Not usually. Political correctness is a late 20th Century synonym for politeness. People are constantly politically correct throughout their lives, but everyone just calls this politeness. If someone has a big nose, you don't usually talk about their big nose. If you did, that person wouldn't vote for you (politically incorrect). Everyone knows that person has a big nose, and children have little concept of political correctness, so they often bring it up. To truly speak with the innocence of a child would be someone without any political correctness. The problem is, we as a culture expect people to mature and accept a socially agreed upon version of decorum in order to successfully be productive in our community.
It's only controversial discussions of politeness that we call "politically correct". Is it wrong to call African Americans negros? What about jigaboos (sp?)? It's considered inpolite to call an African American by those words because the African American culture deems them taboo. If you respect that culture, you will be polite to their social taboos.
I'd say that in 95% of circumstances, political correctness is not counter productive. In fact I'd call it counter counter productive, or just productive. A world without PC is a world where nobody can interact with anyone else without feeling negative emotions.
I try to keep to politically correct language when possible so as not to offend anyone who I might be looking to influence now or in the future. It's good business. Most people either don't care if you're overly polite, or they'd prefer over politeness to rudeness.
The problem some people have with it is the need to understand other cultural segments of our population. It can be difficult to keep track of all of them. If I crashed on an island, and there were a local tribe that had been untouched by civilization, I'd sure want to be politically correct with them as quickly as I could.