Chinese sailor finds America before Columbus!

Zhen He Museum in Zheng He park in Nanjing
Zhen He Museum in Zheng He park in Nanjing
Students walking along a map of the world laid out in a square that showed Zheng He's 7 voyages.
Students walking along a map of the world laid out in a square that showed Zheng He's 7 voyages.
Random gardner in the park
Random gardner in the park
One of the smaller boat's anchors
One of the smaller boat's anchors
A model of a treasure ship
A model of a treasure ship
Okay, so I like random Chinese signs.
Okay, so I like random Chinese signs.
Statue of Zheng He who was rumoured to be taller than most, well over six feet, closer to 7 feet.  A bit like Yao Min.
Statue of Zheng He who was rumoured to be taller than most, well over six feet, closer to 7 feet. A bit like Yao Min.

Who was Zheng He?

Zheng He was born in the poor, mountainous Chinese province of Yunnan in 1371, just as Genghis Khan's Mongols were being overthrown by a new, home-grown dynasty, the Ming under Emperor Zhu. Zheng He's parents named him “Ma Ho” in honor of Mohammed, the founder of Islam. His father and grandfather were both Muslims and had each visited Mecca for the Muslim pilgrimage. Their tales of the long journey thrilled Ma Ho and he longed make a glorious journey himself one day. As his family were Muslim and had fought on the side of the Mongols, when the Ming armies came looking for rebels, they killed Ma Ho's dad and hey captured the 10-year-old boy and, as was the custom with young male prisoners, castrated him.

As his intelligence was observed in the jail, he was taken to Beijing to serve as a servant to Prince Zhu Di, Emperor Zhu's fourth son. The prince and Ma Ho became best friends and the prince changed Ma Ho's name to Zheng He, and made him Grand Imperial Eunuch.

When Prince Zhu Di's father died, there was some dispute over who would be the new emperor, but with Zheng He at his side, Zhu Di eventually became the emperor in 1402 and changed his name to Yong'le. He was ruthless and ambitious but was one of the best Ming emperors, building the Forbidden City when the capital was moved to Beijing and restored the Great Wall. Emperor Yong'le wanted to expand Chinese influence to other lands and establish trade, so he appointed the close on 7 foot tall Zheng He as Admiral of his fleets. Emperor Yong'le was a little bit of a megalomaniac as were many emperors of that time and had a grand vision then already, that China would become a world leader and the foremost trading nation in the world at that time. China already had the technology, they had invented the sextant, the compass and gunpowder. In Zheng He, Emperor Yong'le felt that he had the right man to send out to help build China into the greatest trading power of all time. He rightly believed that it would have to be through a fleet of ships and not overland.

Zheng He was commanded to built a treasure fleet to go out and explore the regions beyond China. The shipyard in Nanjing was chosen as the place where the treasure ships would be built. According to some of the few remaining Ming records, the flagships of the fleet were 400 feet long and 160 feet wide. The treasure ships had watertight bulkhead compartments of a kind the West would have to wait hundreds of years for. They even had their own on-board vegetable patches, so sailors never got scurvy. Columbus's Santa Maria, was only 75 feet long and 25 feet wide!

In 1405, only three years after receiving his instructions, Zheng He's treasure fleet set sail, with each flagship supported by countless smaller vessels going off in a different direction.  All in all there were over 300 ships in the whole fleet and 27800 men.  Amazing that all this shipbuilding took place in a 3 year period!  On the ships, were trading items like silk and pottery, as well as concubines which were to be given to other leaders they met as gifts.

A to scale model of the flagship in the treasure fleet with a scale model of Santa Maria next to it.  You can see the size difference.
A to scale model of the flagship in the treasure fleet with a scale model of Santa Maria next to it. You can see the size difference.
A smaller boat in the treasure fleet to scale, still much bigger than Columbus's ship.
A smaller boat in the treasure fleet to scale, still much bigger than Columbus's ship.
Rope found buried at the Nanjing Shipyards.
Rope found buried at the Nanjing Shipyards.
The old tiller of one of the treasure ships which would need at least 20 men to move.  One of the few things to escape the burning that happened afterwards.
The old tiller of one of the treasure ships which would need at least 20 men to move. One of the few things to escape the burning that happened afterwards.
A dock at the ancient nanjing Shipyard.
A dock at the ancient nanjing Shipyard.
Mural showing Zheng He's voyages at the Nanjing Shipyard.
Mural showing Zheng He's voyages at the Nanjing Shipyard.
Marble mural showing some of the exotic people Zheng he met.
Marble mural showing some of the exotic people Zheng he met.
The lock thingie
The lock thingie
Life size Replica of one the smaller boats that was a part of the treasure fleet.
Life size Replica of one the smaller boats that was a part of the treasure fleet.
The crow's nest on the replica.
The crow's nest on the replica.
Treasure boat from the side.
Treasure boat from the side.
On the treasure boat.
On the treasure boat.
The workings of the ship.
The workings of the ship.

