Integration (Civil Rights): Industrialization & Urbanization -- 1900
Circa 1900 -- The Beginning Of Industrialization & Urbanization in America - The Negroes founder -- the Americans create industries, elevate their standard of living and make America into a world power.
If one were to follow the Black race's migration to America's urban centers from 1865 to 1900, a very puzzling, if not worrisome, dilemma had clearly begun to materialize. That is, within America's urban centers Negro males' behavioral characteristics were showing themselves to be very much different than the creators of those urban centers (males of Euro descent). Specifically, in America's prisons Negro males - by 1900 - had become disproportionately represented.1 In the area of family at this time, there was already one very significant difference between the American (White Christians) and the Negro in cohabitation of the sexes:: Negro families were far more likely to be living without an adult male in the house, which, naturally, produced greater instability for the Negro family unit.2 In the area of urban housing, Negroes simply chose to occupy dwellings built by American males ... rather than build housing for their people.3 And finally, in generating occupations, the most crucial area for a male group within urban settings, and particularly at this time in American history ... Negro males had failed completely - between 1865 and 1900 - in producing occupational titles within the structure and confines of their own male group, which was necessary to sustain their still small urban populations.4
In fact, in the crucial area of generating occupations one can easily see a contributing factor for the other failings represented above for Negro males. For it stands to reason, if the Negro males generated the same type of jobs in the urban centers as the Americans, the crime rates associated with their group should fall, the family structure would be more stable and they could afford to buy and build more suitable housing; and, theoretically anyway, they should also be building their own cities and launching their own industries.5 And lastly, if Negro males were generating enough urban occupations within the structure and confines of their own group, they would also demonstrate to the Americans that they were not going to become their dependents - certainly a major concern for any American male watching the Negroes' urban desolation manifest during our time frame here (1865 to 1900).
The Emerging Differences Between White & Black (Year 1900)
So we have a question here that begs to be asked at this juncture in American history:
Why were enough occupational titles capable of being generated in American communities to sustain their urban populations but the Negro communities were failing in this regard?
This question, even though it seems to be of monumental importance, indeed, related to the very survival of Negro people in urban America (remember, since the American and the Negro lived separately, each male group was expected to be self-reliant; and this self-reliance is directly linked to generating urban occupational titles within one's own male group), nevertheless, the question regarding why Negro men failed to produce occupations is never directly asked, either by members of the U.S. gov't (who were all white males in 1900), or members of academia. At least I could find no person in these ranks raising this issue prior to 1900. Curious indeed!
In attempting to answer this question though, let's first address the three most popular arguments used to explain the Negro's failure in American urban centers::
1. Legacy of Slavery:: The notion that slavery was at the root cause for every socio-economic problem that plagued the Negro male group in 1900, though it seems to have some merit (i.e. those of African descents had no culture to fall back on to instruct themselves on how to create a societal structure based on their own historical past), however, slavery could not possibly be the reason for all the economic hardships in every urban center in which the Negro male group clustered. (NOTE:: 110 years later, this "legacy of slavery" is the only excuse that still survives to explain away the Negro failings in America's urban centers).
2. The "conspiring to oppress" theory, or myth:; This implies that the American population in every urban area in which the Negro male migrated, collectively conspired and schemed to oppressed him. This is not only false but obviously completely ludicrous. Coast to coast "hidden" oppression?! And for the entire history of the Black races' presence in urban America?! Logically, if white people were actually this obsessed with oppressing the Black race, Blacks would have, being a completely FREE people after 1865, sought to colonize a place in America (e.g. like the Mormons). BOTTOM LINE:: There was no oppression of the Black race in America (after 1865). There was historical "group" separation. Blacks in 1900 were required to live separately so as to achieve a sense of self-reliance.
3. Intellectual superiority:: Intellectual superiority of the Caucasian race compared to the Negro race, was a popular notion in our time frame here (1865 to 1900). To some extent, it is still popular today. However, it has been, and I believe rightly so, discredited for being racist. No people should judge themselves as more intellectually gifted than another people.
