Tarhata Lucman was appointed Governor of Lanao del Sur, but soon relieved by Mohammad Ali Dimaporo, because Jamil Lucman and Abulkhayr Alonto refused to surrender. Sooner, however they surrendered. Alonto (1978) was appointed as ambassador and Pundato[34] (1982) was given a position under Marcos. One MNLF commander lamented that they were left fighting while they (the children of prominent aristocrats and politicians) enjoyed appointments in the Marcos government.[35]

The people of Manila and other parts of the country were made to understand that the first encounter between the government and the MNLF was during the October 21st, 1972 Marawi City Uprising. It was not! The MNLF in Lanao was still consolidating their forces and giving training to new recruits at this time. The Marawi City Uprising was the response of the people who did not know about Martial Law to the call of the unscrupulous politicians and the black propaganda of the Muslim religious organizations. These unscrupulous appointed politicians knew already that they would be arrested because of their graft and corruption cases. To solve their problem, they approached the two big Muslim organizations and asked for assistance. After that, the religious organizations started to air over the radio that since Martial Law was proclaimed, the soldiers would come and Christianize the Moros by force. The Maranaos responded and rose in arms with “Allah o Akbar” (Allah is great) as their war cry. Prominent Christian landowners and businessmen in Lanao Sur died in this uprising. The government had no way of apprehending the unscrupulous politicians because they became instant rebel commanders, thus, escaping from the graft and corruption cases. Since then until 1996 the uprising was known as the start of the MNLF offensive operations, though it was not. Sani noted that Misuari capitalized on the Marawi Uprising as an encouragement for the Tausogs to rise in arms.

The rest is history, peace negotiation after peace negotiations were done but nothing tangible happened. Then came the intervention of the OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference) and Libya that elevated an internal problem to international status. The Tripoli agreement was signed in 1976 but Marcos implemented it according to his own interpretation of the provisions of the agreement and issued a decree creating the autonomous region of Mindanao composed of twelve provinces and ten cities. But the Muslims demanded that it should be thirteen provinces but Marcos did not budge. Marcos appointed his loyalist Dimaporo to the post while holding the positions as the governor of Lanao del Sur and Acting-President of Mindanao State University. Differences of policies they claimed are the main reason for the breakup of the MNLF into factions. Hashim Salamat from Maguindanao organized his Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF – March 1984), which is fundamentally Islamic in outlook, and the MNLF Reformist Group (1982) under Dimas Pundato, a Maranao, that supported autonomy.[36]

Aquino deposed Marcos and the contribution of her government in peace process was her initial dialogue with Misuari. Her 1987 Constitution provided for the creation of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and the signing of the Organic Act of Muslim Mindanao (RA 6734). Peace negotiations started and for several years consultations were made. According to Rudy Rodil:

GRP-MNLF Peace Process

As we all know, the Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was signed on September 2, 1996. The opening line of the document clearly states: "the final agreement on the implementation of the Tripoli Agreement." It represents the product of four years of exploratory and formal peace talks. It reflects an honest to goodness attempt on both the GRP and the MNLF to come to an agreement on the implementation of the Tripoli Agreement signed nearly twenty years ago on 23 December 1976.

Participants in the talks were the Organization of Islamic Conference Ministerial Committee of the Six and the Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic conference. Indonesia as Chair of the Committee of the Six presided over all meetings.

Agenda of the Talks

As agreed upon in Par. 14 of the Statement of Understanding between the GRP and the MNLF, signed in Cipanas, Indonesia, on 16 April 1993, "the agenda for the formal talks will focus on the modalities for the full implementation of the Tripoli Agreement in letter and spirit, to include specifically:

a. Those portions of the Agreement left for further or later discussion; and

b. Transitional implementing structure and mechanism.[37]

During the early and mid-1990s, the southern Philippines was the site of renewed guerrilla violence by the so-called Muslim separatist forces. In September 1996 the government reached a peace agreement with one of the largest rebel groups, the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The agreement established the Special Zone for Peace and Development (SZPD), consisting of 14 Mindanao provinces. It also provided economic assistance to develop the impoverished region. The following are the stages of the implementation of the peace accord:

Terms of Agreement


After three years of peace negotiations, the two parties signed what is now popularly known as the Peace Agreement of September 2, 1996. There are 154 points of consensus in the Agreement. Let me quote pp. 7-8 of the document itself.

I. "Implementing Structure and Mechanism of this Agreement

Phase 1 shall cover a three (3) year period starting after the signing of the peace agreement with the issuance of Executive Order establishing the Special Zone of Peace and Development (SZOPAD), the Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development (SPCPD), and the Consultative Assembly.