What is the evidence?

The Nanjing Shipyards where these ships were built still exists and has been turned into a special park with a museum. It was only when some ancient Ming documents were found that China suddenly realised that they had once been a formidable sea power and had ruled the waves. For centuries all evidence of their naval expertise and explorations had been buried in the mud at the old shipyard. The museum shows some of the items that have been excavated to date, nails, ship building tools, masts and a huge tiller that will easily take 20 men to manage. A huge anchor, biggest I've ever seen was also found. Plans of the treasure ships and other small ships in the fleet have also been found. A map made in the 1700's, but based on a map from 1418 has also been found and shows that China knew about Africa, Europe, Australia and the Americas.

In his bestselling book 1421, former British naval officer Gavin Menzies claimed Zheng He's ships ended up reaching America and circumnavigating the world. He claims to have found ruins of Zheng He's ships in the Caribbean. However, the strongest evidence that Zhenge's fleet reached the East Coast of America, is the 600 year old bronze Ming Dynasty medallion found buried in Cherokee land. And, the Cherokee call their white clay pottery a very similar to name to what the Chinese call theirs almost identical in fact.

http://www.asiawind.com/zhenghe/

And then of course, many Native Americans do have slightly Asian features. maybe some concubines were dropped off there.  It is believed as more old documents come to light, the proof of Zheng He reaching America will be undisputed.

There is strong evidence to show Zheng He reached Africa. In Africa near Kenya today, there are tribes that are clearly Asian-looking. They also consider themselves as the descendants of Zheng He’s crew. Many Samoans have Chinese surnames and Asian features, so there's evidence the treasure fleet went there as well. Zheng He took an Imam on board, so it is believed that Islam in Indonesia was brought by Zheng He's treasure fleet.

Voyage Dates

First Voyage (1405-1407)
Second Voyage (1407-1409)
Third Voyage (1409-1411)
Fourth Voyage (1413-1415)
Fifth Voyage (1417-1419)
Sixth Voyage (1421-1422)
Seventh Voyage (1431-1433)

Zheng He's voyages had a very large impact on the Ming Dynasty and the countries Zheng He visited. These seven voyages opened trade and diplomatic ties for the Ming Dynasty with many other countries. Frightened by Zheng He's fleet, many countries paid tribute to the Ming Dynasty hoping to buy peace with the Asian superpower. Can you imagine what you'd have thought, if you had spotted a whole fleet of ships surrounding a huge treasure ship with red silk sails and flags flying in the breeze, as it anchored in your bay.  From these visits, the Ming Dynasty acquired much power and wealth. Crews also brought back many tales of exotic lands and cultures, enriching the Chinese culture, already full of tales and myths.   The Chinese took crates of porcelain dishes, vases and cups, as well as chinese silk, gold and silver to trade.  Zheng He traded these items mainly for dyes, herbs, spices, gems, pearls, ivory, rhinoceros horns and exotic animals.  The giraffe they brought back was aparticular favourite as the emperor thought it was a unicorn.

Life size statue of a shipbuilder.
Life size statue of a shipbuilder.
The enormous anchor that was found with apartment buildings behind it.
The enormous anchor that was found with apartment buildings behind it.
These are ducks.  Ones like these would have been eaten by the shipbuilders.
These are ducks. Ones like these would have been eaten by the shipbuilders.
Replica of the lookout tower at the shipyard.
Replica of the lookout tower at the shipyard.
An old bell at the shipyard.
An old bell at the shipyard.
Zheng He's bust.  He was a striking figure of a man.  Apparently, he had a loud booming voice as well.
Zheng He's bust. He was a striking figure of a man. Apparently, he had a loud booming voice as well.
Students at the foot of Zheng He's statue at the nanjing Shipyards.
Students at the foot of Zheng He's statue at the nanjing Shipyards.

Why were the treasure fleets destroyed?

