The Nazification of Israel

"Above all things let us never forget that mankind constitutes one great brotherhood; all born to encounter suffering and sorrow, and therefore bound to sympathize with each other." - Albert Pike

The Merchant of Venice

My relationship with Israel started sometime in the late 60s: 1968 or 1969. It happened unexpectedly.

We were reading the Merchant of Venice at school. In case you don’t know it, the Merchant of Venice is a deeply racist play. It is considered a “comedy” because it has a happy ending: happy that is, for everyone but the villain. The villain is Shylock, a Jew. The play exposes Shylock’s greed, his resentment, his inhumanity, his viciousness, his barbarity, but in the end right is restored, the good Christians get their just rewards and Shylock exits the stage utterly defeated, utterly destroyed, utterly alone. Even his own daughter turns against him.

Nevertheless, despite the racist overtones, it is a measure of Shakespeare’s greatness that he cannot help but give the most moving lines to his villain.

Here they are:

Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us do we not bleed? If you tickle us do we not laugh? If you poison us do we not die? And if you wrong us shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? Revenge. If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Why, revenge. The villainy you teach me I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction.

Act 3, scene 1, The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare.

The words are a call to recognise someone’s essential humanity, to see through their tribal alliances, and to identify with them, even in the midst of their crimes. Change the word "Jew" for "Palestinian" and the word "Christian" for "Israeli" and you have a good summation of what is happening in Israel and Palestine right now.

The words could be said by a member of Hamas. They could be said by an Israeli too.

Holocaust

After reading the play the subject of anti-Semitism came up.

Our teacher, Mr Frost, talked about the situation in Israel.

This was barely a year or two after the Six Day War.

He said that he understood why Palestinians would be upset at the loss of their homeland. He asked what our response would be here in the UK if another people had annexed Wales? He also talked of the holocaust and of the Jewish people’s need for a safe haven. He weighed one position against the other and gave no definitive answers. I remember Mr Frost as a good, a fair, a diligent and an inspiring teacher.

I’m not sure now if he was referring to Israeli claims to the whole territory of Israel going back to 1948, or whether he was referring to the recent occupation of the Gaza strip and the West Bank, still fresh in everyone’s memory. I also can’t remember how the discussion in the classroom went. I was usually quite vociferous in debates, and would certainly have played an active part.

Later that day I repeated some of the discussion in front of my Dad.

Dads and sons are often rivals. It is one of the laws of nature.

So I recounted the discussion in the classroom and the next thing I knew I was in a blazing row with my Dad; a violent row, in which I ended up with a black eye and a split lip.

Now I have to admit my part in all of this.

I was an annoying little know-it-all. I was 16 years old and full up of my own opinions, which, on reflection, I realise to have been other people’s opinions dressed up as my own. I was an argumentative little sod, and probably quite boring.

Nevertheless it was odd – not to say disturbing – to find myself at the receiving end of such a violent onslaught.

I’ve seen a number of times since that my usually passive father has some turbulent hidden emotions.

He grows very angry, very red-in-the-face, when challenged about any of his fixed ideas.

But the quality of the anger on this day was of a different order altogether. It was like I had touched something raw and hidden in his psyche: like I had accidentally ripped off a scab which had unleashed some secret pain.

Mr Frost was my favourite teacher and I was trying to repeat his position. My Dad called him all sorts of names that I barely recognised.

I think he called him a communist. He threw a variety of supposed facts at me which I was unable to deny. When I tried to explain that Mr Frost had given us both sides of the story, he became even more enraged. I think it might have been at this point that he lashed out and hit me across the face.

That was the day I learned that my father was Jewish. My mum explained it to me afterwards.

Actually he is half-Jewish and half Christian. He attended synagogue on a Saturday and church on a Sunday. It was a secret which, at my mum’s request, he had kept hidden from us all those years.

My mum didn’t like religion and she didn’t like politics, and talk of either was banned from the house: this despite the fact that religion and politics were fundamental to an understanding of my dad. Thus he suppressed something that was deeply meaningful to him, which then re-emerged in this unexpected and violent way when he felt he was being challenged by his mouthy son about something that was dear to his heart.