During this phase, the process of joining in of MNLF elements with the Armed Forces of the Philippines will start. The joining in of MNLF elements with the PNP as part of the regular police recruitment programme will also take place in this phase.

Phase 2 shall involve an amendment to or repeal of the Organic Act (RA6734) of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) through Congressional action, after which the amendatory law shall be submitted to the people of the concerned areas in a plebiscite to determine the establishment of a new autonomous government and the specific area of autonomy thereof.

While peace and development programs are being implemented in the SZOPAD, a bill to amend or repeal the RA 6734 shall be initiated within Phase 1 (1996-1997). The bill shall include the pertinent provisions of the Final Peace Agreement and the expansion of the present ARMM area of autonomy. After a law shall have been passed by Congress and approved by the President, it shall be submitted to the people for approval in a plebiscite in the affected areas, within two (2) years from the establishment of the SPCPD (1998).

The new area of autonomy shall then be determined by the provinces and cities that will vote/choose to join the said autonomy (1998). It may be provided by the Congress in a law that clusters of contiguous-Muslim-dominated municipalities voting in favor of autonomy be merged and constituted into a new province(s) which shall become part of the new Autonomous Region.[38]

But the Peace Accord or the SPCD did not end the war in Mindanao. When one surrenders others continue the struggle until their goal is attained.

(For the documentation please contact the author)

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Comments 73 comments

garry dela cruz 6 years ago

the land or territory is not a big issue for Muslims and Christians ..Mindanao is intended for both Muslims and not Muslims.


grechille 6 years ago

I agree with Garry . . this land is intended to all the people who were living here . . .God doesn't say that this Mindanao is intended for this/those kind of people . .


chad_nice27 6 years ago

our land is made by god..it is given to us people to share the resources of our mother land..i hope we can change.


chad_nice27 6 years ago

our human nature.not to destroy our land and its resources..chadwick ray garganera.history 3


Budiongan, Ethyl R. 6 years ago

We all made by our God equally and give us the nature and the land to be used. I think all of us has equal right to use all God's gift..


Reyjasson profile image

Reyjasson 6 years ago from MSU Marawi City

as God's children, we are all equal and thus, should not fight for each other's greedy motives. Mindanao and the Philippines is created by God for all the Filipinos. I agree with Gary also.

REYJASSON V EGINA, HISTORY 3, Uu1


Maata, Kissa Claire J. 6 years ago

Everyone has the right to live in Mindanao as long as it is legal. And nobody has the right to claim that they own Mindanao because God made it for everyone.


Canoy, Diane Carol 6 years ago

There is no superior ang inferior in this world, all of us are equal. As for Mindanao land.. everyone is free to see the beauty that Gods made for us. But we always remember that we should care for this blessings, and think that this place is not for our self but for everybody ...


Sarip, Almirah R. 6 years ago

All the creations of God in this world have purpose.All of us have the right to live in this land of Mindanao.We are here in this world to live efficiently as we want.We are not here to make bad things to others instead we are going to share the things or the resources that God's created.There's nobody own this Mindanao.


Ang, Pretzel profile image

Ang, Pretzel 6 years ago

When God created us we are equal in His eyes.

There is no paricular person that owns Mindanao. We, Filipinos owned this land. I was really wondering why are we arguing in this matter.

We are all children of God. Why not share the gifts of God? And also, why are we always comparing religions? "your Muslims, we're Christians..." why is it always like that? We are all the same it just mater with our faith in Him. o end tis statement, I wannt to say that we, Filipinos, have equal rights in this archipelago(Philippines).

Ang, Pretzel

Hist3-Vv1


Sheena Abigail Arienza 6 years ago

We are all living in this world for difference purposes. one purpose is to take care our nature that God has bestowed on us. another as to share what we have in any ways. we should not be boastful. we should also think others.

Sheena Abigail Arienza of History 3 ; section Vv1


eldhie profile image

eldhie 6 years ago from MSU, Marawi City

Rosales, Eldhie Ann E. Hist. 3 Vv1

chill people..:)

the territory of Mindanao


Marni Ellazo hist.3 Vv1 6 years ago

as for me,even before agrarian was already a problem even in other places here in Philippines. And in this case,all I can say is that we must not make a big issue about this,for I know Mindanao is reach in natural resources.We must not too greedy in this kind of blessings from GOD.


eldhie profile image

eldhie 6 years ago from MSU, Marawi City

Rosales, Eldhie Ann E. Hist. 3 Vv1

chill people..:)

we know that our Mindanao has a greedy of resources..

they want also to experience how to live in that kind of place..

they want it??.then share!..give chance to others...they also want that kind of life...just to avoid the war!..

we know that we are created equal, so lets now get equal in our wealth..the resources of Mindanao..let's share with others!


