HERITAGE - 22: *WELL MET BY MOONLIGHT - 'Layforce' In Rearguard Action On Crete; And Metamorphosis In North Africa
Back from Crete, having taken a hiding in retreat - next job, gearing up to take on Rommel
Withdrawal from Greece - and then Crete
The Germans invaded Greece over the mainland from Yugoslavia on 6th April, 1941, to help their struggling Italian allies, who had become bogged down in Albania and Greece against determined resistance. Their generals, and Hitler particularly, were concerned that an Allied army in the Balkans might prejudice their Russian campaign in a flanking manoeuvre. 'Operation Barbarossa' was scheduled to be launched in April or May, 1941 but owing to the Balkan situation was put back to June.
Weeks later, on 28th April the last Allied troops evacuated the mainland of Greece Meanwhile the Germans had begun their airborne assault on Crete (20th April, as you saw in part 1). The island fell to the Germans on June 1st, although even a week earlier it had been hoped the Allies could hold on to the island.
This was when it was decided to deploy the 'Layforce' Commandos to disrupt German.communications, to either repel the invasion - or at worst enable evacuation. On 25th May - mainly 'A' and 'D' Battalions with a detachment from 'C; Battalion [No.11 - Scottish - Commando] was sent to reinforce the garrison on Cyprus lest the Germans turn their attention there - left Alexandria and made to land on Crete. They were turned back by foul weather and returned to Alexandria where they re-embarked on HMS 'Abdiel' to try landing on the island.
During the night of 26th/27th May they did successfully land in Suda Bay on the south coast. Almost as soon as they landed they were assigned to cover the retreat over the mountains towards Sphakia and the south. Upon landing there they were told to leave their heavy equipment, including radios and transport. Thus 'denuded' they were unsuited to the task as they lacked indirect fire support weaponry such as mortars and were armed largely only with rifles and a few Bren guns.
By dawn on 27th May they took up a defensive position along the main road that led inland from Sphakia. After that until 31st May they carried out several rearguard actions to enable the main body of soldiers to be evacuated by the Navy. All this time they came under air attack.
On 28th May the defenders began to disengage from the enemy and withdrew along the pass through the Central Massif that separated them from Sphakia. Defending the pass were the commandos along with two Australian infantry battalions - 2/7th and 2/8th - and the 5th New Zealand Brigade. In the first two nights of the evacuation around 8,000 men were taken off. On the third night, 30th May, with cover from the Australians and Commandos the New Zealanders were taken off.
Fighting was heaviest for the Commandos on that first day.
From the German parachute drops on 20th May, the ferocious fighting and stubborn resistance put up by Commonwealth and British troops - despite equipment shortages - to final evacuation by 31st May held up the German advance. It was no cakewalk for them. This was Gen. Kurt Student's time to show his mettle, yet his men took heavy casualties during the first days at Maleme. The 'Fallschirmjaeger' never undertook a parachute landing on this scale again, and had to act as infantry thenceforth. One of their last collective actions was in the ruins of the abbey at Monte Cassino in May, 1944. Student was near Arnhem three months later when the Parachute Brigade were sent in to hold 'a bridge too far'.
In command of 'Layforce':
Major General Sir Robert Laycock served in the Crete campaign as a Lieutenant Colonel with the Commandos. His command was specifically: 'combined operations, special service brigade known as 'Layforce'.
A little background. Robert Laycock was the son of Brigadier General Sir Joseph Laycock, KCMG, DSO, TD, a British soldier and Olympic sailor. So you can imagine Laycock Junior was expected to follow in his father's footsteps and to excel, if not outdo his father's performance as a military leader.
'Layforce', an ad-hoc military formation of the British Army consisted of several Commando units during WWII. Formed in February, 1941 under the then Colonel Robert Laycock, it numbered around 7,000 men and served in the Middle East. Given the task originally of raiding to disrupt Axis communications in the Eastern Mediterranean, they were first assigned to take Rhodes. As the situation went against the British, Commonwealth and Empire allies the Commandos were diverted to reinforce regular troops throughout the Mediterranean. Later personnel went back to previous or earlier postings, or went on to other special forces units. Some of the force saw action in Bardia, on Crete, in Syria and at Tobruk before disbandment in August, 1941.
*"Well Met By Moonlight" (below), obviously Shakespeare's title paraphrased as the title of this 1950s black & white film titled "Ill Met By Moomlight" starring Dirk Bogarde as a British commando officer and Marius Goring as the German commanding officer on Crete, skulduggery and mayhem in the Aegean. Worth a ninety minute watch!.
Ill Met By Moonlight
At the height of the German attack on the pass 'G' Troop from 'A' Battalion (No.7 Commando) under Lieutentant F Nicholls engaged the Germans in a bayonet attack. A force of Germans had taken position on a hill to the Commandos' left, from where they started to strafe the position from end to end.
The Germans attacked twice, and were turned back both times by a stubborn defence. On the same day elsewhere Laycock's Headquarters was ambushed. In the confusion he and his brigade major Freddie Graham commandeered a tank, in which they somehow regained the main body of their unit.