So you might say that my relationship with Israel is tied up with my relationship with my father.

Gaza 2014
Gaza 2014

Horror

These last few weeks have been terrible. Horrific.

Ever since the story of the killing of the Israeli settler kids in June, it has been a relentless cascade of increasingly bad news coming out of Israel and the occupied territories.

The bad news has mainly been for the Palestinians. At the time of writing the death toll in Gaza is in excess of 1,800, 300 of those children. By the time you read this it will no doubt be worse. 9,000 have been injured, with a large part of the population being driven from their homes. 10,000 houses have been destroyed. It has been a tale of devastation and murder, of the destruction of a people and a way of life; of houses, factories, mosques, schools, power plants, offices turned to rubble; of an endless succession of images, of traumatised children, of traumatised parents, of blood-spattered faces, of blood soaked clothing, of people’s features contorted with grief and with horror, of piles of corpses , eerily frozen, like discarded shop-window dummies. And these are only the images we are allowed to see. Behind these, we know, there are even worse images, which we make a point of not trying to find: of torn flesh and torn limbs, of people with their insides hanging out, or their faces blown off, of rotting corpses and mangled torsos, and worse.

How can we face such horror and live?

I’ve been obsessing about it. I can’t stop thinking about it. I’ve been unable to work or to do almost anything else. I get up in the morning and I go on facebook and I read all of the latest reports. I read every one, one after the other. Those that I find relevant, I share. Some of the ones from the Israeli side I read and rage at. You can tell the Israeli ones at a glance. They usually blame Hamas, attempting to dehumanise them by accusing them of using their neighbours as human shields: as if the Palestinian people would put up with that.

The stories that are coming out of Israel are, if anything, more horrific than the ones coming out of Gaza. In Gaza we only have the bloodshed to contend with. In Israel we have the cold-blooded justification for it, the racism, the vile chants, the horrible spectre of a new Nazism on the rise.

An Israeli shell in Gaza.
An Israeli shell in Gaza.

"The Israeli desire to live in peace is a desire to maintain its supremacy – a Jewish state founded on the basis of expelling its previous inhabitants – unchallenged by Palestinian violence. It is a desire for Palestinians simply to accept an eternity as stateless refugees, as an occupied people or as non-Jews in a Jewish state that sees their very existence as a 'demographic threat'. To paraphrase Netanyahu, what other people but the Palestinians would be expected to endure that?"

http://stopwar.org.uk/news/if-the-bbc-s-neutrality...

Nazi state

You are not supposed to say that. You are not supposed to compare Israel to the Nazis. That is considered inflammatory and anti-Semitic. And it’s true that the Palestinians are not being led off to the death camps yet. They are, however, being bombed in their homes, bombed in the streets, bombed in the market places, and in the work places, bombed, even, when taking shelter in schools and hospitals under the protection of the United Nations or Medecin sans Frontiere.

Gaza is like the Warsaw ghetto. It is a prison camp. There is nowhere to run. Anyone who dares call this a “war” is either self-deluded or a fanatic. A war is between two armies of at least comparable power. There is only one army in Gaza: the Israeli army. All the rest are victims, whether those victims are defenceless victims without weapons, or desperate victims attempting to fight with the most rudimentary of weapons: home made rockets, booby-trapped tunnels and suicide vests.

You cannot compare Israel’s massive, 21st century army – one of the most advanced armies in the world – with its high-tech weaponry, its powerful ordnance, its laser guided missiles, its command and control structures, its drones and its satellites, with the crude, inaccurate, glorified fireworks which constitute almost the entire strength of the other side.

People talk of Israel’s right to defend itself. What about the Palestinians right to defend themselves? And if Hamas’s use of indiscriminate rocket fire constitutes a war crime, given that those rockets are incapable of guidance, then how much more of a war crime is it to use such massively powerful weaponry as the Israelis have at their disposal, weapons designed for use in the battlefield, in what is effectively a residential space?

