The ' NO GUILT' Evolution Of Integration (Civil Rights) - 1865 to 1968
The Civil War Ends, The Black Race is Free & Integration Is An Unkown Concept
In our chronological history of integration in America, we will start with 1865, the end of the Civil War and the full emancipation of the Negro people, and move forward to 1968, the year across-the board [racial] integration became a legal reality (a first in human history).
Note: I will only include those key events which affected the movement toward the ultimate creation of this societal anomaly of racial integration i.e. civil rights.
Before proceeding, however, let's stress one important point: prior 1964 all societies' (i.e. nations')) social stratification systems had ONE very discernible characteristic, which was ONE Dominate Male Group [DMG] that created the society's social stratification system. America was no different. The DMG in America from 1790 to 1964 was the white Christian male group.
NOTE: In an effort to eliminate race/color as a group description (i.e. white/black), I will most often use the accepted group designation for the black race that was in use within our time frame here (1865 to 1968), which was 'Negro'. For white people I will most often refer to them as the 'Americans' , or DMG (Dominant Male Group). Again, the purpose here is to eliminate race/color in describing U.S. history.
And one final note: Prior to 1964 (before the compulsory integration law), black males in America DID NOT “suffer discrimination” per se. What they faced was a completely normal human condition called Historical Group Recognition (HGR), or non-pejorative discrimination (discrimination not intended to belittle or disparage). In other words, throughout human history male groups created their own status environments and reserved entry into these environments for members of their own male group (males racially, linguistically and religiously similar). Blacks also practiced HGR prior to 1964.
So let’s begin first with a few facts regarding slavery in 1860. According to the US census in 1860, approximately 6 to 7% of white people owned slaves in the South. For the whole U.S. white population it was about 1.5%. As for blacks in the South, figures range from 8 to 14% of free blacks owned slaves SOURCE
* 28% of New Orleans free blacks owned slaves
* The biggest slaveholder in Louisiana was a black female named C. Richards. She owned over 152 Negro slaves (she was also a slave breeder).
* William Ellison, a negro, was a prominent slaveholder of Stateburg, South Carolina (he so admired his former master he took his name). Mr. Ellison owned 63 slaves in 1860, and was also considered a ruthless slave breeder -- selling most of the Negro slave girls (including his own illegitimate child). Mr. Ellison's son fought for the Confederacy.
In 1865 … The American Civil War officially ends May 10, 1865. The 13th Amendment, which prohibits slavery in the United states, is made law on December 16, 1865. (note: the slave trade to the United States was made unlawful in 1808)
The Freedman's Bureau Bill became law and created The Feedman's Bureau. The purpose of the Bureau is to "aid former slaves through food and housing, oversight, education, health care, and employment contracts with private landowners."
* In 1866 ... Republicans in Congress expel the Southern democrats. "Reconstruction" officially begins.
Also in 1866...
For the first time in human history ... the term "civil rights" is used ... in the creation of the 1866 Civil Rights Act. This Act is vetoed by President Johnson. However, it became law when both House and Senate passed it by a two-thirds vote.
Author's Commentary: The main purpose of the 1866 Civil Rights Act, is to recognize Negro males as citizens ... and give Negro males all rights enjoyed by American males - with a few exceptions. Rights NOT included in this Act are:
1) voting rights of any kind (federal, state or local);
2) compulsory integration rights of any kind i.e. integration rights into businesses established by American males, American residential communities, and American schools and American social functions. Negroes were to be allowed the right - and expected - to pursue life, liberty and happiness ... within the confines of the Negro male group (just as the Americans were required to do). The 1866 Civil Rights Act basically gave the Negro COMPLETE freedom in America, though, these rights were not yet incorporated into the U.S. Constitution.
Main substance of the Civil Rights Act:: "That all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens, of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall have the same right, in every State and Territory in the United States, to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, and penalties, and to none other, any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, to the contrary notwithstanding."
NOTE: According to Wikipedia, this law contains protection for African-Americans against employment discrimination. However, anyone with average reading comprehension can discern by reading the substance of the written law above, that that simply is NOT true.
In 1868 … The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. Its main purpose is to specifically define citizenship in a way that is to include the Negro male. NOTE: The definition of U.S. citizenship had hitherto been reserved - since 1790 - for a “free white person”.
