HERITAGE - 28: DIRTY WAR, SAS Search For War Criminals (1945-1948)

Even from the start, from the parachute drop in the Vosges Mountains in north eastern France...

The Vosges Mountains, steep hills, dense forests - and brimming with Germans.
The Vosges Mountains, steep hills, dense forests - and brimming with Germans. | Source
The area of operation in which the SAS were to create their disturbance. Unluckily, due to faulty intelligence the men were dropped into the middle of an area held by the Panzer corps
The area of operation in which the SAS were to create their disturbance. Unluckily, due to faulty intelligence the men were dropped into the middle of an area held by the Panzer corps | Source
1 Troop, 2 SAS taken before the drop
1 Troop, 2 SAS taken before the drop | Source

...Things began to go wrong

Patton's US Third Army had outstripped its supply line and had to wait for replenishment by road. The US Logistics Corps ('Red Ball Express') had the additional problem in transporting essential supplies across 'Injun Country', where German snipers and isolated SS units couldn't face the prospect of their Fuehrer's war being lost. Fuel through 'PLUTO' (Pipeline Under The Ocean') between England and Normandy was not coming through in sufficient quantities and pursuit of the retreating Germans ground to a temporary crawl.

Meanwhile the SAS men, having made nuisances of themselves and run rings around the Germans in their specially kitted-out jeeps were running out of ammunition, food and fuel. Some were captured trying to get back to their own lines, some were injured and needed the sort of medical attention for which their first aid boxes were inadequately equipped. Some got lost and in the mountains radio contact was not always possible amongst the deep, thickly wooded valleys.

And then many of the SAS soldiers were isolated from their comrades, captured and stripped of their uniforms one after another...

Identity discs were ripped from around their necks and discarded before SS guards stood them at the edge of a shallow bomb crater. Each soldier was then shot with one bullet to the back of the head and pushed into the crater before all were covered with earth and forest litter in a bid to hide the crime.

Eighteen months on, in May 1946 the Nazi officer who had given the order for their murder stood facing the mass grave. This time SS Oberwachtmeister Heinrich Neuschwanger was the one held at gunpoint by an SAS soldier who had resolved to make him aware of the enormity of the deed.

The Special Air Service Regiment established in the spring of 1942 (see HERITAGE 22: 'WELL MET ...') had been officially disbanded with the cessation of hostilities a year earlier. There is a new book by historian Damien Lewis that shows that was not strictly the case. A top-secret unit of thirty SAS men carried on with the grisly task of finding each of the perpetrators. The squad 'went dark' at war's end to take up the unofficial mission.

Their aim was to search out the SS and Gestapo fiends who had taken part in the murder of thirty-one of their comrades, captured in N E France in the last year of war. They would also seek out the many French civilians who had helped the men by trying to hide and feed them. Over a hundred of the perpetrators and instigators - each as bad as those who stood trial in Nuremberg - were located and taken prisoner by 1948, duly brought to trial after evading justice for three years.

The small SAS unit, known as the Clandestine Hunters was organised and directed from a shadowy HQ based in the Hyde Park Hotel, London W1. Funding, 'off the books' was underwritten by an exiled Russian aristocrat, Prince Yuri Galatzine who worked at the War Office.

This group of soldiers was the earliest to expose the real grisly facts of the Nazi extermination camps when they first stumbled across one in France in 1944, almost half a year before Soviet troops entered Auschwitz. The Natzweiler-Struhof Concentration Camp lay near Strasbourg, the location of sadistic experiment by twisted Nazi doctors. There commandant Josef Kramer had experimented with gas to exterminate Jewish inmates. He himself gassed eighty men and women for a skeleton collection at a nearby university. Kramer would be transferred to Poland to head proceedings at the new Auschwitz gas chambers before being put in charge of Belsen. He was hanged in 1945 together with one of his female 'wardens', Irma Grese.

The Natzweiler camp was the site of torture for many SAS soldiers* (as well as those shot in the forest). It was also where four female Special Operations Executive agents were callously dealt with. The women - one French, two British and one German - had operated undercover in France with the Resistance before being betrayed by collaborators. On the day they came to the camp they were injected - ostensibly to protect them from disease rife in the camp - with carbolic acid and pushed into the ovens for cremation. One, forty-one year old Leeds-born Vera Leigh recovered consciousness before she could be pushed in. Fighting vainly to live she clawed the camp executioner Peter Straub with her fingernails, leaving a large scar on his cheek.