Life changed for Zheng He when Emperor Yong’le suddenly died in 1424. Zhu Gaozhi became the next emperor of China. Emperor Yong'le had met with a lot of resistance at the expense of keeping the treasure fleet going, and pressure was put on the new emperor. Emperor Gaozhi wanted nothing to do with navel exploring and scrapped all ideas of a seventh Treasure Fleet. For six long years, Zheng He, who had fought off pirates, waged war with those who didn’t want peace, established trade routes, weathered hurricanes and other violent storms, was stuck on land with not much to do. Luckily, Emperor Zhu Gaozhi’s reign was short and the next Emperor, Zhu Zhanji, had similar views of Yong’le. In 1430, Emperor Zhanji commanded Zheng He to lead another Treasure Fleet on it's seventh voyage. This was to be Zheng He's last voyage as he is reputed to have died near Calicut and buried at sea according to Muslim tradition. Usually, an eunuch's testicles were kept in a jar and buried with them so that they could be whole in the afterlife. Unfortunately for Zheng He, despite all his brave deeds and accomplishments, he died half a man without his testicles being buried with him.

Now, the Ming Dynasty was on a roll here. They had countries constantly sending in tribute, had many trade relations to make profits from, and it was the superpower of the world at that point. Zheng He's treasure ships used technology that would not be used in Europe for hundreds of years, and were economically much better off than the Europeans. TThey had sophisticated weaponry and were almost invincible. The Ming Dynasty was an unrivaled naval power and was feared and respected throughout the areas the treasure fleet visited . The Chinese could have conquered the world… but they suddenly stopped.

This is what intrigues me the most about this story. Why did they just stop and go into a sort of hibernation? Did the treasure fleets bring back some kind of plague or disease? Soon after Zheng He's death, the Ming Dynasty officials burned most of his charts and writings. By 1500, the Emperor ordered the destruction of all oceangoing ships and made it a capital offense to build a boat with more than two masts. In fact, building a boat of more than three masts was punishable by immediate death. What happened to make the chinese react in this way? What was brought back by the ships that frightened the Ming Dynasty officials that they destroyed everything about the ships?

Some say that after Zheng He passed away at sea, the Ming Dynasty officials took control and decided that the dynasty was above the other countries out there and that the outside world had nothing to offer them. The burning of Zheng He's work was an extreme act to show that China didn't need the rest of the world, like burning the bridge behind you, the point of no return. I'm not sure if I can accept that as the reason. It just seems too extreme. To be a world power, rake in a fortune and then turn your back on it all for nearly 600 years.

"We have…beheld in the ocean, huge waves like mountains rising sky-high, and we have set eyes on barbarians regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds, day and night continued their course rapid like that of a star, traversing the savage waves as if we were treading a public thoroughfare.” Zheng He, Admiral of the Western Seas, translated from one of his surviving writings.

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Comments 95 comments

Shalini Kagal profile image

Shalini Kagal 7 years ago from India

Amazing story! Chinese history is so fascinating and they were so far ahead of their time!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah Shalini, and I want to know what happened, why did they destroy it all and then go into hibernation?  I find that fascinating! Bit more serious than my usual, eh? Must be all the packing I'm doing!


BristolBoy profile image

BristolBoy 7 years ago from Bristol

An amazing story and very well written. Had heard of Zheng He having visited America but didn't know about his other voyages. I agree it is a mystery why the ocean going fleet finished. However, I believe that he was beaten to America by one European namely Leif Eriksson.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah I agree, think the Viking were first. Who knows, maybe the Phoenecians as well! Yeah, all of a sudden Zheng He has now been resurrected and acknowledged as a Communist hero.


splum profile image

splum 7 years ago from USA

He is a hero .He brought China and the world of communication, of the Chinese civilization to the world.

Good!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks for dropping by Splum! I wonder how many Chinese have still never heard of Zheng He?


Candie V profile image

Candie V 7 years ago from Whereever there's wolves!! And Bikers!! Cummon Flash, We need an adventure!

Wow! I gotta say I had trouble remember the names of the "who" in this.. Asian names do that to me. I find myself trading them for "Sam, Wayne, Ed" and I do a little better. It was great fun reading the Silmarillion.. Wayne and Lisa, Ed and Sharon.. I had to change them too.

You, my friend have so much knowledge to share, it's awesome!! I particularly like the sign.. danger of getting drowned.