Author's Commentary: The 14th Amendment is not necessarily in conflict with the DMG Theorem. It in no way suggests, implies or infers racial integration is its objective. Regarding the political environments created by the Americans... Because this amendment does contain a clause (the 2nd section) that clearly allows members of the DMG to include or exclude Males Outside the Dominant Group (i.e. specifically Negro males) within their political arenas, it must be judged as being consistent with the Theorem. Nothing in the 14th Amendment, or any other Constitutional Amendment, denied or restricted the Negro race from creating its own political environments.
The sole intent of the 14th Amendment appears to be nothing more than an instrument to allow Negro males all those rights enjoyed by American males ... except integration rights -- the main objective being to bestow upon the Negro contract rights. Remember, racial integration at this time is an unknown concept.
In 1870 … Seemingly as an effort to punish the South for their continued intransigent refusal to accept the 14th Amendment, the Republicans ratify another Negro inclusionism amendment to the American Constitution:: the 15th Amendment. This new amendment eliminates the 2nd section of the 14th Amendment as a means to deny political representation to any "male inhabitants" of a political jurisdiction for no stated reason.
* Not one member of the Negro male group is consulted [by the Americans] concerning the adoption of the 14th or 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Author's Commentary: Let us now take a look at the political arena according to the the DMG Theorem. According to the Theorem, political titles can only exist where a DMG (Dominant Male Group) exists, and if a DMG exists then the male group, to have DMG status, must have claimed a specific geographic area. The geographic area in question here is the claimed boundaries - in 1870 - of the United States government, and the DMG would be those males who share the same racial, linguistic and religious characteristics i.e. white, Christian, English speaking male group. The DMG Theorem then essentially infers that male titles within the political arena of a DMG are created by the DMG and, therefore, belong exclusively to that male group i.e. the 'group' wherein they originated. So, since the titles within the political arena belong exclusively to members of the DMG, then the 15th Amendment cannot be consistent with the Theorem.1
The 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are the only Constitutional amendments that are there by way of political blackmail (i.e. each former rebel state had to agree to both amendments before being allowed re-entry to the Union).
Also in 1870, The Naturalization Act is made law. Its purpose is to extend U.S. citizenship to include those of African descent not born in America.
In 1873 … The Slaughter-House cases is decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court held that the 14th Amendment's “Privileges and Immunities” clause affected only rights of United States citizenship and not state citizenship. The implication of this decision is that “states rights” now allows for legal codification of separation laws - a legal color line - for the Negro and the American.
In 1875 … President Grant signs a Civil Rights Act into law. Its stated purpose is to give the Negro people the following:
“full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement…”
Also in 1875... A black man, Blanche Kelso Bruce, becomes the second person of the black race to serve in the US Senate (He was the first one to serve a full term, serving from 1875 to 1881.
In 1876 ... A Negro, John W. E. Thomas, is elected to the Illinois state legislature on November 7th, and becomes the first Negro to be elected to a state legislature in the North.
In 1878 … Reconstruction officially ends, which results in the federal government removing troops from the South. However, because almost all Negroes in the South are associated with the Republican Party, and the DMG members in the South are a solid bloc of Democrats, once the federal troops do leave, the southern Negro will be left to his own devices. In other words, if the Negro is to keep the political offices the federal troops allowed him to acquire with their presence, now that the troops are gone, the Negro will likely have to fight - figuratively and literally - to keep those offices.
Author's Commentary: One can logically expect from this year forward, now that federal troops are no longer ensuring favorable election results for the Republican Party (the Negro's political party) in the South, that Americans will seek to expel the Negro from what they surely regard as their political arena. One can expect this since the DMG Theorem virtually requires it. For political systems that exists under the DMG Theorem, political rights and, concomitantly, the political titles within the DMG’s geographic area, belong exclusively to members of the DMG. As for the Negro male group, again, one must not forget the fact that they are a free people, free to to build their own towns and cities (and legally exclude Americans), or colonize a place in vast expanses of unsettled land.
