Contributions of Mughal Empire to Indian Union: [Part-I]


Mughal Empire:

The Mughal Empire was an imperial power in South Asia that ruled over India for about three hundred years before the British captured India. It began in 1526 and lasted till the mid-19th century. They were the descendants of the Timurids. They were at the height of their power around 1700, when the Mughal controlled a territory of India extending from Bengal in the East to Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the North to the Kaveri basin in the south. The real activity of the Empire started in 1556 with the accession of Babur and ended with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707.


Since 1725, the Mughal Empire began to decline rapidly. The wars of succession were the primary cause of decline weakening the Empire and that followed by local revolts with rise of Maratha, Durrani, and Sikh empires. The growth of religious intolerance also contributed in reducing the strength of Mughal Empire. Finally British colonialism began to set up its power to occupy slowly and gradually the whole of Mughal Empire. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, British imprisoned the last Emperor, Bahadur ShahII, who was confined with the city of Delhi only. List of Mughal Emperors and their period followed by achievement:

Babur-        11526-1530,                    [Father of Mughal Dynasty],

Humayun    1530-1540, 1555-1556, [Lost his Emperor in his time period]

Akbar         1556-1605,                      [He married a Hindu Rajput princess]

Jahangir     1605-1627,                     [He first established relation with British East India            Company against Mughal Emperor]

Shah Jahan 1627-1658,                   [He built Taj Mohal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir Mausoleum, Shalimar Garden in Lahor]

Aurangzeb, 1658-1707,                  [He expanded Emperor, but lost to Nawabs]

Who were Mughals?

Who were Mughals?

A vast area of Central Asia around Farghana (present Uzbekistan) was once conquered by Genghis Khan and the land was known as Moghulistan, as the Land belongs to Mongols and subsequently the name Mughal came into being. Babur came to power at his early age but he had to leave Farghana. Later he came down to capture Kabul but again he had to give up Kabul. He was attracted to come to India as he was invited by Hindu Rajput to establish his influence in India. However in India he had to fight with many kings to establish his Empire. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi Sultanate in the first battle of Panipath in 1526. Mughals spoke the local language at the beginning but later they took up Persian literacy. Mughals became Persianized and transferred the Persian literacy and high culture to India. It was the reason why Indo-Persian culture prevailed in some pockets of the territory of India still to-day. The spectacular achievement of Mughal period was in the creation of monuments and expansion in the sphere of culture. The influence of Persian culture over Indian territory was remarkable. More over the period was characterized with brilliant literary, artistic, and architectural results.


Mughal Architecture:

The history records that all the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great builders. It is also noticeable that Indian architecture during the Mughal period was greatly influenced by Persian styles showing a uniform pattern both in structure and character. The remarkable features of architecture were visible with the construction of bulbous domes, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation.

The Mughal Emperor Akbar brought a change in the construction of splendid edifices. During his reign, the architecture showed a change of style in the features of construction. The architecture showed free use of both Hindu and Persian styles. Numerous forts, towers, palaces, mosques, mausoleums and gateways were constructed by Akbar. To-day the Humayun’s Tomb that we find in Delhi was built during his time.

[Dome of the mausoleum-Islam]
[Dome of the mausoleum-Islam]

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Comments 24 comments

Twilight Lawns profile image

Twilight Lawns 5 years ago from Norbury-sur-Mer, Surrey, England. U.K.

A really interesting hub again H P. As you know I was born in Baluchistan and left India from Maharashtra Province so was an Indian well within the confines of the great Mughal Empire’s footprint.

You must, if you haven’t already, read ‘The Dark Dancer’ by Frederic Prokosch, a fascinating semi factual story dealing with Shah Jahan and the era of the Taj Mahal. I think you would love it.

H P Roychoudhury profile image

H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Friend TL,

Thanks for stopping by and reading my article. I appreciate your comment and honor your great devotion and love for India.

sweetie1 profile image

sweetie1 5 years ago from India

Hi roychaudhry,

Yes mughals did rule india and they contributed to artitecture but not everything was good in mughal rule. Biggest was their crulity in later years on hindus and forcible conversions in time of shahjahan and aurenjeb. Also it may be debatable if shah jahan cut hands of 20,000 workers who made Taj but it did show how cruel mughals were. Even if the story may not be true yet it is so beleiveable because mughal rulers were cruel.

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H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Sweeti,

Yes, the perspective of the history displayed the cruelty of Mughals in the imposition of Taxes over Hindus, conversion of religion and the controversial facts of killing lots of workers of Taj Mohal. All are historical facts subject to proof of research. We are here for the contributions of Mughals in India. Babur would not come to India from far away place of Central Asia had the Hindu Rajput invited him to India for increasing his strength of force. Who can deny Babur's bravery of facing the local forces to defeat all? He was grown up with the tradition of Islam; he also wants others to follow Islam for heavenly abode. If we impartially look to the world history every where we could find man of power wants to impose his religion to other either by consonance or by force. Mughals have not done anything exceptional. It is only few Mughal who came here and slowly established their influence to a vast Territory of India. Is not their strength of vision and energy? They never went back leaving India rather they bestowed their service as Ruler with strict administrative discipline and efficiency although it went against Hindus to certain extent. They constructed so many monuments in tradition of Persian culture prevailing at that time. Is it not a devotion of Mughals to the people of India?