Thank you, this was a lot of work!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Candie, I live in Nanjing and Zheng He's shipyard is right here


blondepoet profile image

blondepoet 7 years ago from australia

This one was amazing. Your all rounder skills just screams out to the world. I am most impressed. Thumbs up Cindy.xox


evemurphy profile image

evemurphy 7 years ago from Ottawa

Awesome Hub. Really great read! The mystery of Zheng...


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks BP and Evemurphy! Zheng He was an interesting character as he came from nothing to achieve so much. I read somewhere that they think he was the original Sinbad the sailor, the one all the stories were based on.


Laila Rajaratnam profile image

Laila Rajaratnam 7 years ago from India

Wow Cindy..amazing hub and pictures!thanks for sharing this..I'm reading about this for the first time!Thanks for enlightening me!:)


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Pleasure Laila, Zheng He isn't very well known. Most people don't know that the Chinese were the most powerful seafarers at one time.


SusanWesty profile image

SusanWesty 7 years ago from Australia

Fascinating Cindy! I love the Chinese history and culture. Hope you do find out some time why they shut themselves off like that. Other countries have done the same, Burma, Vietnam for many years too. I believe their reasons were they didn't want to be corrupted with Western influence.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Susan, I'm not sure we'll ever find out why they burnt all evidence of the explorations. My gut feeling remains that it was plague-related.


R. Blue profile image

R. Blue 7 years ago from Right here

I see you're finally awake.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Watched rugby until late!


LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London

Absolutely fascinating! I'd vaguely heard of the idea, but not about this chap in particular. And the photos are a fantastic addition to the writing. Brilliant hub.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks LG, I value a comment from you as you set such a high standard with your history hubs. Hopefully, the day will come when children will learn about Zheng He the way they learn about Drake and Columbus.


Misha profile image

Misha 7 years ago from DC Area

Thank you Cindy, great reading :)


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks for stopping by, Misha


Abodos 7 years ago

Wow, the Chinese sure had some big honkin' ships. And to think that ships of that size were later outlawed!

By the way, cindy, have you heard how historians now think that a visit from this fleet to Europe was probably a major spark for the Renaissance? The Chinese may have closed their borders, but their influence was still being felt throughout the world.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah, Abodos, have heard that they probably visited France, Portugal and the Netherlands, but not the bit about the Renaissance. The Chinese described meeting very tall men with big feet, orange/yellow hair and big noses. At that stage, had to be somewhere in Europe or alternatively a Viking settlement still in existence somewhere at that time.


Tatjana-Mihaela profile image

Tatjana-Mihaela 7 years ago from Zadar, CROATIA

Thanks Cindy, history is always so interesting. Thumbs up!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Tatjana, and it's even more fascinating when there is a little bit of mystery involved


Ivorwen profile image

Ivorwen 7 years ago from Hither and Yonder

Cindy, I read clear through this and left in a daze! There is so much fascinating information here -- it took a bit to soak it in. So I'm back to tell you thank you. Chinese history is something I want to study with my children in the next year or two.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Well Ivorwen, glad you came back! Chinese history is fascinating and that has been what has kept me going living in modern China which is nothing like the China of old. The cultural revolution killed something in the people.


shamelabboush profile image

shamelabboush 7 years ago

Very rich hub with nice illustrations. China has one the greatest history background especially their expansion to new lands. Thanks cindyvine.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Shamel for stopping by and taking the time to comment. I'm thinking my next little trip might be to look at where they made all the pottery, the ming stuff that is so sort after, it's at a town not too far from here. You guys will be sick of my China hubs, but don't worry, I leave here in June!


Jerilee Wei profile image

Jerilee Wei 7 years ago from United States

Right now this is my favorite of your hubs simply because I had seen reference to this story many times over the years but you wrote the details I was seeking. I'd never get sick of your China hubs!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Jerilee! Glad you found this one interesting. I actually find the whole subject of Zheng He fascinating, considering I had never heard about until 3 years ago when I had to teach a class about him! I only have a month and a half left in China and will do a few more Chinese hubs before I leave. Unfortunately, that'll be the end then!


LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London

Good, looking forward to them. Are you going back to SA?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Hi LG, am off to Cape Town for a month to get my son sorted into hotel school and then I start my new contract in Tanzania, so I'm thinking towards the end of the year you'll be getting stuff on the Masai and Zanzibar


paul2cool 7 years ago

fascinating, never thought chinese liked conquering things ,like the western world..