Shiela S. Hinay - History3/MN2 6 years ago

How cruel the rustler's are?I am so much looked with pity to the sister who is raped in front of his loved ones. Why did they act like that?

I think greedy and selfishness drive them to do that ruthless things.Anyway, equality is the main point of the said article. We can't deny the fact that there are some people who were not contented of what they have. They to have a surplus of everything that they don't mind of other people who are scarce of everything. Sharing is absent in hearts and minds.

Therefore, even in our scarcity of things, let's share it to everyone for it will be multiplied afterward. A s what the saying goes "the more you give, the more you receive".


prince_curls profile image

prince_curls 6 years ago

Princess D. Solamillo:history3 PQ2

Well, we all know that we are brothers and sisters.So that there's no need to fight back against the religion we have.We have to believe what we preferred to believe..all we have to do is to respect others.Only Almighty God can do the last decission.If others will lead the supperiority or being xenocentricsm ,maybe he/she will have a deep realization that acting like this is not good enough.


Ethel Dyane profile image

Ethel Dyane 6 years ago

I will accept the fact that Philippines is very rich in natural resources. Especially in the agricultural field.

The colonizers loved to stay in our country because of our agriculture supply. They were the one who manage and set foot on Philippine soil.

That’s why the agrarian problem in our country is not new.


Intano, Gwyn A. 6 years ago

Every Filipinos owned mindanao.

We all have the responsibility to take care of it and cherish it every single day we have in this world.

What's wrong with us people is that we have diff. agendas and it might be detrimental to others.We are sometimes blinded by our selfishness and greediness.

Why not share???..isn't it more agreeable and easy???...

Itano, Gwyn A.

History 3 Vv1


Ethel Dyane profile image

Ethel Dyane 6 years ago

I will accept the fact that Philippines is very rich in natural resources. Especially in the agricultural field.

The colonizers loved to stay in our country because of our agriculture supply. They were the one who manage and set foot on Philippine soil. That’s why the agrarian problem in our country is not new.

Ethel Dyane C. Limbaroc hist3 section Vv1


Adilao, Abdulbaset A. 6 years ago

As the history tells us, there is nothing new about agrarian problems. As the colonizers step into our country and aim to own the resources of our motherland,then these lead for a serious topic involving the issue of agrarian problem. Spanish friars planted into our mind that God will not accept us if we are wealthy,but they have another intention and that is to rule the wealth of our country.

Adilao, Abdulbaset A. history 3 section Uu1


Budiongan, Ethyl 6 years ago

We all know that God is our Creator, He made all things including Mindanao. And for God, we all can live on Mindanao equally. Nobody owns Mindanao but all of us living in her are obliged to take care of it.

Why can't we share equally this land? Even we have different religion I know we can still share to each other. Isn't it right that sharing is loving? so if you love your fellowmen they should share the land and don't own it.

Stop the selfishness and the greediness and stop fighting so we can leave peacefully here in Mindanao.


Jose Pee Rizal 6 years ago

Sa aking pananaw ay hindi mainam ang pagbibigay ng lupain at titulo dahil marami na tayo.Ito ang nagbibigay galit at away sa lahat ang pagmumula ng kaguluhan,Dapat dito ay isang commune at walang nagmamay ari ng lupa tulad sa bansang Israel.Ang idea na ang bigas ay primary staple ng bansa ay maling mali policy sa gobyerno dahil ito ang dahilan ng artificial shortage,crisis at hoarding.Instead it should adopt to the idea of alternative tulad ng kamote,saging,kamoteng ube,mais,Tofu Soybeans at Flour.


jerielmedija profile image

jerielmedija 6 years ago from mindanao state university

We can't deny that our country is very abundant,isn't it?We are the stewards of this world and as a steward,we really had to do the best of our strengths to protect our mother earth.What's wrong with us is that we are so materialistic.We desert into our own agendas without thinking the others,their rights and their living.We only think of our self!Always me,me,me and me!Why not share with others!Let us cast down our crab mentality instead give one another!


july algen baloyos 6 years ago

..that is really true!@!!!..that our country is abundant with natural resources that was created by God..and by this, the colonizers really like 2 stay here in our country...and, we should not waste our resources..we should be proud of it..

