Miscarriages of Justice: The Guildford Four
The Guildford pub bombings occurred on October 5 1974. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) was behind this incident. These pubs were targeted because they were popular among the British Army personnel. The police were under immense pressure to nab the culprits because four soldiers and one civilian were killed and many others were wounded in the incident.
In December 1974, the police arrested four people (three men and a woman). They were: Gerry Conlon, Paul Hill, Patrick Armstrong and Carole Richardson. These four became known as the Guildford Four. They were falsely convicted in October 1975 and were sentenced to life imprisonment. There was no evidence of their involvement with the IRA.
An IRA Attack
When the bombings occurred, Carole Richardson was in London. She was enjoying a music performance by Jack the Lad (a folk group from North East England). There were witnesses to prove this. Paul Hill was at Southampton and Gerry Conlon was at a hostel in London. Unfortunately, much evidence which would prove their innocence were not presented at the trial.
UK Police Inspector Rank Marking
The Guildford Four confessed to the bombing after their arrest. These confessions formed the basis of the case against them. It was later proved that convictions were based on confessions obtained by intimidation and torture. Later, they appealed against their convictions unsuccessfully.
In the meanwhile, members of the general public pressed for re-examination of the case. In February 1977, during the Balcombe Street Gang trial, the four IRA men asked their lawyers to "draw attention to the fact that four totally innocent people were serving massive sentences". They were speaking about the Guildford Four.
Even though the four IRA members claimed that they were responsible for the incident, they were never charged. As a result of this strange approach by the police the Guildford Four had to spend twelve more years in jail. In the year 1986, Robert Kee published a book titled "Trial and Error: the Maguires, the Guildford pub bombings and British Justice". This book had an impact.
Scales of Justice
In the year 1987, the Home Office issue a memorandum stating that the four may not be terrorists. In the year 1989, a detective found typed notes from police interviews with the four. It was found that many deletions and additions were made. It was proved that the police had manipulated the notes.
An appeal was granted. Paul Hill was represented by Lord Gifford QC and the others were represented by Gareth Peirce (famous human rights solicitor). It was proved that the police had lied. The convictions were overturned and the Guildford Four were released in 1989.
Even though the Guildford Four did not commit any crime, they had to spend 15 precious years of their life in jail. The investigation into the case is considered to be the biggest miscarriage of justice in the UK.
Tony Blair Apologized for the Incident in 2005
On February 9 2005, the then Prime Minister Tony Blair apologized by saying "I am very sorry that they were subject to such an ordeal and injustice...they deserve to be completely publicly exonerated".
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- The Guildford pub bombings occurred on October 5 1974.
- In December 1974, the police arrested four people, who were falsely convicted in 1975 and sentenced to life imprisonment.
- In the year 1987, the Home Office issue a memorandum stating that the four may not be terrorists.
- The convictions were overturned and the Guildford Four were released in 1989.
- Even though the Guildford Four did not commit any crime, they had to spend 15 precious years of their life in jail. released in 1989.
5 Cases of Miscarriage of Justice in the United Kingdom
Robert Green, Lawrence Hill and Henry Berry
All the three were hanged in 1679 for the murder of Edmund Berry Godfrey based on false evidence.
She was convicted in 1996 of the murder of her two children and released in 2003. Conviction was based on the analysis of the Home Office Pathologist, who failed to reveal relevant information
Mahmood Hussein Mattan
He was hanged in Cardiff in 1952. The conviction was overturned in 1998. His family members were compensated.
They were wrongly convicted in 1975 of placing two bombs in pubs in Birmingham. They were released in 1991.
They were falsely convicted in 1975 and released in 1989.
Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.— Martin Luther King, Jr.
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