* Hitler had ordered the execution of all commandos, the SAS included. He had a pathological hatred of non-conformist methods of pursuing warfare in common with many senior German officers who regarded them as 'Chicago gangsters'.

Trouble brewed, the Panzers closed in and with them the SS with instructions from Hitler to annihilate all commandos or special forces personnel ....

SAS Armoured jeep patrol. Jeeps were dropped to enable the men to hit targets and be away again before the Germans knew what hit them
SAS Armoured jeep patrol. Jeeps were dropped to enable the men to hit targets and be away again before the Germans knew what hit them | Source
The SAS Brigade insignia and shoulder flashes -"Who Dares Wins"
The SAS Brigade insignia and shoulder flashes -"Who Dares Wins" | Source

The hunt for the SS perpetrators took the team led by Major Eric 'Bill' Barkworth over a quarter of a million miles...

Back and forth they tracked their 'quarry' through Germany and the rest of war-torn Europe, from Italy to Norway, western France to Russia. They were set on gaining justice for their uniformed comrades, murdered in direct contravention of the Geneva Convention.

These thirty-one prisoners had been with the SAS force of eighty parachuted into the Vosges Mountains near the German border in 1944 as part of 'Operation Loyton', to aid the French Resistance. They were to have been reinforced by General Patton's army but owing to an accident in timing and poor intelligence they landed amid a whole Panzer division. They managed to destroy thirteen German vehicles and kill their occupants as well as destroy a number of strategic targets. Shelter was found in Moussey around which the enemy combed the forests and mountains. Over time dozens of uniformed SAS men were captured and given over to the SS and Gestapo. This was when they vanished, the thirty-one executed in the forest.

Many others were kept out of sight by the villagers. When the Germans saw they would not be able to kill or take all the commandos they rounded up the Moussey villagers and sent them to different concentration camps. None of the villagers gave away the whereabouts of the hidden SAS base. almost a thousand villagers were taken from the valley, over six hundred of whom never came back.

The commander of 2 SAS as he was then, Colonel Franks.told the remaining villagers he would find out what had happened to their kin and neighbours. He felt the regiment owed them that.

Damien Lewis' NAZI HUNTERS relates the outcome of 'Operation Loyton' and the follow-up by the SAS Nazi Hunters
Damien Lewis' NAZI HUNTERS relates the outcome of 'Operation Loyton' and the follow-up by the SAS Nazi Hunters | Source

From the drop that left them amid the Panzers, the SAS called for armed jeeps to be dropped for them to be able to create a real disturbance. Thirty-one men did not get away from the Vosges Mountains. Read about the outcome of the harrowing expedition

The Nazi Hunters

There was a problem nevertheless...

Franks knew the regiment was to be disbanded with the end of the war. Yet even as the veterans were sent back to their original units to be demobilised, a small band of hand-picked officers and men were sent to Germany to comb the POW camps and towns for the miscreants, to learn what became of the missing soldiers and villagers.

The units, still wearing their SAS berets with the famed cap badge would not accept the war as being altogether at an end. They would wage a very personal war to search out some of the worst Nazi war criminals, who would not admit to having done wrong. The group used wiles and low cunning to sniff out their prey, learned over the three years since initial recruitment into the new regiment in the spring of 1942. The methods and the training they used are still being taught to modern-day recruits from regular British Army regiments.


On the hunt...

French Resistance fighters inspect one of the ovens in the Crematorium of Natweiler -Struhof Concentration Camp, Alsace N E France
French Resistance fighters inspect one of the ovens in the Crematorium of Natweiler -Struhof Concentration Camp, Alsace N E France | Source
The SAS War Crimes Team under Major E A 'Bill' Barkworth would comb Europe from west to east, south to north for the perpetrators of the massacre of 31 of their comrades
The SAS War Crimes Team under Major E A 'Bill' Barkworth would comb Europe from west to east, south to north for the perpetrators of the massacre of 31 of their comrades | Source
Major Eric Barkworth. His team's task would be hard, to find the murderers before their trail went cold. It would be three years before they could hang up their weapons and call it a day
Major Eric Barkworth. His team's task would be hard, to find the murderers before their trail went cold. It would be three years before they could hang up their weapons and call it a day | Source

One of the war criminals...

The former SS Oberscharfuehrer Max Kessler was tracked to an address in Germany where the two occupants maintained they had not set eyes on him for a long time.

