How Lincoln's Assassination Affected His Cabinet Members
After Lincoln's death on April 15, 1865, at 7:22am on the morning of Good Friday, the people in the United States and the world over began to see Lincoln in another perspective after he became the first American president to be assassinated. This event ultimately changed the course of the lives for many people, especially those who were the closest to him. Lincoln's cabinet members obviously were affected the most by this turn of events and in the years following his death, some of his cabinet members went on to pursue ever greater achievements in their political careers and others hit dead ends.
William H. Seward, Secretary of State
Lincoln's Secretary of State, William Henry Seward, was convinced that he would become the next president but after Lincoln appointed him as his Secretary of State he never accomplished that goal. During the night of Lincoln's assassination, Seward and his son were attacked by one of Wilke Booth's men with a knife and survived the attack. Six weeks after the attack, Seward's wife Frances collapsed and died because you she never got over the horrible attack that took place against her husband and son on that night. A few months later Seward's daughter died from her illness with tuberculosis, two months short of her twenty-second birthday.
After Lincoln's death, Seward remained Secretary of State with the new president, Andrew Johnson, for the entire term. He later secured the purchase of Alaska. After retiring, Seward spent a lot of time traveling to Japan, China, India, Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and France. He died in 1872 at the age of seventy-one.
Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War
Secretary of War, Edwin McMaster Stanton's poltical career came to a sudden halt after Lincoln's assassination. He continued to serve as Secretary of War under Andrew Johnson but he was never on the same page with the new president. He was often in open conflict with him. The president eventually ask for his resignation and Stanton refused to resign by barricading himself in his office for weeks. As a result of his action, an impeachment process was started by the senate to remove him from office, but the impeachment failed by one vote and Stanton finally submitted his resignation.
Stanton was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Ulysses Grant. This was something Stanton wanted from the beginning of his career. Unfortunately his joy was short lived, Stanton suffered a severe asthma attack three days later and lapsed into unconsciousness. He died at the age of fifty-five.
Edward Bates, Attorney General
Attorney General Edward Bates basically removed himself from the political scene entirely due to health problems before Lincoln was re-elected. Bates spent the remaining years with his close knit family. He died in 1869 at the age of seventy-six.
Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of Treasury
Salmon Portland Chase, Lincoln's Secretary of Treasury, was another one of Lincoln's cabinet member who eyes were on the presidency. He tried twice to be the nominee for president after Lincoln's death. Both times he lost the bid for president.
After a heart attack and stroke, Chase fell into a depression and felt that there wasn't too much he could do with his life outside of politics. He died on May 7, 1873 with Kate and Nettie, his daughters, by his side. He was sixty-five.
Montgomery Blair, Postmaster General
Montgomery Blair, Postmaster General, did not accomplish too much in the ten year period after the assassination. He did serve as counsel to Democrat Samuel Tilden in the disputed election of 1876, which Republican Rutherford B. Hayes eventually won. Blair started writing a biography of Andrew Jackson when he died in 1883 at the age of seventy.
Gideon Welles, Secretary of The Navy
Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, who literally start the Navy remained in the cabinet until 1868. He wrote a series of historical essays and was the first to write about Lincoln as a towering figure.
Welles kept a very descriptive diary of his day to day activities while in office under Lincoln. He continued to edit it in his last years. This book eventually became the main source of information about the inner workings of Lincoln administration. Welles was seventy-five when he died from a strep infection in 1878.
Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of Interior
And finally, Caleb Blood Smith, Secretary of Interior from Indiana. No president before Lincoln had ever selected a man from that state in his cabinet. Smith's career came to an end less than two years after being appointed to the cabinet. He resigned and became a district judge in Indiana.
He died on January 9, 1864 sixteen months before Lincoln's assassination. After his resignation, Smith was succeeded by another politician from Indian named John Palmer Usher, and later by James Harlan of Iowa, who would become Robert Lincoln's father-in-law.
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© 2009 Melvin Porter
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