1. I will cover the political status of subordinate male groups in a separate Hub.
1878 to 1900
Americans in the South Seek To Reclaim What They Regard As 'Their' Political Arenas
The following indicates the extent to which Negro males were represented in elected political offices in the South during the Reconstruction period. NOTE: Reminder: The use of 'American' and 'Negro' as group designations is intended to eliminate the use of race in describing American history.
-- South Carolina: In 1868, S. Carolina has a Negro population greater than the American population. Out of 145 legislators, 88 were Negro (61% of the total). South Carolina in 1868 also elected a Negro as Secretary of state.
-- Louisiana: Between 1868 and 1896, there were 32 Negro state senators and 95 Negro state representatives.
-- Texas: Between 1868 and 1878, out of 120 state legislators, 11 were Negro.
-- Georgia: In 1868, out of 174 state assembly seats, 29 went to Negro. Out of 44 seats in the state senate, 3 went to the Negro.
-- Louisiana, South Carolina and Mississippi had Negro state lieutenant governors.
-- Louisiana, Florida, Mississippi, and South Carolina elected a Negro for secretary of state.
-- Also during Reconstruction, all former rebel states' legislatures had Negro state representatives.
-- Between 1870 and 1901, 22 Negro males served in Congress: 20 Representatives and 2 Senators.
Author's Commentary: As everyone can plainly see, during Reconstruction and beyond, there was an extraordinary amount of participation for African-Americans in southern politics. Further, never before had two races of males (two separate and distinct male groups) been involved in the same political arena within ONE society. This was truly an amazing and remarkable period in human history. However, it need also be mentioned that the Americans in the South were forced into this political arrangement. And, again, in the North only a handful of Negro males managed to get elected to a political office during the Reconstruction period.
It is also important to take note of an anomaly now affecting the post-Civil War black population. After the Civil War ended, and with the murder of President Lincoln , the Negro race in America was facing what no male group had ever been confronted with, that being a lack of a cultural history to fall back on, to instruct themselves on how they should create a governing body best suited for their people; and, equally important, a governing body consistent with their own innate-culture.
In 1883 … The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down The Civil Rights Act of 1875.
Around this time ... the group designation of 'Negro' for the black race begins to gain in popularity...
U.S. Senator Blanche Kelso Bruce Quote: "I am a Negro, and proud of my race."
In 1891 ... There are 196 industries in the South, none of which were created by, or operated by, members of the Negro male group. Within these industries, American males employ over 7,000 Negro males, mainly as laborers. (source: Chronological History of The Negro)
In 1896 ... The U.S. Supreme Court renders a landmark decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. This case decides that the separation desire of the American toward the MODG (Males Outside the Dominant Group) is legal. And with the Negro in particular, this Court decision reaffirms the legality of the American population's desire (not just in the South but the North as well) to maintain separate living arrangements regarding the two respective racial groups - living arrangements that had always existed.
Author's Commentary: Plessy vs. Ferguson decision is consistent with the DMG Theorem.
From the end of Reconstruction to 1901, in every southern state there was unquestionably a systematic effort by Americans to eliminate and deny political offices to Negro males, which, of course, explains why only one Negro is left in Congress in 1896. However, it is also important to note that from 1878 to 1896, there is no recorded instance anywhere in America where those of African descent organized marches, created civil-disobedience, filed lawsuits or protested in any way the efforts of the Americans (in the North & South) to deny them political offices.
In 1900 ... By the end of this year, all member of Congress are now Americans - i.e. Negro males have been voted out from all federal elected offices.
Industrialization & Urbanization -- 1900 -- The Negroes founder ... while the Americans create industries, elevate their standard of living and make America into a world power.
Also in 1900 … Governor Teddy Roosevelt signed a law prohibiting segregation in New York public schools. Link
Author's Commentary: If education is truly the key to elevating the Negro standard of living, then the New York school system should, say in the next 64 years, produce significant progress in this state toward achieving economic parity between the two racial groups.
In 1908 … The U.S. Supreme Court in Berea College v. Kentucky upholds the right of individual states to prohibit inter-racial education i.e. Americans and Negroes, where they prefer, may create segregated classrooms.