july algen baloyos history 3-Vv1


july algen baloyos 6 years ago

..that is really true!@!!!..that our country is abundant with natural resources that was created by God..and by this, the colonizers really like 2 stay here in our country...and, we should not waste our resources..we should be proud of it..

july algen baloyos history 3-Vv1


procy liza profile image

procy liza 6 years ago from Plaridel,Misamis Occidental,Philippines

We are all equal in this world..That's why it is not a big issue to fight with.So, we should share it and help one another to enhance and protect it.We should not be so selfish!!!..Learn to think and share to others..


jerielmedija profile image

jerielmedija 6 years ago from mindanao state university

We can't deny that our country is very abundant,isn't it?We are the stewards of this world and as a steward,we really had to do the best of our strengths to protect our mother earth.What's wrong with us is that we are so materialistic.We desert into our own agendas without thinking the others,their rights and their living.We only think of our self!Always me,me,me and me!Why not share with others!Let us cast down our crab mentality instead give one another!

JERIEL T. MEDIJA HIST.3 Vv1


almirah sarip 6 years ago

All the creations of God in this world have purpose.All of us have the right to live in this land of Mindanao.We are here in this world to live efficiently as we want.We are not here to make bad things to others instead we are going to share the things or the resources that God's created.There's nobody own this Mindanao.

Almirah R. Sarip History 3-Vv1


almirah sarip 6 years ago

All the creations of God in this world have purpose.All of us have the right to live in this land of Mindanao.We are here in this world to live efficiently as we want.We are not here to make bad things to others instead we are going to share the things or the resources that God's created.There's nobody own this Mindanao.

Almirah R. Sarip History 3-Vv1


AMYBETH G. CARNICER XX2. History3 6 years ago

Spanish and Japanese occupation in our country brought pain, anguish,agony and suffering to the Filipinos. We became slaves in our own place. During Spanish times, Agriculture was trying to improve international transactions of world commerce and industries of Philippines. The relations of countries, like exchanging and exporting products, but we are not the one who benefited the enhancement of Agricultural development in our own home but the spaniards who abuses their superiroty among filipinos. We are much abundant and exurbetant in terms of Agricluture, but what was happened, we are subjected to forced labor to spaniards, render service without payment.It elevated or grief towards spaniards, thus the regime of the conquerors cause so much sufferings to us. In present time, the influence of the regime of the conquerors still exist, example in the tenancy and land-owning of other rich Filipinos. The disunity of the Filipinos contributed to the crisis of our nation.


TANTUA, ASGAR D. hist.3 Uu1 6 years ago

We all know The new area of autonomy shall then be determined by the provinces and cities that will vote/choose to join the said autonomy (1998). It may be provided by the Congress in a law that clusters of contiguous-Muslim-dominated municipalities voting in favor of autonomy be merged and constituted into a new province(s) which shall become part of the new Autonomous Region.


SFP 6 years ago

Greetings.

I don't think this should be argued upon.

Nobody owns anything, anyplace.. It's only a matter of temporary possession. GOD owns all of what we have. It's just that HE gave it to us in order to attain what we wanted by using it as a tool in everything we do. And I agree that it is His gift to us. And thus, He had given it to US. I mean us, everybody. So, we mustn't fight over it. We all have the right.

Okay, some might really own a thing. Well,reality and literally speaking. But, in this case, Mindanao? Only for Muslims. I don't think so. Philippines are owned by any Filipino. We all have a single-tiny part of it because we are her inhabitants and therefore, we have a right to inherit anything she owns, as would just what a mother give to her children. And so is with Mindanao. We are all living here. It's not only for Muslims, but to every Filipinos as a whole.

Sittie Farinah R. Patorai. Hist3 vv1


katclaire profile image

katclaire 6 years ago from MSU,Marawi City

Kathryn Claire D. Benitez History 3 Vv1

Philippines is considered as an agricultural country and it is the primary source of living in every Filipinos.When I was still in 3rd year high school,news buzzing around said that Moros are claiming that they own some of the land here in Mindanao and this had caused bombings and many lives were wasted and put into risk...

As a student,all I want to deliver to everyone is that this land we are in,is not only for the benefit of only one person but it is the benefit and privilege to everyone...All living creatures are made fairly...If everyone thinks to be fair to his or her co-creature,probably chaos will be minimized and understanding,peace and unity will reign in each hearts...

This is not a challenge only to myself but is a challenge to everyone of us..It starts from nobody,nobody,but you....


