Negative Effects of Migration
Migration is becoming a very important subject for the big cities’ life. The countryside daily life facilities seem unattractive to people when cities include luxury. Educational, social, cultural and financial opportunities of big cities pull very big masses of people to big cities. When there is a big change, there will be related results. Migration affects cities on any levels such as demography, cultural structure, economic structure, social structure and people’s psychology. Unfortunately, these effects are negative and turn to problems for urban. Migration is an unplanned movement to cities so migration causes economic, social and environmental problems for the cities and citizens.
The first negative effect of migration is that it causes economic problems for the cities. To start with, migration brings about economic problems for the government. Most importantly, it leads to a decrease on the quality of workers. The portion of the migrations in U.S. is %12 in the population and %15 in the total labourer population. This worker class forms a layer which is unqualified and the lowest (“Immigrants” section). The example given above shows that immigrant workers are not of a high quality and this changes the total quality ratio of the country where they have migrated. In addition, the government suffers from unpaid taxes of immigrants, the illegal households. Fitzgerald cite Camarota who is the author of an immigration study in the U.S., as explaining, "Households headed by illegal aliens imposed more than $26.3 billion in costs on the federal government in 2002 and paid only $16 billion in taxes, creating a net fiscal deficit of $10.4 billion, or $2,700 per illegal household". Objectively speaking, one cannot deny the fact that the attitude of the immigrants on the subject ‘taxes’ causes social injustice economically. It is obvious from the above examples that migration causes economical problems for the government by both decreasing the quality of workers and leaving unpaid taxes behind.
Apart from creating economical problems for the government, it also causes economical problems for the citizens. One of these problems is ‘increasing cost of living’. In U.S. a family can reach average life standards with an eight or nine dollar per hour. Immigrants and other workers gain four or five. When immigrants prefer to have more than one worker for each family, citizens tend to have one worker. Because of immigrant’s double income, householders increase the rents because they already can pay this money and this damages other citizen’s economy.Taking all these fact into account, immigrants produce more labor and gains more so the highly colored rents are unavoidable in their capitalist system. Additionally, immigrants displace the native workers. Not qualified immigrant workers and poor educated native workers are battling for the same jobs. The crowded immigrant masses fulfill the request of lower-skilled workers, also replace some of the least educated native workers. For this reason the job facility that the government creates for the citizens are being used by immigrants. In conclusion, the negative economic impacts of immigrants on the citizens’ lives are undeniable.
Another remarkable negative impact of migration to urban is the social problems in citizens’ lives. First of all, the poor conditions of immigrants’ lives encourage them to commit crime. Primarily, it feeds the phenomenon ‘mafia’ which has been created because of social and economic poverty of distress communities. As Kapur and McHale state, “The most well-known example in the 20th century is the Italian mafia, which built its structure on a large migratory population, especially to the New World”. On account of these facts, one can say that “mafias”, the most strong illegal organizations of the world, are based on immigrant nations. Furthermore, it causes teenagers to be criminals. Imprisonment ratio was 1.4 % and then it was 1.3 % in 1980, 14.3 % in 1990 and an astonishing rate of 25. 1 % in 2000. These rates include the black male high school dropouts with the 1 to 30 years of trial. Considering the information above, one can conclude that the young population under the impact of migration is becoming criminals and the number of them is increasing day by day. It can be concluded that migration is a society movement which lead to face the immigrants with the citizens of the country where they have migrated. Of course, the citizens have socially better specialities than immigrants and the social levels create crime.
In addition to the criminal problems, cultural erosion is also a big problem. To begin with, the immigrants vary because of the new culture which they try to adapt, and this is called natural assimilation. A Mexican family realized that their children take the negative properties of American culture. “As Jacinto, who speaks only Spanish, stresses a need to maintain the family’s Mexican heritage, her eldest son, a bilingual 11-year-old who wears San francisco 49ers jacket and has a paper route, comes in and joins his brothers and sisters in the living room to watch ‘The Simpsons’ ” . The world has lost many languages whose creation took centuries. This situation brings the civilizations to the same end, losing their cultural varieties as well. Additionally, the obligatory assimilation unfortunately is another cultural erosion. Globalization explains that in Holland, a program named ‘inburgering’ was started by the government. This program includes some musts for immigrants. The rule says that an immigrant can never be a citizen until he passes the exam of a study which gives information on how to be a Dutch. Considering the information above, it can be concluded that the rules created for immigrants are defense factors of countries but these rules damage the habits of immigrants and this means their cultures are dying. Shortly, it can clearly be understood that crime and cultural erosion are the rodents of civilizations and damage both citizens and immigrants negatively.
The final consequence of migration is the environmental problems which destroy the physical appearance of the city. First and foremost, the human-made part of the cities, structural environment is becoming damaged by the migration. Most importantly, immigrants create unhealthy, illegal houses, ‘the slums’ in and around the city, because they have to shelter with their limited economies. The 23th law of constitution allows migration by saying ‘Every body has the independence of emplacement and traveling’. However, the 35th law which emphasizes that ‘using the benefit of ownership must not be crosswise to the society’s benefits’ is not enough to prevent the migration. Unplanned and unhealthy constructions, slums, negatively affect the whole citizens’ lives. Taking all these facts into account, it is clear that slums are the dark sides of the cities which are created by immigrants. Besides, when immigrants destroy the appearance of the city, at the same time, they damage the infrastructure. As stating that the highly increasing population which is caused by migration, extremely increases the value of the lands in the city and this causes illegal settlements without infrastructure around the city. For this reason, the illegal settlements should not be allowed by the government and must be checked. All these facts prove that structural environment is broken down by the immigrants either in the case of unconsciousness or in the case of pennilessness.
Aside from the problems in the structural environment, natural environment is also harmed by illegal population ‘immigrants’. One of these harms can be seen as pollution in the city. As a result of industrialization and urbanization, increase on the population and migration arised and they have been considered as the reasons for environmental problems. The immigrants became a big mass and started to consume natural resources. Since 20th century, the migration has caused increase on the population in the cities and some of the examples for this situation are the pollution in the Ren river, Haliç and Marmara sea and air pollution in London in 1952. As indicated above, it can be argued that pollution in the cities arises when the population increases and the migratory movement is one of the most important effect of the high population. Another important example of pollution is along the borders of the cities which are created by the immigrants who try to pass the borders. While trying to prevent the danger created by immigrants along the borderland, in Southwest, the security activities harm the wild life. This shows the practicality that the borderlands of the cities are threatened by immigrants. Shortly, the natural life and environment are in danger in the whole world now but this is a fact that the harming excuses go up everyday and one of these excuses is the migratory movement.
In conclusion, the cities and citizens are damaged by the illegal movement ‘migration’ economically, socially and environmentally. The immigrants have different habits and come from different geographies so they can hardly adapt to the new country, sometimes never can adapt. They cause economic problems both for the government and for the citizens. Additionally, the cultural erosion and the crime are the results of the migratory movement to the cities, which is certainly a serious social problem. Furthermore, the immigrants change the physical appearance of the city and cause structural and natural environment problems. For all these reasons, people must live where they learn the life. Every country has different socio-economic structures. But since 1990, the globalization has been spotlight and now is dominant
all over the world. Globalization will make the world monotone so the authorities who want globalization on the earth need much more researches about migration.
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