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Chinese have lots of secrets and mysteries, Paul!


blondepoet profile image

blondepoet 7 years ago from australia

How long are you going to be in Tanzania for Cindy?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Hopefully 4 years!


trooper22 profile image

trooper22 7 years ago from Chicago

This is an outstanding hub.  I heard about this in my Western Civ class last semester.  Yes, I did say Western Civ.  My Instructor and I are of the same mind about certain European pre-conceptions.

How does a man discover a land that is already occupied? for instance.

I'll take the day off though )


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Ah Trooper, that's why I said he found it, not discovered it lol! It's good to hear that people are learning about Zheng He


Janetta 7 years ago

Great job on your historical hub Cindy! a lot of info and great pictures. It is so interesting to see the kinds of stuff they used to get around back then.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Ancient China was a fascinating place, Janetta, and despite my hiccups with modern China, I am pleased that I had the opportunity to live here for 3 years!


Cris A profile image

Cris A 7 years ago from Manila, Philippines

But let it be known that twas Nancy Kwan who made it big in America first! Ha!

Great hub Cin, and cool pictures to boot. And you do know about my fascination with Chinese anything! Hiiiii-yaaaaaa! (I just did the cross eyed penguin style there!) :D


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Is that a famous kung fu move, Cris? lol


Cris A profile image

Cris A 7 years ago from Manila, Philippines

Which? Nancy Kwan or the crosseyed penguin? :D


Lifebydesign profile image

Lifebydesign 7 years ago from Australia

wow, I even read the book and it was fascinating! Great job, I always wanted to do a hub on it. Looks like your time in China is wellspent ;)


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

You Cris, I wondered if the cross eyed penguin was a kung fu move.

Lifebydesign, it was a great book, recommend it 1421!


Cris A profile image

Cris A 7 years ago from Manila, Philippines

Nah, it's a kung fu style I invented! And it has to be done on snow, too preferably glaciers! Or underwater! :D


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Ah, you'll have to visit Haerbin here then for the Ice Festival in January!


Mister G 7 years ago

Thanks for a very absorbing read, Cindy.

As for the Asian features of Native Americans, I think the most commonly accepted explanation is the former existence of a land bridge linking Siberia and Alaska. That's not to say that this history of Zheng He isn't factual, though; a different source for the Asian ancestry of Native Americans doesn't negate the possiblity that this history is accurate in its essentials. And, in any case, it's a very fascinating, thought-provoking story. It reminds my of a used book I came across in a bookstore and wish to heck I had bought and kept: it proposed a theory that the tribes of Israel had also circumnavigated the globe. And then, of course, there's the old favorite: the Atlantis story.

I love this stuff.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks Mr G. Now, tell me, what is your theory, why did the Chinese burn the treasure ships and all records, maps and logs?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Aye BC, never mess with someone bigger than you!


blondepoet profile image

blondepoet 7 years ago from australia

4 years I hope they have the net over there or else. Darn you will be on a different timetable again aghhhh.


Teresa McGurk profile image

Teresa McGurk 7 years ago from The Other Bangor

Fascinating -- that treasure ship was HUGE, good grief.  And why the heck did they erase all traces?  cindy: you can't leave there now -- you have to find out the answers!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Teresa, I have tried, nobody knows. Some Chinese say, it was because they thought the West wasn't good enough for them yet!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah BP, will be 2 hours ahead of the UK and I think 3 hours behind Perth


someonewhoknows profile image

someonewhoknows 7 years ago from south and west of canada,north of ohio

Most likely,they were spending too much money building ships that were not bringing back enough in the way of goods etc.. for it to be worth continuing! About the only ones making money were the builders of those ships.Then they may have lost a lot of them to storms at sea or could be the worlds ocean routes had changed,or could be all of the above!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Could be Someonewhoknows, could be


mayhmong profile image

mayhmong 7 years ago from North Carolina

Fascinating story! Its as if Moses was found and befriended Pharo's son. And I'm sorry to hear that he didn't get buried with his testicles? LOL I'm sure he'll survived without using it with the ladies then.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah May, such a fine strapping man he was, with good strong features, how sad he lost his testicles.


LAmatadora 7 years ago

That is amazing Cindy..thanks for such an enlightening hub!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Thanks LAmatadora, check out my new hub about health and safety, am nipping straws it might land me in trouble!