Sergeant Fred 'Dusty' Rhodes spotted three plates of half-eaten soup on the table. He found a hidden cellar door next. The once ebullient Nazi cowered in a linen basket. At around this time Oberwachtmeister Neuschwanger, who had given the execution order on the SAS men was found hiding under an alias. Inmates of the camp he officiated at spoke of him as never being happier than when he beat or killed prisoners. He had been nicknamed 'Stuka' for making them lie down whilst he stamped on their stomachs. He had beaten one SAS prisoner, Major Dennis Reynolds so badly the man's bones poked through his skin.

After being taken to the woodland where the thirty-one had died Neuschwanger went before a war crimes tribunal. found guilty, he was executed on August 3rd, 1946.

Closing in...

British soldier guards Josef Kramer and one of his concentration camp wardens Irma Grese
British soldier guards Josef Kramer and one of his concentration camp wardens Irma Grese | Source

What is your opinion of the SAS search for the perpetrators?

Should they have followed through their actions or left it to the officials to bring Kessler, Neuschwanger and Straub to justice?

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SAS Sergeant Fred 'Dusty' Rhodes did not see why he should be gentle with the Germans who were answerable for the crimes committed
SAS Sergeant Fred 'Dusty' Rhodes did not see why he should be gentle with the Germans who were answerable for the crimes committed | Source
Special Operations Executive agent controller Vera Atkins had been searching for her girls at the end of the war - these were the four who were shoved into the ovens at Natzweiler by executioner Peter Straub
Special Operations Executive agent controller Vera Atkins had been searching for her girls at the end of the war - these were the four who were shoved into the ovens at Natzweiler by executioner Peter Straub | Source

Natzweiler camp executioner Straub was found at home in Mannheim...

Although he vehemently denied his identity he was betrayed by the scratch scars on his cheek from when Vera Leigh clawed him to keep from being pushed into the oven. He went to the gallows in October the same year as his colleague Neuschwanger.

Activity continued well into 1948, during which time they kept the identity of the SAS Regiment, long enough for Colonel Franks to set up the 21 SAS Artists' Rifles in the Territorial Army unit that would lead to the re-formation of the SAS Regiment when it was reinstated in the 1950s.

The regiment still annually marks the killings and Moussey deportations to the death camps, the hundreds who never rejoined kin and neighbours. The thirty-one SAS men were exhumed from their crater grave in the woods, the dead men from Natzweiler Camp and those civilians from Moussey and its valley buried with them in the village churchyard.

See also HERITAGE - 22: 'WELL MET BY MOONLIGHT...'

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During the time Franks' team searched high and low for the SS and Gestapo perpetrators for the demise of their colleagues, another search was underway. Vera Atkins, Special Operations Executive (SOE) controller tried to find out what had happened to four of her girls, the ones who had been taken to Natzweiler. She learned of their fate from the SAS men who had tracked down Kessler, Neuschwanger and Straub.

Regimental cap badge of The Artists' Rifles with Mars and Minerva representing warfare and the arts,
Regimental cap badge of The Artists' Rifles with Mars and Minerva representing warfare and the arts, | Source

Regimental History: From Artists' Rifles to SAS

The regiment's history and background is convoluted. Initially The Artists' Rifles was a regiment of the British Army Reserve, raised in London in 1859 as a volunteer light infantry unit, seeing active front line service in both the Second Boer War and First World War. Many battle honours have been won, including eight Victoria Crosses, 56 Distinguished Service Orders, 893 Military Crosses and over six hundred other honours won mainly in WWI. Serving with the regiment were Henry Wyndham Phillips and Frederic Leighton amongst other commanders notable for their leadership qualities.

During the Second World War the regiment was seconded for officer training, seeing no active overseas service as a unit. Disbanded in 1945 the regiment was re-established in 1947 as a step towards the reinstatement of the Special Air Service Regiment (SAS). Currently the regiment is better known as 21 Special Air Service Regiment (Artists) Reserve 21 SAS (R).

With 23 Special Air Service Regiment (Reserve) (23 SAS (R)) it forms the Special Air Service Regiment (SAS (R)). The Forces Branch is nevertheless Reserve and covered by strict security measures to protect its 'special' status. Details of operations are never given out, nor are personnel details. Selection is made from current service regiments on a regular basis after rigorous physical and mental trials. Captured SAS personnel might be tortured in secret, as has happened in the past, so physical and mental stamina needs to be in peak condition.

