China White-- Synthetic Heroin AKA Fentanyl-- Killing More Estonians Than Road Accidents

Estonia (extreme northeast of the European Union)
Estonia (extreme northeast of the European Union) | Source

Highest Death Rate in Europe

Officials in Estonia in northeast Europe are struggling to address the highest death rate from drug overdoses in the European Union (EU). At a death rate just under 150 per million, more Estonians aged 15 – 64 are dying from drug-related deaths than automobile accidents and far exceed Norway's rate of about 80 per million, the second-highest in Europe. Overall, the Estonian rate is seven times that of Europe's average. Latvia, Estonia's neighbor to the south, has a drug-related death rate of about 15 per million-- 10 times less. Even the United States, with one of the higher death rates related to drug overdoses in the developed world, has less at about 100 per million.

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HIV/AIDS Cases

In a seemingly related health risk, cases of HIV/AIDS has more than doubled in Estonia since 2001 to 9,800 in 2009, or 0.7% of the population. Over two-thirds of Estonians injecting drugs are infected, due mainly to sharing needles.

Fentanyl powder
Fentanyl powder | Source

China White (Fentanyl) Drug of Choice

The majority of drug-related deaths are due to the use of “China White”, a synthetic form of heroin made in clandestine laboratories just across the border in Russia and smuggled into Estonia. A decade ago, there was a heroin shortage in Estonia and China White, clinically known as “fentanyl”, took its place. Fentanyl is used medically to treat chronic, intense pain and in surgical procedures and is known for its rapid onset and short duration. The problem is, fentanyl is hundreds of times more potent than heroin. The powder has to be cut-- mixed with other substances-- to reduce its strength extremely carefully or death can result. The powder is then mixed with water and injected. A single dose of amphetamine is slightly less than half a spoonful; the equivalent amount of fentanyl is enough to kill more than 10 people. That equivalent amount of fentanyl would provide 37 doses. A single, fatal dose is estimated at 2 milligrams. It suppresses the breathing reflex, leading to coma and death.

Heroin No Longer Effective

Fentanyl is highly addictive like heroin and has all but replaced it in the Estonian market. Users say that once they used the synthetic drug, heroin doesn't do anything for them anymore. Even with daily doses of methadone from a drug clinic to manage the withdrawal symptoms, some report they still use China White several times a month. Years ago, alcohol used to be Estonia's main scourge, but social workers say now it is China White that is the problem.

Panorama of Tallinn, Estonia's capital, from the Baltic Sea
Panorama of Tallinn, Estonia's capital, from the Baltic Sea | Source

Lethal Doses

In 2012, Estonian police made the largest drug bust of China White-- a pure batch weighing 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs) which could easily fit in a single knapsack. It was enough to create 40,000 doses. The ratio of pure Fentanyl per dose is 5% to 10%. In 2009, amateurs cut some batches with 14%, killing many users.

Many Questions

Officials in Tallinn, Estonia's capital, not only do not have a strategy for dealing with the drug overdose problem, they cannot understand why Estonia's problem is so severe in comparison to the rest of Europe. In addition, the vast majority of China White users are ethnic Russians, who make up about 25% of Estonia's population (nearly 40% in the capital, Tallinn). Some say Russians prefer injecting their drugs, while Estonians would rather inhale or take their drugs orally; others say Russians like heavy drugs. Or maybe there's a partial link between the constant tension between Estonian-speaking and Russian-speaking citizens. In any case, while it is still mainly an Estonian problem, officials say Europe cannot afford to be unprepared-- it is so lethal.

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    UnnamedHarald profile image

    David Hunt (UnnamedHarald)559 Followers
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    My passion for Twentieth Century history and current events has lasted over 50 years. I try to make history readable and interesting.


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