DOMATO, JOHARA GURO 6 years ago

Yes, it is true that we are all human that needs the help of our mother nature… Mindanao’s resources should be shared with every human being in the Philippines... But then, he Luzon and Visayas should also part Mindanao on its resources too…

Mindanao should also be granted with much effort for development in exchange for the natural resources that they give for the country’s improvements… resources are for sharing… and it’s not right to act selfishness on the thing that God had given us…

Be fair!!! And everything will be balance… Mindanao is a part of Philippines and all inhabitants of this country should have the equal right to enjoy the country’s resources

DOMATO, JOHARA GURO

HISTORY3-Vv1


mariane12 profile image

mariane12 6 years ago from msu main

MINDANAO?

what is this place really intended for??

--for muslims (moros)???

--our christians???

tricky isn't it??

well it is because both parties have their right to be in mindanao. they are both filipinos.

its just that both also have the interest of being superior from the other.

The Christians say that they have Mindanao.

But Moros also declared that its for them. They say that desire a life of peace and tranquility. They are Bangsamoro, not Filipino. They want to be asked in a referendum whether or not they wish.

But why not instead of arguing this matter, we'll just work hand in hand in how to get out from the crisis that Mindanao is facing nowadays??

Genuine agrarian reform can help our beloved Mindanao to get out of this economic predicament. With heightened uncertainties in the global economy, the key is to promote internal drivers of growth, increase domestic consumption, and invigorate domestic production.

We contributed to the creation of this problem, we also have a role in finding a solution.

So let us help each other instead!!!

Rosemariane Grace A. Mission

History3-- Xx2


hariette profile image

hariette 6 years ago

My question is all of us are filipinos nut instead of helping each other.. some, because of greediness, they make a way so that they can benefit even it costs others risks.

I wish evey farmer is educated!

so that they know their right and they know what to do in times of problems.

So that no one can trick them..

I suggest that there is an implementation that allows gornment lawyers to survey lands and help those in needs. because its unfair on the part of the poor farmers.

Dont be mischievious!. Everything has its costs.

Hariette Amyer

Xx2


xuxii profile image

xuxii 6 years ago

For me, we all have the right to live here because we are all Filipinos. In terms of lands, the owner must have the knowledge to protect his/her land.

Agrarian reform can help them to remain the lands for the poor owners. As what saying says, "sharing is loving" hehe. we must help each other to fight this economic predicament.

Sushmita Alaba Xx2


omjamac27 profile image

omjamac27 6 years ago

i guess Mindanao is for the Filipinos. Every Filipinos have their rights to fight for their own lands. Agrarian reform can actually help them out.

Uu1


DragonEyE profile image

DragonEyE 6 years ago

I do agree with omjamac27 that Mindanao is for Filipinos, no racial discrimination and superiority over properties. But nowadays agrarian problem just existed as normal since we Filipinos made some laws about it but no immediate action has been made. Moreover, there must be substantial justice for everyone concerning this problem most especially our natives because they are greatly affected and so our farmers too!

John Jerry D. Pacheco

Hist.3 Xx2


jude16 profile image

jude16 6 years ago from MSU,MARAWI CITY

Since we are speaking of Mindanao and the Philippines , it is pretty alarming on how issues like this arise in just a single place that I part of whole. For me, the epitome of this issue is what we can see, tangible enough that we can even feel it; the Philippine flag. The Philippines is not merely a joke, and I believe that what is part of the Philippines should always be part of it no matter what. Mindanao is a blessing, for the Filipinos, is the localized version of a true paradise. I believe that thou shall not have racism between Muslim in Christians because as long as we are in Phillipine grounds, equality is the law.

VINCENT JUDE ALMARIO HISTORY 3 Vv1


rhaw 6 years ago

ahmad aiman batuampar hist3PQ2

it is a fact that Philippines is rich in natural resources. many country love to stay here because of the beauty of our nature here in the Philippines. Mindanao was one of the good creation of God, it is a blessing from the Almighty. in the eyes of God we are equal so we should be nice to each other and we know that we should follow the laws that will be imposed. i agree to the opinions on DragonEye and omjamac27 we deserve to have the Philippines and this agrarian problem is just a common problem to us because of being an archipelago of the Philippines. we can surpass this problem.


Mohammad Siraji M. AbdelGafur 6 years ago

we are living on one country so we are one. No one from us can claim this place. Because this place creates for all of us. So no one can claim it. We can freely live here. Any one is free to live here. We, the Filipino are very hospitable and nice people. So it is in our culture being hospitable. therefore, i think we are freely can live anywhere we want to live here in the Philippines...