In 1909... The Niagara Movement ... Between 1905 and 1909, prominent Negro men met and formed a quasi group (it never became an organization like the NAACP). Their stated concern is to address the issue of the Dominant Group (white Christian people) practicing racial separation. This Niagara group is the first in human history to ever espouse the desire of one people to seek integration rights into the established political and economic arenas of another people i.e. integration rights into another people's status environments. The group met three times (some put the number at four), however, nothing substantive came from this group regarding race-nullification on the part of white people. The 'Niagara Movement' did produce a 'Declaration of Principles.'
Author's Commentary: It is most likely true that the NAACP was indeed inspired by DuBois' Niagara Movement. Mary White Ovington was very well acquainted with W.E.B. DuBois and she certainly, one would expect, perused the Niagara Movement's Declaration of Principles.
In 1910 … The NAACP is created (it was proposed in 1909) mainly through the efforts of four Americans: Mary White Ovington, Moorefield Storey, Oswald Garrison Villard and Henry Walling. Out of eight governing Board members, only one is colored: W.E.B. Du Bois. Mr. Du Bois is given the title of Director of Publicity and Research. He is also editor of the NAACP’s magazine, Crisis.
In 1915 … The U.S. Supreme Court, in Guinn v. United States, strikes down local state ordinances that allow members of the Dominant group to exclude some Negro males from voting in federal and state elections.
In 1916 ... Republican and Democrats respective party platforms for this year continue to make no mention of the Negro race. Neither political party is intending to be mean-spirited. The intent seems to be a desire to not want to start breaking up America into racial/ ethnic groups.
In 1917 … The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Buchanan v. Warley that a Louisville, Ky. ordinance requiring residential segregation based on race violates the 14th Amendment. The Louisville law essentially allowed for the creating of Negro and White communities based on “majority” of race in the community (i.e. each racial group was prohibited from moving into the majority community of the other). The Court of Appeals of Kentucky held the ordinance valid.
Since there is no welfare or relief system for the unemployed at this time in America, the urban Negro has to find work to provide for his sustenance. However, since jobs are generally not provided to him in his Negro community (i.e. by members of his own male group), and White males are not legally compelled in any way to hire him, naturally, this situation makes the Negro ripe for exploitation.
Author's Commentary: It should be stated that at this point in time (1917), Americans likely are seeing Negro men, in the main, every bit equal to them in terms of performing a job and delivering the desired results. But the vast majority of Americans still will not allow this fact to sway their judgment overall regarding integration. Capable and qualified men could be found within the ranks of every male group that existed outside of America’s dominant group (white Christian males). So human nature (which is represented in the DMG Theorem), separates males into their respective male groups, and does this, ostensibly, because the Males Outside the Dominant Group ... lack true-status within the structure of the DMG; and if they were allowed to populate the ranks of Dominant Male Group's titles, they would undermine the structural integrity of the DMG - the society - by seeking to promote their own group's interests and or culture.
Males at this time - and throughout human history - are required to provide for themselves within the structure and confines of their own male group.
In 1918 … The U.S. government, at taxpayer expense, decides to build a town exclusively for Negroes in Truxton, Va..
Also in this year, the state of New York creates a civil rights law ... that requires all business owners to guarantee equal access to their business facilities and services within the state. The state of New York has now created two compulsory integration laws (principally to assist black males) in the economic arena within the state. Blacks seem poised for great economic advancement in the state of New York. They have access to all the educational facilities within the state, and they have access to all business and services in the state.
In 1920 ... Around this time, and aided by the end of the World War, the Industrial Revolution is in full swing. New products and inventions stream from businesses and industries everywhere in America.
During the 1920s, the Negroes, much to the chagrin of urban Americans, begin Great Migration into their urban centers … hoping to land a job. Almost all of these new urban arrivals are from the South. More than 6% of the Negroes who lived in the southern states leave for a northern urban center between 1920 and 1930.
According to the U.S. census for 1920, Negroes represented less than 10% of the U.S. population.
Between 1920 and 1930, about 10% of all Detroit auto-related occupations go to Negro males. Ford Motor Co. is the largest employer of Negro men in Detroit, employing more than 1500, which represents more than 5% of the adult Negro males in this city. (Source: Chronological History of The Negro)
From 1920 to 1930, Americans were not compelled in any way, either by federal, state or local laws, to hire Negro workers in the auto industry. Negroes were paid the same wages for the same work as Americans, though Negro job titles did not allow them to have authority over Americans.
