The Prime Minister's Dead Hand

A British Vanguard-class submarine leaving its base on the Clyde. Aboard is the Prime Minister's Letter of Last Resort.
A British Vanguard-class submarine leaving its base on the Clyde. Aboard is the Prime Minister's Letter of Last Resort. | Source

Letters of Last Resort

Mutually Assured Destruction, the Doomsday Clock, the Dead Hand: dramatic terms-- perhaps even melodramatic-- which refer to the horrors and inevitable mutual destruction wrought by an exchange of nuclear weapons. The British, in their typically understated and emotionally restrained manner, have Letters of Last Resort.

The Letters of Last Resort are a mechanism which ensures that, should the United Kingdom be destroyed in a nuclear strike and the British Prime Minister and a “second person” designated by the Prime Minister are both dead, at least one British ballistic missile submarine on duty-- and there is always one somewhere in the ocean-- is under orders to carry out the dead Prime Minister's last order. In a safe inside a safe inside the submarine is the Prime Minister's Letter of Last Resort. Depending on those orders, the submarines' captains have the authority and the duty to launch their Trident ballistic missiles as the final act of the British state.

Faslane Naval Base, HMNB Clyde, Scotland. Home of the Vanguard class submarines which carry the UK's current nuclear arsenal.
Faslane Naval Base, HMNB Clyde, Scotland. Home of the Vanguard class submarines which carry the UK's current nuclear arsenal. | Source
British Prime Minister Theresa May
British Prime Minister Theresa May | Source

Nuclear Deterrent

One of a Prime Minister's first acts is to write his or her Letter of Last Resort. It is a sobering experience, deciding to launch missiles when your country no longer exists-- or to not launch them, or anything in between. What is crucial is that every potential nuclear enemy knows that such letters exist, otherwise Britain's nuclear arsenal serves no purpose as a deterrent to a first strike against the country. Besides the Prime Minister, no one knows what the letter contains. When a Prime Minister leaves office, the letters are destroyed without opening them.

In the days when British nuclear weapons were carried by RAF bombers, one Prime Minister, James Callaghan (PM from 1976-1979), stated after leaving office that he would have ordered nuclear retaliation. Until 2016, all other Prime Ministers have remained mum on the contents of their Letter of Last Resort. In a complete break with the past, however, Prime Minister Theresa May, in office only two weeks, was asked if she was prepared to “authorize a nuclear strike that could kill 100,000 innocent men, women and children”. She replied unequivocally, “Yes”.

Trident ballistic missile underwater launch.
Trident ballistic missile underwater launch. | Source
Artist's conception of an incoming independently-targetted ballistic warhead.
Artist's conception of an incoming independently-targetted ballistic warhead. | Source

Four Letters, Four Subs

Four identical letters are made; one for each Vanguard class ballistic missile submarine in the Royal Navy. Britain has no land-based missiles or nuclear bombs anymore. The huge subs, nearly 500 feet long and displacing 16,000 tons, are enough of a deterrence. Each of them, HMS Vanguard, HMS Victorious, HMS Vigilant and HMS Vengeance, can carry 16 ballistic missiles having a range of 7,000 miles. With each missile containing up to 12 independently-targeted warheads, a single sub could deliver 192 warheads. Official policy states, however, that only 48 warheads are on board each sub.

A port quarter view of the British nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Vanguard (SSBN-50) arriving in PORT CANAVERAL, FLORIDA.
A port quarter view of the British nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine HMS Vanguard (SSBN-50) arriving in PORT CANAVERAL, FLORIDA. | Source

Location(s) Unknown

Up to three of the subs may be in port or dry-dock, but one or more is always on patrol. While on patrol, the submarines' locations are unknown. Not even the Navy knows exactly where they are, nor do most of their crews. During a patrol, which may be three months or more, the submarine's 160-person crew may not communicate with anyone, including their families.

The Prime Minister's command bunker is located beneath the Ministry of Defence in Whitehall, London.
The Prime Minister's command bunker is located beneath the Ministry of Defence in Whitehall, London. | Source

Should BBC Radio 4 Ever Go Off the Air...

Should the worst happen and the Prime Minister and the “second person” die, the captain of each patrolling submarine runs through a check list of procedures to determine if the government is still functioning. BBC Radio 4, which broadcasts racing tips, cricket test matches and soap operas among other programs, happens to broadcast on a frequency that can be picked up by all four submarines. One of the checks the subs perform to see if civilization has ended is whether they can still receive radio broadcasts from Radio 4. If the checks indicate the UK has ceased to function, the captains open their safes and the safe inside them. They take out the Letter of Last Resort and execute the dead Prime Minister's instructions, which will unleash a punishing retribution from their dead country. Or not.