LAmatadora 7 years ago

OK will do!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

If I disappear, tell everybody I love them lol


mayhmong profile image

mayhmong 7 years ago from North Carolina

You missed the big riot on Christophers hub of Mr. Know-it-all


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Ah may, I saw that Writerrider was giving him a hard time


Erick Smart 7 years ago

Thanks for the well researched hub!! I have always found stories of exploration fascinating. We are definitly coming to the terms that Columbus was not the first to be here at all. With the Vikings coming and going on the NW coast and the Chinese coming and going on the other side, Columbus was just the first to stick a flag in and want to take over.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

lol Erick, you are so right!


Dolores Monet profile image

Dolores Monet 7 years ago from East Coast, United States

The thought that Columbus was the 1st European in America is frankly hard to believe. Lief Erikson was in North America way back when. And when you hear stories of people today who row boats across the Atlantic, who knows what happened long ago. Thanks for introducing me to a real facinating character.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Dolores, and Columbus thought he'd found India, he never ever realised it was America!


William Sorenson 7 years ago from Toronto

Interesting. There's a book about this theory that is on my reading list.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Yeah William, the book is called 1421


LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London

Looking forward to your new hubs when you move!What is a "hotel school"? Like a boarding school?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

LondonGirl, nope, a hotel school is like a technical college or university course where you study hotel management and end up with a bachelor degree or diploma in hotel management. Yeah, I can't wait to do some hubs on East Africa!


LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London

Looking forward to them already!


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Have a few more Chinese ones though! Unfortunately my macbook crashed last week before I could back up my photos, so am trying to see what I can retrieve off Facebook!


CC 7 years ago

Amazing history. I watched a program on this man several years ago on History Channel. Fascinating, he did have balls though.LOL Smart too. I think the Egyptians were here even before our Viking friend. From where else did the mummies get tobacco and cocaine in their carcasses?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Possible CC, I actually think the Phoenecians were even before the Egyptians!


CC 7 years ago

You very well may be correct. Also eveidence is in that natives from Australia may have visited South America as art work is very much like theirs, way down at the tip around Patagonia. Cool stuff huh?


CC 7 years ago

I just recalled an old mystery surrounding my Cherokee ancestry too. Why did they wear turbines? When Europeans arrived they were the only natives that did that? Where did that come from?


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

No too many questions. I have a long list of questions to ask God when I'm dead.


nyliram profile image

nyliram 7 years ago

Not a question just a Hi

My friend is from Shangai, so I popped by to take a look at the Hub. As you will see my writing is very very bad. English a second language.

Its been nice seeing these Hubs come and look at mine Cindyvine.


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

I will look at yours, Nyliram


tinyteddy profile image

tinyteddy 6 years ago from INDIA

great piece

tell me more about him was he cuel because he was castrated towards his fellow beings


cindyvine profile image

cindyvine 6 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

I never heard that he was cruel, rather that he was a great and inspirational leader to his crew, but you never know. The Chinese wouldn't necessarily say if he was cruel.


David Long 5 years ago

The Han dynasty was far superior to the Roman empire of the same period of technology, wealth and military might. For a period of 30 years after WWI, America produced more than the rest of the world. China for 1500 years until the latter part of the Ming dynasty produced more than the rest of the world. The reason, China did not conquer the rest of the world, is because of their arrogance. China, meaning the central empire, did not need or want of other barbarian lands. The Chinese had vastly different mentality than the westerners.


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cindyvine 5 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

I agree with you David!


Han? Nono 5 years ago

Lots of sketchy research! No serious evidence supports the Han Dynasty going any further than E Africa! All this is based on one loons "research"


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cindyvine 5 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

I stood in the old shipyard in Nanjing and saw the size of those treasure ships!


Brent 5 years ago

Most likely the big ships were not profitable and or they were a threat to the emperor's or administration power base.


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cindyvine 5 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Brent, think you could be right, or maybe they brought back some disease!


emily 5 years ago

you should really write the date of publication cuz i wanted to use this for my project but i cant


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cindyvine 5 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

Emily, this was published in 2009.


Zhang Hoo 4 years ago

Yes, and I understand research is now being done on his trip to the moon, which was done in 1463-1464.

Several rocks brought back from the moon may be viewed in the Overseas Research Center!

We await with muck anticipation new reveals of this magnificent man!


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cindyvine 4 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine Author

cool


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Besarien 2 years ago

Really enjoyed this! Made me realize that I don't know enough about Chinese history.

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