The Origin and Meaning of the 21-Gun Salute


As the fallen soldier was laid to rest, 3 volleys of shots from 7 rifles echoed out. The 21-gun salute was poignant but with a dash of pride. In many military funerals the 21-gun salute is a stark reminder that death comes to all. As the echo of the riffle blasts shoots through the air, have you ever wondered why this is done?

Demonstration of Peace

The US Army Center for Military History says that this practice was a demonstration of peaceful intentions. How is shooting rifles in the air considered peaceful? To unlock this mystery we need to go far back into civilization’s history - even before there were guns.

Rendering a weapon useless showed a sign of peaceful intention. This action is surprisingly universal! Of course the action is dependent on the weapon at hand. African tribes would point their spears to the ground to signify a non-threatening disposition. The samurais would tuck their katana at their backs or even hold them with their drawing hand just to show non-aggressive demeanor. Since guns during the 14th century were single shot weapons, firing it once rendered them “useless”. Of course you can still use it to bludgeon your enemy but I’m sure you get the point.

The practice of rendering weapons ineffective spread even to warships. A total of seven shots were fired as a sign of submission and peaceful intent. Many scholars believe that the number seven had astrological or even biblical meaning. Regardless what it was based on, warships fired seven times.

On the other hand, land batteries fired 3 times that of the warships. Thus a sign of submission or peaceful intent on land was assigned a total of 21 shots. Again, the multiple of 3 assigned to land batteries has its special meaning. Whether it is due to the mystical significance of 3 in ancient civilizations or some other mystical reason, I cannot confirm it.

Royal Navy 21 Gun Salute filmed and edited by Simon Murray

The Highest State Honor

Although the salute was recognized internationally, there were still confusions on how it must be done. In fact, it was only in August 1875 when the United States agreed on the protocols behind the 21 gun salute. Through the years, the salute morphed even in the United States. Initially, the “National Salute” numbered 17 (the number of states in the Union at that time). It was fired at 1:00 p.m. (it was later changed to 12:00 noon) and on Independence Day. By 1842, the gun salute was officially made into 21 shots.

Today, the 21 gun salute is fired in honor of the flag, a sovereign head of state, a member of a royal family, the President, ex-President or the President-elect of the U.S.

21 Gun Salute: U.S.S. Constitution

The 3 Volley Salute

The 3-volley salute is different from the 21 gun salute. This is a military or police funeral custom usually executed by the honor guards. Its origins can be traced back to the European dynastic conflicts. In between battles, there will be a time to collect the dead and the wounded. Once the dead and wounded were collected a volley of 3 shots were fired. This signaled that the battle can resume.

The rifle party who fired the volleys can range from 3 to 7 individuals. The squad usually fires over the casket. However, if there are any persons attending the funeral, the squad is moved back approximately 50 feet away. For the safety of everyone, blanks cartridges are fired.

Although its origins are quite different from the 21 Gun Salute it has also evolved as a custom to honor. Coupled with the “Taps”, the military funeral customs is one that is truly distinct.

In the right circumstances, firing a weapon demonstrates peace and honor.

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Comments 18 comments

chinemeremz profile image

chinemeremz 5 years ago

I've never really thought of the origin to this historical act of honor, but reading this has really helped.

Voted up!

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hello chinemeremz. Thanks for reading and commenting. I also did not think much of it until lately. I saw a rerun of NCIS season 8 and it got me thinking. Did some digging and this is what i learned. I hope it gave you some information.

sofs profile image

sofs 5 years ago

Informative Hub! Great work there.. I did not know the difference between the three volley salute and the 21 gun salute.. assumed they were the same.. Thanks, could always do with some enlightenment! Have a blessed day!

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hi sofs, I also thought they are the same. Have a great day as well.

Lady_E profile image

Lady_E 5 years ago from London, UK

Very interesting read.... so, that's why the do it.

I will link this to one of my recent Hubs: It's about HMS Dauntless - A type 45 Destroyer Warship. I hope you don't mind.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hello Lady_E. I'd be honored to have my hub associated with yours.

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Ghost32 5 years ago

Excellent. I'd not come across this (or a similar) explanation of the 21-gun salute in the past.

Voted Up and Educational as All Get-Out (or buttons to that effect).

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

That's highly appreciate Ghost32. It's nice to impart information.

onlinecashdigest profile image

onlinecashdigest 4 years ago from Manila, Philippines

I haven't known that there is so much history attach to what we know as 21-gun salute. Thanks for this.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 4 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hello onlinecashdigest ,

I'm happy to share the info. See you around.

Lisa 4 years ago

This is an interesting read. My dad served in the military and we had this on his funeral. It was definitely poignant.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 4 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

You must be proud of him Lisa. The 3 volley salute is a tribute to your dad's service.

Ab Daams 2 years ago

The gun salute of seven shots might have originated in the 17th century, as seven was the standard number of weapons on a British vessel. So, in the early days seven guns was the recognized British national salute.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 2 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hello Ab Daams, Thank you for that tidbit.

Robert Reiter 2 years ago

I've been at military funerals and I've participated as a member of the squad and as the leader. I appreciate your work. Keep smiling.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 2 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hello Robert Reiter,

I have friends and Family who are (and were) in the service. Military funerals are somber events. And every time I attend, it gives me pride to have known the person. Thank you for sharing my friend.

JERE BEERY 11 months ago

I have always heard that the 21 gun salute was based on the year of our Independence, 1776. If you take the date and add the numbers together 1 + 7 + 7 + 6 you come up with the number 21. That is what my father taught me. I refuse to think it was just made up with no meaning. I think someone needs to do some more research. My father's explanation makes more sense than the one given here.

jpcmc profile image

jpcmc 6 weeks ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines Author

Hi there JERE BEERY,

That is an interesting story. Perhaps you can also check archives of the US Military.

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