SEC. MN2 History3


dejolde grace c. 6 years ago

Our country was aboundant of natural resources but its our mistake because we did not use it in a good and proper way. We did not give importance of it too.

here in our country we can live anywhere and can own a land and have a territory. But if they had already the terrritory and they had bought the land the family of the sellers can not claim the land anymore because it was sold already. No one can get the land of certain persons specially when they have the papers from the agrarian because they have now the evidence to prove that they own that particular land.


Maminta, Jamil B. 6 years ago

It is our right as a people created by the GOD to live anywhere we choose to. if you buy a land here, particularly it's is yours now and no one can own it except you give or sell it to them. it is not right to claim the territory that not yours. In our country, there are many resources , the problem is, people here didn't know how to use with it.

MN2, Hist 3


ann ravelo 6 years ago

The land here on earth is no ours it's God's property. But to think that people are fighting for claiming that this land is their territory is so unlawful. The fact that we are just boarders in this place, we should not fight for silly things like that. I did not say that we don't have rights. Of course we do, but the thing is, we should be considerate.


abdul hussien S. menor 6 years ago

this mindanao land is for all, it's because we the filipino's, when we have a peace,, and our society well improve and become a strong nation

Uu1


Diane Carol Canoy profile image

Diane Carol Canoy 6 years ago from PBB dormitory, MSU marawi

There have been misunderstanding about who or which tribe will handle Mindanao but what they are fighting for is useless because Mindanao is for all God created this not only for us but also for them, for me it is unfair if one of the tribe will handle Mindanao because it is possible that they will kick out of this place the other tribe which will lead to revolution and DEATH!!! History3 Vv1


ayirkis 6 years ago

No one owns a land until you make something out of it. it is easy to understand that all we have to do is understand one another and respect another. why does everyone have to be mute not to speak to their own tribe and spread the simple words UNDERSTAND and RESPECT. it is simple, yet no one follows.


Ala Abdani D. 6 years ago

no one to right to claim their on land because god creates the people to chose their on land and we have to respect each other to have peace and have to claim their on land.


nor-ain habib 6 years ago

...;)

native people own this land... why government claiming that lands and water of this country are theirs? did their bloodshed were there in the time of struggle???

nor-ain habib

mn2-history3


pipany@yahoo.com profile image

pipany@yahoo.com 6 years ago

It argues that farming is increasingly being restructured in a peasant-like way. This restructuring is an actively constructed response to the agrarian crisis that has grown out of five decades of state-induced modernisation and is currently being accelerated by the financial crisis and the generalised economic depression. Through a process of restructuring that is both multi-dimensional and multi-level farmers are reconstituting themselves into peasants (although important features of operating as peasants have never been completely absent), a process that is occurring as much in developed countries as in developing ones. At more or less the same time theoretical concepts of the peasantry and the peasant way of farming are being rediscovered and revisited. Earlier debates are highly relevant for understanding the current situation of a generalised crisis and the responses that are being triggered among farmers. The rediscovery of the peasant as theoretically meaningful concept reflects the socio-material re-emergence of the peasantry, and helps to explain the particular features of this process. The article concludes by arguing that the reconstitution of the peasantry is strategic to future world food security.

While increasing pressure on a fragile resource base has indeed contributed to widespread failure to meet subsistence needs among tribal households, the research discussed in this study shows that the forces leading to migration are as much to do with the social relations of dependency and indebtedness which subsistence failure entails, as with ecological decline. The problem is not so much one of declining production, as of systems of usurious money lending, labour contracting and exploitation. The social experience and consequences of migration are far from uniform, but shaped by class and gender.

For the poorer majority, migration is a defensive coping strategy covering existing debts and extreme economic vulnerability. In combining unequal and individualised income accrual with the need for joint livelihood strategies, migration has a major impact on intra-household relations.

NASRIPA NASRODEN

HIST3/Uu1


seventhree profile image

seventhree 6 years ago

Philippines is one of the most abundant country especially on natural resources. This is why colonizers years ago conquered the Philippines. I understand why many of our Moro brothers and sisters want the separation of Mindanao but I don't mean that Mindanao is ours, Moros. I also believe that this issue should not be argued upon. God is our Creator and everything that he has made is His. We are all permanent in this world. So let us just make peace and we should not make anyone our enemy because it just don't make sense. It will just make the situation worse. We should just believe in God and everything will follow.