The spectre of a 21st century nation, supposedly a democracy, using extreme violence on a captive population, killing women, children and old people as well as young men and Hamas fighters, is horrifying to watch; but the spectre of a nation apparently cheering the slaughter on, sitting on the hillsides overlooking Gaza on deckchairs and settees dragged there for the occasion, drinking wine and cheering as the bombs explode like fireworks in the population centres below (these are the people supposedly most in fear of those deadly Hamas rockets), or running riot through the streets of Tel Aviv shouting “Death to Arabs” and “Death to Leftists” (the “leftists” being the minority of people willing to come out in opposition to the war) or chanting, football style, “There’s no school in Gaza, there are no more kids left!”: all of this cannot help but remind us of Germany in the 30s, when the same violence towards a minority, the same bullying, the same isolationism, the same collective brutality, gripped a nation, egged on by the racist fearmongering of the Nazi elite.

So, yes, I will say it. Israel is becoming like a Nazi state.

As to how it got there: that’s another question.

Answer to a supporter of Israel

The ongoing brutality of the occupation is a daily, weekly, monthly, yearly thing. On and on and on, day in, day out. Gaza is a walled ghetto. The Gazans do not control their borders, their coast, their airspace, their imports or exports. The Israelis only allow a limited amount in, even down to the amount of calories they allow to keep the population alive but barely functioning. In the West Bank Palestinians are subject to arbitrary arrest and detention.

The laws that rule Palestinians, whether as Israeli citizens, or as people under occupation, are discriminatory and racist. Before the three Israeli teenagers were abducted and shot, two Palestinian teenagers had been killed by Israeli forces. This was in May. You can read about that here. They were no threat.

It is almost certain that the three Israelis were killed in retaliation, but we only have Israel's word for it that Hamas were the culprits. The Israelis knew that the boys were dead but pretended to the world that they could still be alive and used their supposed capture as a pretext to attack Hamas. That was the start of it. This happened before Hamas started firing rockets. The Israelis do this all the time. I detailed all of that from 2009 in my hub which I would ask you to read. It is all verifiable. They provoke, murder, attack, break the cease fire, then, when Hamas fires rockets say, "see we have the right to defend ourselves."

Are Hamas right to fire rockets indiscriminately? No. It is a war crime. But it pales into insignificance compared to the degree of mayhem and violence that the Israelis are capable of with their high tech weaponry. You only have to look at a photograph of the kind of damage an Israeli missile does compared to a Hamas one.

Now I'm not defending Hamas here. You're right. It is stupid to provoke the Israelis. But one side is weak and the other side is strong, militarily speaking, and just because you have bigger weapons that doesn't mean it is right for you to use them. I think you don't know just how inherently racist the Israelis are becoming - not Jews as a whole, just large segments of Israeli society. Many Jews throughout the world are just as appalled as I am at the criminal behaviour of the Zionist state and wish it would end. Many Jews, like Jews For Justice for Palestinians, are anti-Zionist too.

It seems to me that you blame the victims in this conflict. It's like an abusive relationship. The abuser beats up his partner and then blames her for it. "It's your fault, you made me do it." That's what the Israelis are doing and it needs to be stopped, right now. The Palestinians can't stop it. They have no power. It is up to the Israelis to stop it, and it's up to people like you and me to look at the situation and to see where the real fault lies: with the abuser, not the abused.

Now take a look at some pictures of dead Palestinian children. There are plenty of them all over the internet right now. If that was your child, wouldn't you go a little crazy? Wouldn't you want revenge? Wouldn't you want to lob a missile to kill the perpetrators of that heinous crime against your family and against humanity? 1500 dead Palestinian children since 2000 (448 more since the current conflict began). How many crazy fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, friends, grandparents does that make?

And you wonder why they lob their stupid rockets over, even though it does them no good.

Racism

Something very strange is going on in the Israeli psyche. It is a nation extreme in its defensiveness. Read Israeli propaganda, and it’s mainly about this small, plucky little state surrounded by enemies, defending itself against massed Arab aggression: this despite the fact that there hasn’t been a major war which Israel hasn't started for over 40 years.