By 31st May the evacuation drew to a close. The Commandos began to run low on ammunition, rations and water and fell back on Sphakia. Laycock and some of his officers, including Intelligence officer Evelyn Waugh were able to take the last ship. Most of the Commandos were left behind on the island. Although some made their way back to Egypt by the end of the operation, around 600 of the 800 sent to Crete were listed as killed, missing or wounded.
Because of Luftwaffe bombings of the destroyer force sent from Alexandria to effect the evacuation, the decision was taken by Mediterranean naval command in the closing hours to only take combatants off the island from those who thronged the foreshore. However, of 'Layforce' only twenty-three officers and 156 other ranks were able to get away from Crete.
British Special Forces in WWII
Get into the thick of the story, cheating death and creating mayhem behind enemy lines (like the Scarlet Pimpernel, they seek them here...). Churchill was no hide-bound staff officer. He had been in the Boer War both as a young officer and journalist and knew the advantage of striking behind lines. These lads did him proud!
What made the missions difficult and downright dangerous was Hitler's paranoia about special forces. His security establishment, the SS, SD and Gestapo (who trampled on each others' toes to please or impress the 'Fuehrer') were instructed to treat those taken captive in the same way as they did partisans or resistance fighters. The missions were vital, nevertheless. They had to be carried out regardless, for the war effort. This is the real story behind 'Ill Met By Moonlight'.
Disbandment and Metamorphosis
By late summer 1941 the operations 'Layforce' had undertaken had sapped its strength. Reinforcement by then was unlikely. Operational difficulties shown during the raid on Bardia, along with changing objectives in the Middle East situation and High Command's lack of foresight with regards commando activities contributed to reduce the force's effectiveness. Therefore the decision was taken to stand 'Layforce' down. Many men went back to their previous regiments, whilst others opted to stay in North Africa, later joining other special units raised subsequently.
Laycock went to London to talk to the War Office about the treatment of his unit. On hearing of the disbandment Churchill ordered the formation pf Middle East Commando (MEC), made up of those still in the region. When Laycock arrived back from London he saw that although MEC had been set up, far fewer men were there for him to lead than he had commanded earlier in the year.
What there was would be formed into six Troops. Nos 1 and 2 Troops were made of 'L' Detachment based at Geneifa under Captain David Stirling.whilst sixty men from the disbanded No.11 (Scottish) Commando made up No.3 Troop. Nos 4 and 5 Troops were formed from No.51 Commando and the Special Boat Section (SBS) made up No.6 Troop under Roger Courtney. The designations were nevertheless largely ignored as the men still saw themselves in their old roles.
As part of 'Operation Crusader' in November and offensive to relieve the garrison besieged at Tobruk involved no.3 Troop in 'Operation Flipper'. This was a bid to raid General Erwin Rommel's Headquarters in Libya and assassinate him. This raid was part of a greater operation that saw Stirling's 'L' Detachment and the SBS penetrating German lines and disrupt their rear to aid the overall offensive. The raid failed in the end and only two men aside from Laycock himself were able to make the British lines. Lt. Colonel Geoffrey Keyes the commander was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross for his leadership and bravery during the raid.
Although MEC continued its existence - mainly to keep Churchill 'sweet' - its personnel was absorbed into larger units. Many joined the newly-formed Special Air Service (SAS) which was enlarged by Stirling with approval from Churchill. Laycock was promoted to Brigadier and given command of the Special Service Brigade, Middle East Command. He replaced Brigadier Charles Haydon.
See also HERITAGE - 28 'DIRTY WAR...'
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Long Range Desert Group
The Ghost Patrols, 20th Century soldiering in the desert - a bit like the Scarlet Pimpernel in desert boots. The LRDG took the war to the enemy in a way he didn't like, so much so the Desert Fox - Rommel - had them hunted down. They struck at his supply lines, fuel being vital in desert warfare to keep the Afrika Korps' tanks rolling (the Germans' anthem, "Panzer rollen im Afrika Korps" was proved erroneous after El Alamein). See how the SAS fared against the Germans and Italians in North Africa before being transferred to the European theatre - this was no play acting!.
Special Air Service
The boy's toy your mates are not likely to have heard of! The LRDG 30 ton Chevy with all the gear for getting out of trouble. Easily assembled with exploded diagrams to help, and painting directions to show you how to make it look realistic (drill some bullet holes into the sides and paint them with black edging). Take it to the beach and photograph it close up near the rocks against the sky. Buy a couple of kits and build a patrol unit!
Dragon Kits, Long Range Desert Group Patrol Car
There are two other Hub-pages in the HERITAGE series linked to this one:
HERITAGE - 21: 'LIGHTNING STRIKE...' tells of Laycock's commandos sent into Crete to cover the retreat and hinder the German advance, and their subsequent metamorphosis into the SAS;
HERITAGE - 28: 'DIRTY WAR...' takes you from North Africa with the SAS to Western Europe after D-Day and the search for Nazi war criminals who murdered more than half of an SAS troop in the Vosges Mountains
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