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jacobkuttyta 5 years ago from Delhi, India

Thanks for the nice hub. And Thanks to Mughal Emperors. Because of them we have many tourist spots/monuments like Taj Mahal, Kutam Minar, Jama Masjid and many other which we are proud of.

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H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi jacobkuttyta,

Thanks for reading. I appreciate your comment.

Sethareal profile image

Sethareal 5 years ago

Really enjoyed your hub, having recently visited India and seen the Mughal sites, great job!

Everyone should watch the bollywood film, "Jodha Akbar"!!

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H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Sethareal,

Thanks for visit and comment.

rafiya 5 years ago

very thanks to you and mughal empire because both helped me to complete my school project

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H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi rafiya, Thanks rafiya. Read more-learn more. God bless you.

khadija akter 5 years ago

dear uncle im a student of class 7 and i needed information on the contributions of the mughals but what u have given only says they contributed in architecture if u would put in some more it would be easier for people like me.

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H P Roychoudhury 5 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi My Dear Khadija,

I am delighted on hearing that you have read my article having being a student of class 7 only. I wish you good luck and a better future. I can only say to know more about Mugahal Rule you should read the whole Mugahal Period, a burning period of Indian history from Indian National Library, Delhi or any other Library where books are available or you can try in internet.God Bless you.

shafin 4 years ago

History is very easy to understand because of our Indian Mughal and Hubs

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H P Roychoudhury 4 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Shafin,

Thanks for comment.

jagannath kuanr 4 years ago

thans sir and also thanks to the mughal rulers for there enriched architectural intrest which add cement to the economic backbone of india and so the tourist hub

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H P Roychoudhury 4 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Jagannath Kuanr, Thanks for reading the Article and comment.

shweta 4 years ago

i m sure you are impressed with mughals but do you really justify their cruel and horrifying history...what a great history they have by demolishing loads of temples they have give us mosques and that too on our own ancient temples...aurangjeb hadn't left a single ancient temple in its original form either its jagannath puri,mathura's keshav temple...and being how cruel they were..they didn't even loved their the name of religion they are glorifying their cruelity....

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H P Roychoudhury 4 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi Shweta,

Yes, you are right to think so. But you can not make responsible the Mughal Emperors for that. If I give answer to that it would be another hub. Still then in nut shell I am giving my analysis. There are clever man (may be messenger of God) in the Universe who had created Hindus (8000 BCE), Buddhist & Janise (~400BCE), Christian (6-7 BCE), Islam (600-700 CE), Chaintna (1500 CE), and Sheiks (1600 CE) among the human beings taking the advantage of the greatest weakness of Mankind of fearing death. During the Hindu period of Mahabharata, it was an atmosphere of war centering the occupation of Hastinapur throne. The cunning King was Krishna and it was a period of killing. People were exhausted with the killing; Gautama Buddha emerged with the religion of no-killing. People accepted it widely. After or during that period Jesus came in Jerusalem. At the beginning people did not accepted Christianity of Jesus. But Roman at that time found it convenient for the Empire to spread business. Muhammad came in 570, Islam came in Arab land through Khajida. Religion Islam came into being. It was a religion of violence. The powerful Otto-Turk along with Arab country fought against Christian several times since 7th to 15th century. But Islam could not spread much towards west. But it spread toward east easily without hindrance because of no-killing situation. Religion was the means of trade and business. Babar came to India with only two hundred army and cavalry due to the request of a Hind King and finally established Mughal Emperor. The ethics of Islam was not to compromise with any other religion. The religious policy is nothing but expansion of population and territory and welfare. When the Mughals are all powerful, they are spreading Islam on good faith for the better future for all as they totally believe only Islam. They could easily demolish all the temples but they did not. Does it not prove that they are not cruel? Think of the activity of Taliban. Did they not destroy totally all the Buddha sculptures? Think of from historical point of view how the religion came into being? How does the Mankind being divided? If God is one why did different Messengers with different religion taking the advantage of the situation of time? Religion, politics and welfare run side by side and it will continue so till the religion of humanity become the religion of Mankind.

mirza 4 years ago

by readung this i proud to be a mughal

mirza 4 years ago

by reading this i proud to be a


Samraj19 4 years ago

I guess, Mughal gave the Language Hindi, Music Hindustani, Dress code and Culture also changed by their influence in 300+ years

In my opinion, Mughals influence in Indians are much more...Thanks for this nice Hub.

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H P Roychoudhury 4 years ago from Guwahati, India Author

Hi SAmraj,

Thank you for reading my article.

khushi 2 years ago

i want some questions releated to this

azra 19 months ago

really interesting

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