To quote Benjamin Netanyahu: “The truth is that if Israel were to put down its arms there would be no more Israel. If the Arabs were to put down their arms there would be no more war.”

He said this with reference to Hezbollah, after Israel had invaded Lebanon, and Hezbollah had defended itself.

It is this same rhetoric which is being applied to Hamas, as if this little tin-pot organisation represents the concerted aggression of the whole Arab world.

Take a look at the timeline of recent events on any mainstream media site, and it will start with the deaths of three Israeli teenagers in the West Bank on June 12th.

The murder of two Palestinian boys by Israeli sniper fire a month before is conveniently ignored. That is so routine it doesn’t even count as news. The deaths were caught on camera. The Israeli’s response to this? They got rid of the camera.

After the last upsurge in violence in 2012, I took note of Israeli breaches of the ceasefire. They began within days of the signing of the peace agreement.

But even assuming that the first move was the kidnapping of the Israeli teenagers, one thing is conveniently forgotten in this narrative: the teenagers were the children of settlers in the West Bank, that is they were there illegally under international law. The viability of a future Palestinian state is being mugged on a daily basis by the non stop building of Israeli settlements in Palestinian territory. This is not to speak of the brutal siege of Gaza, now in its seventh year, the checkpoints, the separation wall, the regular incursions by the Israeli military, the bulldozing of homes, the control of water supplies, the destruction of farmland, the separation of families, the daily humiliation of life under occupation.

Rogue

Add to this the fact that the Israeli government lied, concealing the teenager’s deaths from the media, blaming Hamas when it was actually a rogue cell, and using it as an excuse to rampage through the West Bank arresting Hamas supporters, dismantling its infrastructure and killing 6 people in the process, and you can perhaps begin to see that the Israeli narrative is a convenient fiction, and that something else is going on behind the rhetoric.

The whole episode was used to stoke up Israeli racism, falsely claiming the teenagers were alive when it was known they were already dead in order to ramp up the emotion, thus setting the scene for the violence that has followed.

Where we can blame Hamas, perhaps, is in stepping into this narrative and playing its inevitable part by firing those rockets; just as the Israeli government hoped they would.

So what’s the point of this story? I know that in writing it I won’t have changed any minds. In the first few weeks of the crisis I attempted to engage a pro-Israeli supporter in debate. You can read the whole of that correspondence in the comments on the link, to the right.

As you will see, I was wasting my time. No matter how much evidence I piled up to support my side, the response was just a noisy and irrational “no!”

No evidence was needed to counteract my argument. It was enough to simply insult my sources as irrelevant and to assert the opposite case without reference to any actual data.

So maybe this is just a continuation of that argument I had with my dad all those years ago.

Maybe there’s nothing rational in it at all.

I touched something raw in him that day and he lashed out. I know from talking to him since that to him the State of Israel is a bastion against the cruelty which had been inflicted upon the Jewish people by the holocaust.

I continue to disagree with him. Israel has become the very thing it set out to defend against. My view is that the only proper way to remember the holocaust is by ensuring that it never happens again: not to any people, of any race or religion.

© 2014 CJStone

More by this Author


Comments 21 comments

2 years ago

this is a very honest and thoughtfully written piece Do I say that because

it reflects my feelings and views, maybe. What I do know is that israel will never stop its land grab and the americans condone it as do most european countries. this is a david and goliath struggle only this time david is a palestinian but not able to fight the might of goliath

THIS IS NOT A "CRISIS" IT IS A WAR


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Thanks for your comment. I was actually expecting a flood of insults, but so far they don't seem to have arrived. You are so right about the Goliath imagery. I remember watching the first intifada on TV. Look at that I thought, little kids throwing stones at heavily armed troops. There's something about the region that brings the archetype out in people, but in unexpected ways.


Shimona from the Palace 2 years ago

"They usually blame Hamas, attempting to dehumanise them by accusing them of using their neighbours as human shields: as if the Palestinian people would put up with that."