The original regiment, the Artists' Rifles

The Artists' Rifles in camp, 1884 - note the casual footwear of the gentleman in the foreground with the pinafored cook. These would never be soldiers in the conventional sense, not for lack of trying by the powers-that-be to lick them into shape
The Artists' Rifles in camp, 1884 - note the casual footwear of the gentleman in the foreground with the pinafored cook. These would never be soldiers in the conventional sense, not for lack of trying by the powers-that-be to lick them into shape | Source

There are two other pages in the HERITAGE series linked to this one:

HERITAGE 21: 'LIGHTNING STRIKE ON CRETE...' tells of Laycock's Commandos being sent to Crete to aid the Army in its retreat to North Africa;

HERITAGE 22: 'WELL MET BY MOONLIGHT' paraphrases Shakespeare's play title with Laycock's commandos covering the Anzac and British retreat over the Cretan mountains from Maleme and the unit's metamorphosis into the SAS

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6 comments

UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 13 months ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

A lot of people think that a war ends on such and such a date. Like the starting date of a war, when it becomes "legal" and sanctioned to kill the enemy, the ending date suddenly makes it "illegal" to kill without trials, etc. Too bad war can't really be turned off like that. The idea of mass murderers hiding behind bureaucracy is repugnant. Very interesting, Alan. I hadn't heard of this before.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 13 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) Author

Hello David, there was a programme on the 'Yesterday' channel here a little while ago where 'Dusty' Rhodes spoke of his experiences on the trail of the three SS men and a Gestapo agent. I don't know if the channel is available online. If you're interested in further accounts of Commando and SAS raids, take a look at these four in the 'HERITAGE' series on my profile: 21: LIGHTNING STRIKE (Crete); 22: WELL MET BY MOONLIGHT (Crete - North Africa); 25: THE PINCH THAT WENT WRONG (Dieppe) and 26: RADAR HIT AT POURVILLE (offshoot of the Dieppe raid). Not too far to scroll down. Savour the read.

'Well met by moonlight' is a play of words on Shakespeare's play. Remember a film with Dirk Bogarde and Marius Goring titled 'Ill Met By Moonlight' about a commando raid on Crete after the battle? Worth getting hold of if it's on dvd/video.


lawrence01 profile image

lawrence01 12 months ago from Hamilton, New Zealand

Alan

I hadn't heard of this unit before, but the 'men of action' often know that once the politicians get involved then justice is often the first casualty!

This reminds me of a true story I watched about the Aussies in the Japanese camps at the end of the war, they prepared court cases against all the Japanese high command for the genocide only to have them all thrown out as the perpertators were 'needed' to help rebuild Japan!

I'm glad it didn't happen here.

Lawrence


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 12 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) Author

Lawrence,

The Americans saw the Pacific as 'their' theatre of war. They wanted to stave off the spread of communism in Asia, and to do so they needed the Japanese 'on-side'. To achieve this aim recriminations from former POWs - including Americans - were not wanted. The European war involved the French, Dutch, Danes, Russians, Poles and Jews aside from British and Commonwealth troops captured and mistreated by the Germans. Aside from spiriting away Wernher von Braun and his rocket team to the US - wanted by us to answer for their rocket attacks on England - the Germans were left to us to 'mop up' ... until the Marshal Plan was installed to stop West Germany falling under Soviet influence: the basis for the 'Wirschafts Wunder'.

So we had a few years to root out the rotten apples from the barrel.

Nice to 'see' you again. Next up in the HERITAGE series is a salutary tale of culture clash, Captain Cook's demise at Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii.


lawrence01 profile image

lawrence01 12 months ago from Hamilton, New Zealand

I'll be looking forward to that one. Might take me a little while to get there though!

By the way the Aussies and Kiwis are thankful to the US for saving them in WW2 but there was some trust lost when no one was held to account!

60,000 prisoners were taken at Singapore (British, Australian and Kiwi) but less than 8,000 survived the war.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 12 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) Author

All in the name of politics, Lawrence. The new enemy was Communism, whether Soviet or Chinese. Politics has raised some strange bedfellows, as someone noted many years ago.

A lot of Germans, Austrians, Croats and Balts (Latvians, Lithuanians and Estonians) thought they'd got off scot-free at the end of WWII. Although the top figures either took cyanide or were hanged, many of their minions came out of the ruins better off. With some clever lying, Speer almost had it licked. He'd died of a stroke after another BBC TV interview with Ludovic Kennedy when documents surfaced about his real involvement at the Wannsee conference near Berlin, that sealed the fate of the Jews and others at Auschwitz. So much for the 'good Nazi'.

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