Keeping in mind the three above observations (slavery cannot possibly be the cause for all the Negro's urban ills; no conspiracy to oppress; and there is no intellectually superior race), and taking further note that the Negro male group between 1865 and 1900 had essentially been given access to the same educational training as American males,7 and this male group had also only been exposed to the way of life of the Dominant Male Group (White Christian males) in America, then their failure to exhibit the same behavioral characteristics as the American within the urban centers ... leaves us with really only one remaining consideration:: the possibility that some innate factor exists within the human species which allows for a grouping behavior conducive to sustaining urban living arrangements i.e. the production of "wealth." 8 The production of wealth generates occupations and occupations distributes the resources among the urban people.
Some other pertinent facts related to the Negro race in 1900:
In 1900, according to the U.S. Census, the Negro population was 8,833,994, and 87% of the Negroes still lived in the South. The total urban Black population in America was 11%.
Life expectancy for the Negro was only 34 years.
Also as of 1900 in America::
-- cities built by Negro males : None
-- industries built by Negro males: None
--total number of tax bases created by Black males capable of sustaining gov't services: None
--number of American males & females employed by a Negro and supporting a family: None (at least I have not found a case)
--number of Negro males & females employed by an American person (household/corporation/business): Maybe a Million or more.
-- total number of residential housing structures built by Negro males in major metropolitan centers: Number so minute it is statistically immeasurable
The purpose in pointing out the above is to demonstrate the great difference in the behavioral characteristics of the two racial groups; and to make one wonder today how it is that the dominant culture (white Christians --the Americans) at that time could not or would not conclude that those of African descent were demonstrating characteristics demonstrable of a people NOT capable of sustaining themselves - independent of white people- within urban environments.
Finally, it is not the fault of one people that another people exhibited markedly different behavioral characteristics in the same living arrangements (i.e. within America's urban centers). This is not an intelligence issue. Nor is it a conspiracy to oppress issue; or a lingering legacy of a GREAT wrong committed by one people against another (i.e. the legacy of slavery). Like the Polar bear and Black bear, Euro honey bee and Africanized honey bee, the lion, the leopard and tiger, though these species are part of the same family (the bear family; the bee family; the cat family), yet each is separated from the other by their innate behavioral characteristics.
Occupational Ranking & The Production of "Wealth"
So, again, the pertinent issue here is:: "some innate factor exists within the human species which allows for a grouping behavior conducive to creating the necessary environment for sustaining urban living arrangements."
This "grouping behavior", for lack of a better definition, is an Occupational Ranking social stratification system of a male group. Its purpose is to create 'wealth.' The wealth produced then generates occupational titles; and the occupational titles creates a social stratification system, which allows for the distribution of resources (currency).
"Occupational Ranking is - theoretically - an innate-culture of the male group (excluding females) that allows the male group to achieve the necessary grouping and organizational behavior conducive to the production of "wealth." Wealth is basically the production of marketable material items. The better the male group is at stratifying itself under occupational titles, the more marketable wealth they will - theoretically - be capable of creating."
For those who are interested, I've postulated why those of African descent failed in the Anglo urban centers here...
The first four citations below are referenced from W.E.B. Du Bois' book, The Philadelphia Negro (1896) - available FREE on the Internet as a google book ),
1. Du Bois Quote:"In the city of Philadelphia the increasing number of bold and daring crimes committed by Negroes [since 1890] has focused the city on this subject. There is a widespread feeling that something is wrong with a race that is responsible for so much crime, and that strong remedies are called for. One has to but visit the corridors of the public buildings, when the courts are in session, to realize the part played in law-breaking by the Negro." (pg. 241)
Also,Prison Records by Race - 1900 to 1960 LINK below.