But the Palestinians, including Hamas, have ADMITTED that this is precisely what they do:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuNQvPh8XKA

In fact, they see it as a source of pride.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBcLpBL9MS4

"They are, however, being bombed in their homes, bombed in the streets, bombed in the market places, and in the work places, bombed, even, when taking shelter in schools and hospitals under the protection of the United Nations or Medecin sans Frontiere."

And what have you to say to the evidence of foreign journalists, who saw with their own eyes how Hamas and Islamic Jihad terrorists set up rocket launchers in civilian areas, schools, hospitals and even UN buildings?

See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nu-e5qWXx-k

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NMiG9JD2OxM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_fP6mlNSK8


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Thanks for your comments. I think an exchange of views is always worthwhile.

On the links you've given me: the first actually shows that Hamas DON'T use people as human shields. It's clear that those people are going there voluntarily. How else do you expect a largely unarmed people to protect their homes and their property, but by putting their bodies in the way of the bombs? It is the people who unleash the bombs at civilians who are to blame for their callous disregard for human life.

Israel DOES, however, use Palestinians, including children, as human shields, as this report makes clear: http://www.alternet.org/story/141078/amnesty%3A_is...

On the other reports, well it is certainly true that Hamas sets up rocket launchers in civilian areas. What do expect them to do? Hamas are part of the structure of civilian life in Gaza, which is a densely populated area: one of the most densely populated areas on the planet. There are hardly any parts of Gaza where there aren't people. Would you like them to step onto open ground with targets on their chests and say, "here we are, kill us"?

The problem is the illegal occupation and siege of Gaza. An occupying power does not have the right of self-defence. In fact it is incumbent upon the occupiers to protect the lives of those living under occupation. This is not a war between two equal sides. It is a brutal attack by one side against a mostly unarmed population, interspersed with some pockets of resistance. We might agree that Hamas's pathetic rockets constitute a war crime, but the crimes of the Israelis are of an order of magnitude completely beyond that.

Who is pulling the trigger? Hamas aren't responsible for the murder of so many Palestinian civilians, Israel is. To suggest anything else is to blame the victims for their own suffering.


SerfLifeSaver 2 years ago

Thank you for expressing what a lot of people are feeling.

This seems to sum up Israel, Seige mentality .. http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_mentality

I find it disturbing that any questioning of Israel's actions is considered Anti Semitic.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

The charge of anti-Semitism against anyone objecting to Israeli war crimes is a useful cover, that's all. The Palestinians, too, are a Semitic people. On that basis you could say that Israel is the greatest anti-Semitic state of them all.

Thanks for your comment.


steve omara 2 years ago

Here is something you might include in a new book, that is, if you exhibit disinterestedness in the Israel conflict. the pc link....TALI HATUEL. says it all. are Hamas are demonised unfairly ?. PS. I am Whitstable too, so if you would like to discuss over T or Whisky let me know. I have deep interest in the Middle East, books galore on all subjects , Dickens first editions.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

You point to one murder in 2004. I can point to nearly 2,000 murders in the last month.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Two wrongs don't make a right. 2,000 wrongs should make us rethink our position altogether.


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

I can see both sides of the war, but and I say with a big BUT...when does stealing land give anyone the right to defend it? Stealing is stealing and lying is lying and material possessions is what the lord of the land told them not to have...yet........ Palestine owned it first so they should have the right to it without any bloodshed.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Hello Lady Guinevere, it's been a long time since we've corresponded. All of my old contacts on HubPages seem to have disappeared.

In my view, everything about this war and the kind of rhetoric used to justify it is an inversion of the truth.

For instance, on the subject of who was there first. In fact Judaism is a religion, and you can convert. Thus anyone from anywhere in the world, as long as they're willing to go through the admittedly painful process of becoming a Jew can make claims on the land of Israel under it's right of return policy, based upon some words in an old book of mythology without any legal status whatsoever, but the indigenous population, almost certainly more genetically related to the historical Children of Israel than most modern day Jews, and in some cases still holding the keys and the deeds to the houses where they used to live, have no right of return. This is just one of the many crazy realities of Israel today.