Sittie Hanniya busran lomondot Macarambon

History 3 – Vv1


Mark Alden Batiao 6 years ago

Mindanao is for everyone, whether your Moro or Christian or whatever. Mindanao is for all Filipino people and not only for the people who lived in Mindanao. No one can actually say that he/she/they owe Mindanao because we all know that everything in this world, particularly natural resources or the nature, is maid by God to all of his people. So, everyone is entitled to enjoy and use freely the resources given to us. So, to the people who continually owe Mindanao specially the colonizers, stop saying that you owe mindanao. And for the people of mindanao, stop saying you owe mindanao cause you live here, mindanao is for everyone and not only yours.

Mark Alden Batiao History 3-PQ2


mamintal 6 years ago

yeah!!! everything around us was created by God. but I cannot blame those people who are claiming their territory which they have own first.In fact they have been dedicating their lives for a long period of time. I guess moors are just wanted to have their own territory where they can practiced their culture properly.

but that is difficult to happen.all they can do to avoid war is to accept other culture but not by means of practicing it just show respect.everything could be arrange if there ie an understanding.


abdul hussien profile image

abdul hussien 6 years ago

this mindanao land is for all, it's because we the filipino's, when we have a peace,, and our society well improve and become a strong nation

Uu1


reah mae profile image

reah mae 6 years ago

As my point of view about the concept above is that in order to solve or even be aware of those conflicts about the Philippine agrarian, the government should study first the true history with regards to that situation in order for them to arrive good ideas and by that they could create and find effective ways to solve that particular issue or problem.


jhingboy 6 years ago

Agrarian reform law, what is it?

We always hear such law but we could always see persons disobeying that law.

So, what is the purpose of law if the one who made and implemented it could not observe it?

Persons on the position always defy it. Our government was inadequate in implementing law properly. Therefore, farmers should gain their rights. I hope that the recent government could resolve their needs and grant their request, because many would suffer on this particular predicament.


Bandingan 6 years ago

yeah! we came from different races, we have different religions but i should say fighting for freedom and equal justice are their reason not claiming Mindanao as their own!!


Mer-ham profile image

Mer-ham 6 years ago from Mindanao State University, Marawi City

Dimarun, Merham

History 3 Vv1

Land in the Philippines is own by those who belong to it. Meaning he already bought the land if not then it was it transferred from generation to generation. Colonizers are those people who claim the land without even testament that that land is his or her. Philippines are really now progressing, we should be thankful that there is a law that govern us all Filipino citizen.


hobaib mimbesa 6 years ago

hobaib mimbesa

PQ2

like the other students who commented on this article, i also believe that it is not proper to claim a huge land where different kinds of people are living. yes people were created with equal footing in the society. they all have the same right to enjoy the richness of nature.

but to the moros,they actually want to have an independent state where they can practice the law of islam. we know that in our present government there are a lot of crimes and sin happening. thats why the moro wanted to be liberated. because they believe[we] that when the law of islam is well imposed there will be less crimes if not totally.


RizPSunio profile image

RizPSunio 6 years ago from Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines

Indeed, agrarian problems should be regarded with much attention before, because it was one of the most premier livelihood, and should also be regarded today. Food will never ever get out of style no matter what happens. Because agriculture was quite mismanaged today, we lost our spot of being one of the top rice producing countries.

About what happened to Bernardo Baylosis, it was so very tragic, really... and even so scary. How evil those thugs were...

Riz Sunio, Uu1


Nuwayeer Andi 6 years ago

For these,I think, as the accused were coming to the court, they were accompanied by a number of bands and a big crowd of sympathizers. Outside the town, they were met by a large force of police who allowed the people to pass, and then fell in at the rear. Inside the town, another detachment of police with drawn batons confronted the marchers, who next found themselves being batoned in front and rear by the police. The townspeople came to the aid of the people, with ash plants and bottles. The battle continued around the courthouse throughout the day.