Also during the Roaring 20s:
--Negro males did not produce any auto-related occupations for Americans.
--Negro males launch no new industry or product-line in America.
--Negro males have yet to create an urban center in America.
--Negro males have built no urban housing subdivisions In America for their people.
--There are no Negro male millionaires made during this time span (1920 to 1930) in America.
These above facts do not mean that the Negro is inferior or intellectually any less competent or capable than the European. However, what these facts do indicate is that a pronounced difference between the two racial groups has emerged: one male group is clearly of an Occupational Ranking culture, while the other is not (occupational ranking of a male group produces tangible and marketable material items i.e. "wealth", which produces a tax base, which leads to gov't services and urbanization. This fact alone - the apparent non-Occupational Ranking nature of the Negro male group - seems to be enough to keep the Negro males from accumulating wealth and achieving self-reliance as a male group.
Note: The Japanese over the previous 67 years (1853 to 1920) have already completely structurally overhauled their entire social stratification system, from agrarian-based (non-Occupational Ranking) to Occupational Ranking.
In 1930 ... According to the U.S. census, there are approximately 3.5 million adult male Negroes in America, of which less than 1% hold professional jobs (excluding teachers and ministers). (Source: Chronological History of The Negro)
Author's Commentary: With less than 1% of adult Negro men employed professionally, this fact seems to suggest that Negro males are rejecting the school system, and/or that they are failing among their own people in the creation of service oriented jobs. The creation of service oriented jobs - occupational titles - are necessary in an Occupational Ranking system … since in urban centers the vast majority of occupational tiles are service related - as opposed to production related occupations (i.e. the making of manufactured goods). So it is these types of occupational titles then which are the primary means by which resources are distributed to members of its male group within the urban areas. The fact that Negro males are not producing these occupations within their male group is ignored by the NAACP … as well as the federal government.
Negro Urbanization - America's Dilemma Continues to Grow
Note: The statistics for unemployment & Relief (Welfare) in the 1930s comes from the book Chronological History of The Negro
In 1931 ... More than 25% of urban Negroes are receiving payments from the Federal Emergency Relief Agency. Less than 10% of urban American members are receiving payments.
In 1932 … In the waning years of the Hoover administration the most thorough and comprehensive study to date was undertaken by the U.S. government regarding the dire straits of the Negro housing situation in America. In the forward of this vast and comprehensive report, its authors make it clear about Negro housing that:
“These conditions of Negro housing in our cities are not the
result of any willful inhumanity on the part of our society. On
the contrary, they merely emphasize the present shortcomings of
our individualistic theory of housing, and the failure which grows
out of expecting each person in our highly complex industrial
civilization to provide his own housing as best he may.”
Negro unemployment in Harlem reaches 50% in this year.
In 1934 ... More than 50% of Negroes in the North urban centers are receiving federal Relief payments (a non-work paycheck). In the state of Maryland, Negroes represent about 6% of the total population, however, they are more than 40% of those receiving Relief payments. The vast disproportionate representation of Negro families on Relief in the American urban areas has kindred statistics all across the country. In Kansas, almost 39% of the total Negro population is on Relief, hardest hit are the urban centers, which accounts for 80% of the Negro relief payments.
W.E.B. Du Bois is forced out of the NAACP in this year … because he has become too much of an advocate for Negro nationalism. Du Bois felt the NAACP’s across-the-board integration agenda denied to Negroes “race pride” and “race loyalty”. Also, Walter White, the blonde haired, blue eyed Negro, who was now running the NAACP, didn’t like Du Bois (the feeling was mutual); and he also didn’t like the fact the Crisis magazine was a continuous money loser.
One Negro is elected to the U.S. Congress.
Author's Commentary::: According to the DMG Theorem, political titles belong exclusively to members of the DMG (since the MODG - theoretically - not only lack-true status but would also seek to undermine the cultural heritage of the DMG in favor of their own group heritage, customs and/or traditions). So the one Negro male in Congress in 1934 ... is not consistent with the DMG Theorem.
Throughout the 1930s, neither the Republican Party nor the Democratic Party would express a desire to create compulsory integration laws, much to the dissatisfaction of the NAACP.