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Comments 16 comments

austinhealy profile image

austinhealy 4 years ago from Treasure Coast, Florida

Fascinating read. Frightening too. Pretty clever way to go with a final bang ! I just hope those four letters will never come out of their safe. Thank you for sharing this highly interesting information


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

austin, thanks for your kind comment. It is frightening-- what a high-stakes game. Of course, nuclear war is a smidgeon less likely nowadays, but still. To think those letters could say "stand down" just as well as "strike so and so" could drive you nuts.


Larry Fields profile image

Larry Fields 4 years ago from Northern California

Hi David. Outstanding hub! Now I have a stooopid question: Are the Letters of Last Resort (LoLR)obsolete?

Yes, before the Soviet Union broke up, the LoLR sort of made sense. But now we have more members in the Nuclear Club. And my understanding is that some weapons grade plutonium and uranium is missing.

More to the point, what about a Surreptitious Importation Strike (SIS) against the UK? In an SIS, we'd never know who the perps were. They could even be terrorists who hated Brits and Russians equally. They could kill two birds with one nuclear stone. Well, actually several well-placed nuclear stones, smuggled in cargo containers on ships, and carried to their final destinations on lorries.

Voted up, shared, and more.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Great questions, Larry. The only one I can answer is: LoLR is not obsolete. PM David Cameron (the current PM) wrote one the first day he became PM.


AlexK2009 profile image

AlexK2009 4 years ago from Edinburgh, Scotland

The Soviet Union may be no more but these letters are not obsolete for new enemies arise. The letters could order attacks against any country or selection of countries in the world.

I would hope these letters are reviewed by the current prime minister from time to time. Things can change rapidly


Pavlo Badovskyy profile image

Pavlo Badovskyy 4 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine

Great hub. In fact such things were always kept in secret. Just couple of days ago I read an article quoting extracts from the Kennedy speech which he was supposed in case of nuclear attack in the time of Caribbean crisis in 1962. See link below.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218288/Cu...


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

AlexK2009, I assume the PM does review the letter's contents as necessary. The instructions in the letter could be anything-- they could even tell the captain(s) of the sub(s) to use their discretion as to whether to launch or even where to target. Thinking about this can start headaches.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Hi Pavlo. Have you ever seen "Dr. Strangelove, Or How I Came To Love The Bomb"? It's an insane movie about an insane situation. The whole concept of mutually assured destruction is anchored by the idea that we build these weapons and they build these weapons and as long as nobody uses these weapons, the strategy works. But if someone uses these weapons, well, the plan sort of falls apart.

That's an interesting link. The whole Cuban Missile Crisis is in the news because of its 50th anniversary. I remember it very well from the viewpoint of a 12-year-old. We thought there was going to be a nuclear war. My understanding is that the Russians came out ahead on the one hand because the Americans had to remove their missiles from Turkey as part of the deal. On the other hand, Krushchev, as part of the deal, couldn't reveal that Turkish missiles were removed and he was removed from power shortly thereafter.


aethelthryth profile image

aethelthryth 4 years ago from American Southwest

I have written a lot of safety instructions and was very familiar with the concept of "fail-safe". It was only recently I discovered there is also "fail-deadly". It seems the term was coined mainly for situations such as are explained in your article.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks for commenting, aethelthryth. Yes, fail-deadly fits. Also, dead man's switch. The Russian's system is called the "Dead Hand". Don't know what America's is called off-hand. But I love the the term "Letters of Last Resort". It's so... British... and proper.


carolina muscle profile image

carolina muscle 4 years ago from Charlotte, North Carolina

this is fascinating ! thank you for an interesting read.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks, Chris. Glad you enjoyed it.


peachpurple profile image

peachpurple 22 months ago from Home Sweet Home

wow awesome story, gave me more knowledge that our country history never taught us.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 22 months ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks, peachpurple. Pop culture screams "DEAD HAND!", "DOOMSDAY CLOCK!"... I love the British understatement: "Letters of Last Resort". Please pass the biscuits. Thank you so much.


stereomike83 profile image

stereomike83 16 months ago from UK

Great hub on a really interesting subject. Having read a great book of Britain during the Cuban Missile Crisis (that I have written about here on HP) it showed how tough making those decisions could be during the height of imminent destruction so I cannot imagine how difficult it would be straight after the euphoria of an election win.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 16 months ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks, stereomike83. May electrical power to the BBC 4 studio never fail.

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