A good number on each side received injuries, but the police, twenty-four of whom received medical treatment in the fracas, failed in the efforts to disperse the crowd who, up to the time the baton charges commenced, were behaving in an orderly way.


jowsan 5 years ago

Actually during the spanisg regimes lots ol land has been claimed by Religious order like the Franciscans that it belongs to them,as said by the crown of Spain.The original owner of the land become servants to their landlords the Spaniards.The same with the situation of Kabesang Tales of El Filibusterismo who spent how many years of cultivating the lands that when the Spaniards came,they owned Kabesang TaLES LAND.Tales needs to pay every month even though he is the owner and because of this he bacame a rebel.Imagine the effort he exerted for thet land.That is the reality during that time.Our ancestors Revolt against the spaniards. JOWIE BAGARES HISTORY 3 Uu3


jowsan 5 years ago

Actually during the spanisg regimes lots ol land has been claimed by Religious order like the Franciscans that it belongs to them,as said by the crown of Spain.The original owner of the land become servants to their landlords the Spaniards.The same with the situation of Kabesang Tales of El Filibusterismo who spent how many years of cultivating the lands that when the Spaniards came,they owned Kabesang TaLES LAND.Tales needs to pay every month even though he is the owner and because of this he bacame a rebel.Imagine the effort he exerted for that land.That is the reality during that time.Our ancestors Revolt against the spaniards. JOWIE BAGARES HISTORY 3 Uu3


johairah talib 5 years ago

During the Spaniards colony many Filipinos have supper so much.They became slaves and they experience brutality from the Spaniards. Yeah.!This world is created for all of us but as individual we have our own territory that we can spend our life being with our family.


canta, jhorry s. 5 years ago

CANTA, JHORRY S

HISTORY 3-CC2

the unclosed issue on the said agrarian,is because of still the existence of manpower where there are sense of superior and inferiority among the people..indeed there are also some violations on the law being committed and some of that is the human rights.

Nobody own this land it's for everyone that God intended to give for us, only the government act as head of state to properly manage lands pursuant to the law..so for those who claim that they are the owner of lands specially here i Mindanao only i can say is that YOU WISH.


sittieamarah profile image

sittieamarah 5 years ago from 7th st. msu marawi city

We know that, Muslims and none Muslims is right to be here in our land I'm a right? because I know everyone have a responsibility to live here in Mindanao.so, all of us I want u to know that, respect one another and understand us of course.

Salic Sittie Amarah

Hestory3


shema gaurano profile image

shema gaurano 5 years ago from MSU Marawi City

"We're just fleeting inhabitants in this fleeting habitat." I used to remember this statement from my Values instructor way back in High School. I guess everybody knows this already. So what's the point of having misunderstandings because of these lands? We have to share what we ought to. Furthermore, when we die, we are not going to bring it in heaven or somewhere else. Basically, Mindanao is the place where people of it must settle. This is not just for them, this is for every people of Mindanao. No ifs, no whys. This is a gift from God to us, whatever we may call Him, our God is still the same.


noraima ontao hist.3Cc2 5 years ago

we know that Moro people are consider a brave and they fight what is right and good in their territory and for god.mujaheddin means the Muslim who fight for their freedom and independence and also for their family.they will die for the seek of god.


aripa macala profile image

aripa macala 5 years ago

Spaniards have the bigger part of our life [Filipinos]. Sometimes, they are one of the reasons of our problem today. but I still do not want to blame them beacause they under to Muslim in more than 700 years if I am not mistaken.

I love this article.


Zainab L. Gani 5 years ago

The Agrarian Reform has been one of the biggest issue in the Philippines. I believe nobody owns a certain land of their own not as long as they have their evidence. but for those who doesn't have any proof I believe that the land that they're claiming is owned by the government.

Zainab L. Gani

Uu3


glycil_becip profile image

glycil_becip 5 years ago from Mindaao State University

Mindanao is a common land.Everybody has a right to live in Mindanao.It is created for all of us.

As stated in the article::: The different laws and memorandum outlined above show the weakness of the agrarian and land reform laws in the Philippines. The oligarchs that controlled the legislative body through the sponsorship of the Americans saw to it that their land holdings will never be affected. But the programs that made a great impact on the Moros were implemented by the following offices; 1) the National Land Resettlement Administration in 1939, 2) Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) in 1950, 3) Economic Development Corps (EDCOR) a resettlement project, and 4) National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) in 1954 was created in line with RA 1199. These offices implemented the resettlement programs of the government that brought more people in Mindanao. These resettlement sites are in Lanao and in Cotabato (in the present North and South Cotabato areas). The influx of tenants, peasants and seasonal workers in these areas awakened ethnocentrism due to “intense competition between ethnic groups for the occupation of social niches.”People began to quarrel....

Another is that The Land owner became rude..The land rentals had no justice. The land workers work hard for it then they owners let them pay more than or half of the the harvest they had.


Ariel Otud 4 years ago

i guess mindanao is really for the filipinos and also for the lumads ...and talking about the issue about moros crying for independence, i think this is not the right time to do that, because as for now the philippines and especially mindanao is not yet capable of being indepent ..

hitory 80 pp1

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