1935 … President Roosevelt creates the Resettlement Administration. The purpose of the Resettlement Administration is to create planned subsistence-living communities - through federal grants - for poor people, so they can produce some, hopefully most, of the food they eat. One of these planned communities is in Newport News, Virginia. The noteworthiness of this community (later named Aberdeen Gardens) is that it is going to be a community built for Negroes and by Negroes. 156 homesteads are planned for the community. (It was finished around 1939.)
In 1936 … The Republican Party Platform is highly critical of the Democratic Party’s New Deal Program for the Negro males, which they believe will rob them of a “productive life” and “make [them] solely a ward of the federal government.”
In American urban centers, comparing employed DMG members to employed Negroes, Negroes earn about 60% less in wages.
In 1937 … Negro male unemployment in the North urban centers is about 40%. For the DMG, it is less than 10%.
Toward the end of the 1930s the NAACP’s day-to-day operations have been taken over in its entirety by Negroes, though it still maintains a diverse Board of Directors. This organization also has become the recognized voice of the Negro people in America.
In 1938 … In this year around 45% of the Negro population is being provided for by the U.S. government in the form of Relief payments or the New Deal WPA projects. In 1935, approximately 35% of the Negro population was on Federal Emergency Relief.
In 1940 … For the first time In post Civil war history, the Democratic and Republican Party platforms both claim they will address discrimination against the Negro.
In 1941 … President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, which is designed to force DMG members to commit to race-nullification in all government jobs. However, since there is no gov't agency created to enforce the Executive Order, it is basically a symbolic gesture to Negroes - likely designed to lure more Negroes to vote for Roosevelt as he seeks his third term.
Author's Commentary:: Executive Order 8802 is not consistent with the DMG Theorem. However, this is not meant to imply that all occupational titles, be them government (excluding political titles) or private, must go to members of the DMG. Employment decisions should be made according to the desires of the members of the DMG ie. members who will be directly affected by the proposed integration.
As for jobs provided through government entities, as long as the Negro:
(1) would not have authority over members of the DMG;
(2) would not be allowed to affect the livelihoods of members of the DMG
… then Negroes should be employed - in government jobs - to the extent their male group contributes to the tax base.
Additionally, since the Negro males have not created any tax bases in America to this point capable of sustaining government services, Executive Order 8802 also seems designed to encourage Negroes to continue to seek integration, rather than force them toward self-sufficiency and/or self-determination. And it could only further serve to lure even more of this racial group into American-built urban centers, potentially trapping them in an economic environment which they have hitherto shown themselves collectively as a people to be culturally unsuitable to achieve self-reliance. (Again, this has everything to do with an innate-culture … and nothing to do with intelligence.)
Almost one out of two employed Negro females in the North works as a domestic servant in the household of a DMG member. Almost 25% of employed Negro males in the North work for a DMG member as a servant. (Source:: Chronological History of The Negro)
In 1946 … There are more than 1 million Negro males in the military (allowed to wear the same military uniforms throughout the war, allowed the same military rank, but not allowed to have authority over DMG members), and Executive Order 8802 is still in force.
Jackie Robinson is the first Negro of the 20th century to play professional baseball for a DMG-owned team. His employment also will very likely doom the Negro baseball league.
Author's Commentary:: It has to be considered still doubtful at this point that Negroes in general actually believe they have a “right” to integration. Legally, it is still a privilege. No lawsuit can be filed by a Negro claiming a DMG-owned company wouldn't hire him (i.e. every person in America still has the Constitutional right to hire whomever he wants). Regarding gov't jobs, there is no existing law to force the DMG to hire Negroes. If a Negro gets a job, be it government or private, it is usually because a DMG member gave it to him. A job - in the hwite community - is something members of the DMG are allowing Negroes to have; and, naturally, the Negro, having virtually no other prospects, usually takes it.
The DMG still controls all the avenues by which integration for the Negro can be achieve as a “right.” That is, the DMG members control all the legislative bodies and the judicial system.
However, Negroes also seem completely committed to integration at this point, apparently abandoning any desire as a people to be masters of their own destiny.