2. Du Bois gives very startling, if not staggering to the imagination, facts regarding the black family situation in urban Philadelphia in the late 1890s. For instance, 73% of all black females over the age of 40 are living without a man. For White women, it was under 16%. He also tells us that for the black female who marries in Philadelphia, 56% of them are either separated, abandoned, divorced or widowed. (pg.70). Du Bois also holds no punches on the "sexual looseness" of the Negro female, which he calls the "sin of the Negro population". (pg. 72)
3. Du Bois states that the vast majority of Negroes were either living in, or juxtaposed to, the Seventh Ward in Philadelphia in 1896, This ward was the oldest section of the city and, not surprisingly, the poorest section of the city.(pg. 305) Negroes had been in the city of Philadelphia, according to Du Bois, stretching all the way back to 1700. So the fact that so very few - if any - housing in the city was built by Negro males, seems to indicate an acutely obvious, if not potentially serious, difference manifesting between the two races in the city (one male group was building housing for their people, while the other wasn't). Further, even stretching our parameter years from 1865 to 1964, I still could not find ANY urban area in America where a section of housing was built by Negro males.
4. Du Bois breaks down the jobs found among Philadelphia's Negro male age 10 to 20, which indicates over 80% of the males appear to be making their daily wage in the service sector (as a porter, servant, errand boy or common laborer) for the American population ; or providing services where the predominant clientèle is American. (pg. 99).
For Negro men over the age the age of 21, Du Bois tells us that in 1896, approx. 79% of the adult Negro males are either laborers or servants. This also suggests that here again we see the Negro male group engaged in occupations where the incomes are most certainly derived from the American (White Christian male) population.(pg. 99)
As for the Negro female, Du Bois tells us that a peculiarly high 43% are the family breadwinner in Philadelphia, compared to 16% for White women (remember, this is well before the first Great Migration of southern rural Negroes to urban centers - circa 1920). The vast majority of Negro women work as domestic servants.(pg.111) Further, according to Du Bois, there were approx. 42,000 domestic servants in Philadelphia, However, Negroes represented only 25% of these servants. This fact clearly indicates Americans could have easily filled the ranks of this job classification with their own race. And the point here is? Americans were giving these jobs to Negroes... clearly desiring to help them, likely keenly aware what hardship they were enduring in the city.
On pg 123, Mr. Du Bois offers us an accounting of Negro business and employment activities within Philadelphia, particularly how blacks tend to gravitate to the Americans when seeking economic opportunities, instead of seeking opportunities among their own male group.
On pg. 135, Du Bois describes how American-organizers of labor groups use the vast numbers of unemployed Negroes, with so limited opportunities known to be available to them, to drive down wages for American males. Note: There was no welfare system at this stage in American history. American or Negro, you worked or you starved.
5. Negro males in America by 1900 still have yet to create an urban center independent of the American males; nor have they establish a single industry - created by and run by Negroes - in any part of the country.
6. Below are four examples where male groups in America prior to 1900 sought and achieved separation from America's Dominant Male Group (White Christian males) and created their own self-sustaining and self-reliant living arrangements.
Example 1 : In 1847, in Nauvoo, Illinois, a few thousands Mormons, persecuted and reviled by many of their fellow Americans because of their “peculiar” religious beliefs , and even suffering the murder of their spiritual leader, John Smith, decide to head West (comparatively, people of African descent were, generally speaking, not hated, nor were they persecuted, for their racial difference by American White Christians - White males only desired Negroes live separately). The Mormons, because their persistent persecution, marched through the desert and eventually wound up in the unsettled territory of Utah. There they set up their community in this virtual desert wasteland and proceeded to build irrigation systems, the city of Salt Lake and, eventually, other towns as well. They even had their own currency.
Example 2 : Every American Indian tribe demanded their separation and distinctness. Not one Indian tribe in America - out of 1000s - is known to have ever marched before another Indian tribe for integration rights. They all achieved self-reliance and wanted nothing to do "with the way of the white man."
Example 3 : Chinese-Americans began arriving in the late 1880s and they were essentially required to live separately, which they did without complaint. They also created their own living arrangements within the confines of their own male group. Further, there is no recorded example of any Chinese-American ever claiming his dignity, freedom or manhood, or that of his people, could only be obtained within White male society.
Example 4 : The Amish. Their living arrangements, each respective community in America, are all separate and autonomous i.e. they build their own homes, their own schools, educate their own children and create and live by their own rules.
7. Negroes were more than adequately supplied with schools, including higher education facilities, which were mostly created by - or funded by - northern liberal White people. READ : The Unheralded Charity of White toward Black in American History
8. Failure of the Carlisle Indian School
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