It certainly is theft.


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

Chris, I left and then came back and most of the friends I had here are also gone. There are a few still around but it is hard to communicate with others when the notifications are so low, especially the last couple of days. I am glad that you are here.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Yes I'm glad you're here to. It feels like having an ally. It's not so much fun as it used to be is it?


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

You are right in that it is not so much fun anymore. I never really was interested in going into the forums to begin with and I think, by others accounts, hat it is just boring there.


Ericdierker profile image

Ericdierker 2 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

This tips your hand both against your father and against me. " based upon some words in an old book of mythology without any legal status whatsoever,"

What you fail to deal with is the vow of people holding this belief wanting to annihilate those who believe in that old book. Hamas holds that position and that is justification. On both sides. And for Christians and Jews alike.


Lady Guinevere profile image

Lady Guinevere 2 years ago from West Virginia

Ericdierker Hi Eric, nice to see you here as well. The vow of those people is to have peace and to go by the laws set down before them. Neither can or will or has ever kept those laws if they steal, no matter what. I am talking about the Ten Commandments. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not Covet. Thou shalt not bear false witness. Thous shalt not kill. Jesus did say that if you did one of these then you do against all of these. If the main faction, the Jews, cannot uphold their own vows, how in the world are they supposed to expect others to do that same. That book talks of love your neighbor and do unto others as you do to yourself....well they certainly are not doing the first and they certainly are getting what they are giving right back.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Eric, you keep talking about Hamas, as if Hamas represents the whole of the Palestinian people. Even if, as you say, Hamas wants to annihilate all the people who believe in the old book - and so far you've shown me very little evidence that they do - does this justify the cold blooded murder of men, women and children who have nothing to do with Hamas? And don't cite the Hamas charter. I've already shown you that they've have made clear and unequivocal statements that they are willing to compromise on this.

The difference between Hamas and the Israeli government is that Hamas kept to the ceasefire the last time, and the Israeli government didn't.

Jews, Christians and Muslims lived in peace for centuries throughout the middle east until the creation of the State of Israel. Explain that.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Just in case you deny this statement Eric: "The difference between Hamas and the Israeli government is that Hamas kept to the ceasefire the last time, and the Israeli government didn't", here's another piece (about the tenth I've passed on to you) that shows what the actual timeline is and how it was Israel who started this war: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n16/nathan-thrall/hamass-...


JamaGenee profile image

JamaGenee 2 years ago from Central Oklahoma

In response to Lady G's comment above, I believe you and Chris and I have become the Old Fogies of Hubdom. So many of the hubbers that used to make it a barrel of laughs to come to HP every day are gone. I, too, stopped coming around for that reason, but am now trying to make like a grownup and explore the writings of newer hubbers.

As for the mess in Gaza, I was a teenager of the Sixties before I became aware that the state of Israel had been carved out of Palestine, and even then thought it was a situation that was never going to work out well for either side. Israelis were never going to be content with only part of the territory they believed to be theirs since antiquity, and Palestinians were never going to be content having to share any part of *their* territory with the Israelis.

My heart goes out to the people of Gaza who are being bombed into oblivion, but Israel needs to be reminded that, yes, it IS doing to the people of Gaza exactly what the Nazis did to the Jews of Europe. Sadly, however, Israel's institutional memory is now several generations removed from the horrors of the Holocaust, and such a comparison falls on deaf ears.


CJStone profile image

CJStone 2 years ago from Whitstable, UK Author

Thanks for your comment JameGenee. It's great to hear from you again after all this time.

I think what makes it worse for me is not only that Israel's memory is several generations removed from the Holocaust, but that its spokespeople see it as a fit subject for their propaganda by accusing anyone critical of Israel's actions of being anti-Semitic. That is the real horror.


JamaGenee profile image

JamaGenee 2 years ago from Central Oklahoma

Exactly.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working