In 1948 … In The Supreme Court case of Shelley v. Kraemer, the Court was asked to decide on the legality of racially-based restrictive covenants in real estate deeds. The Supreme Court ruled that they (racially based covenants) were not illegal per se when put into real estate deeds. However, they were not enforceable by the courts.
1954 … Brown v. Board of Education is decided. This Supreme Court decision, unanimously decided, mandates that the DMG must integrate their schools … essentially where and when Negroes decide they want integration.
Brown v. Board of Education reverses the 1896 Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
Author's Commentary:: The Brown v. Board of Education decision is not related to the DMG Theorem
1955 … Negroes of Montgomery, Alabama, decide that they are going to boycott the city buses over the seating requirements for DMG members and Negroes (Negroes are forced to always sit in the back). This boycott originates because of the arrest of Rosa Parks.
1956 … 40% of Negroes vote to re-elect Eisenhower (a Republican).
1957 … Martin Luther King Jr. creates a new organization called the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). King’s main source of income for his new organization will be the Negro church-goers - the same source as the NAACP.
1959... Katzenbach v. Morgan - Supreme Court decision regarding a literacy test to qualify.or disqualify a person to vote in federal or state elections. The Supreme Court stated that literacy test are "not necessarily violations of Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment nor of the Fifteenth Amendment. Lassiter v. Northampton County Board of Elections."
1961... Executive Order 10925 is signed by President Kennedy on March 6th. Its purpose is to require government contractors to "take affirmative action" to ensure that applicants are employed without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. Specifically, this Order is to increase employment for Negro male among American businesses that do do business with the federal government. NOTE: Since there is no recognized enforcement arm accompanying this Executive Order, it's likely it produced no significant integration (Negro males being hired) within US firms doing business with federal gov't.
1963 … In 1961 President Kennedy selected his Vice President (Lyndon Johnson) to head the newly created President's Committee on Equal Opportunity. In a speech at Wayne State University in Detroit, January 1963, Vice President Johnson proclaimed:
“To strike the chains of a slave is noble. To leave him the captive of the color of his skin is hypocrisy.”
In a speech in Cleveland, also in January of 1963, President Johnson said:
“One hundred years ago, the slave was freed. One hundred years later, the Negro remains in bondage to the color of his skin. Until justice is blind to color, until education is unaware of race, until opportunity is unaware of the color of men’s skins, emancipation will be a proclamation but not a fact.”
Author's Commentary:: For the first time in American history a member of the Executive branch of gov't demagogues in a deliberate effort to pit one "group" against another. Blacks were NOT captives of their skin color; they were not being treated unfairly in the justice system; no one was preventing blacks from learning anything white people were learning; opportunities was not the responsibilities of white people to give to blacks; and blacks after 1865 were a FREE people -- emancipation was A FACT in America.
Also in 1963... On August 28, Martin L. King gives his ‘I Have a Dream’ speech before an estimated crowd of 250,000, while standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C..
* 1964 ...* President Lyndon Johnson, on July, 2, 1964, signs into law the Civil Rights Act. The purpose of this Act is to force White males to commit to race-nullification ... and integrate their status environments - their occupational titles. No male group in human history had ever been forced to submit to such a thing. Female's right to integrate (i.e. get access to white male occupational titles) is also guaranteed in this new law. Requiring males to commit to gender-nullification ... is also a first in human history.
THE DEBARKATION LINE::: The Political System Of The Founding Fathers Ends! Compulsory Inclusionism Begins
MARCH: The Moynihan Report is published.
AUGUST: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is signed by President Johnson on August 6, 1965.
Also in August, the country watches the Watts Riots on Television.
SEPTEMBER: President Johnson signs Executive Order 11246.The term 'equal employment opportunity’ originates with this order.
The new “affirmative action” order is directed at businesses that do business with the federal government and do more than $10,000 in business in one year.
APRIL:: Martin L. King is assassinated
Also in April, President Johnson signs into law the Fair Housing Act.This is the final piece to the Democratic Party's Compulsory Inclusionism system i.e The Civil Rights Act of 1964; The Voting Rights Act 1965; The Fair Housing Act 1968.
Across-the-board integration for the black race into ALL the political and economic arenas, as well as the residential communities, of the white race, is now complete. Additionally, there was NO QUID PRO QUO required in any of the three inclusionsim laws for the black race.
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