Every race has had its power of control of the masses throughout World history. The white people have been taking hold much of the power in the last few hundred years.
Nowadays, the super power is Global public opinion. Wars and whites are slowly losing ground and people of colors of brown, yellow, and black will all be eventually turn mix into brown.
Being white, I do some comedy and I cant' do any jokes that might put down any other races or women as a rule, Yet, White male jokes are open season to anyone.
I once wrote a thread on the conflicts of white and browns people in human history it was banned.
Are we kind enough to talk about race openly nowadays?
Comedy is possibly what will finally break down the racial barriers in America. Archie Bunker started it here in America by being everyones favorite bigot and racist. He hated everyone and finally allowed alot of white males to see themselves as what they were. Some laughed along and changed and some renewed their membership in the local chapter of the KKK.
I recently came across the series called Chocolate News. Breaking down the racial barriers by laughing at them still breaks them down.
I always wondered what you really looked like !!!
That's an old pic and I have gotten contact lens that have normal eyes painted on them.
I live in a town where we are respected and befiended by all humans.
This is a local musician and his pal. I linked to the story in our local paper.
http://www.goupstate.com/article/200810 … /810010199
Oh MY GOD!!! Is he a member of the white rat race.
Barney is a legend around here in someways. He has hosted the moonshires reunion music festival for years. It was original called Woodstick but they were forced to change the name. Here's an introduction to a South Carolina classic I think you will enjoy meeting. His website is mooshiners.com which has a lot more about him, the band and the festival if your interested.
<iframe title="YouTube video player" class="youtube-player" type="text/html" width="480" height="390" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/q53FVt7H9aA" frameborder="0" allowFullScreen></iframe>
His website is mooshiners.com which has a lot more about him, the band and the festival if your interested.
For every little step that comedy takes towards breaking those barriers down, some phony that wants to come off as righteous sets it back five paces.
I'm so tired of not even being able to say the terms "black", or "asian" or whatever without some pompous white person trying to pretend like the mere mention of the world makes me a racist just so they come off as some kind of saint.
*They* are the racist ones.
What happened here is so raw, who can think of "history"?
You can relate to your own history and get the answer.
Racism is cold-blooded evil. And it still exists.
I've felt it from other races, but I knew it wasn't personal.
It's really not personal. I don't know WHAT is it!
But as long as there is "white priviledge", and there is....it will remain! It's getting better, but some white people don't want to give up that priviledge, and see all be equal. And until that happens, we are where we are. That's HERE in America, I don't know about anywhere else. And that's only my opinion.
What I think is happening around the world is most of the third world countries. For example India and China who are tripling their economic growth over America’s. Since poverty is the greatest killer of all, they making their own equalizing path with up dated information on the web.
White people will slowly be force to come to the conclusion they are really no better or worst then the next person on this Planet. What whites are noticing is deflation of their ego and an increase of their spiritual self slowly moving forward. Get a feeling that it will all balance out better from the great abuse in the pass.
Comedy may but doubtfully be a catalyst which breaks down racial barriers for in the past comedy was simply another form of degradation particularly of nonwhites. As long as the reality of race hate is woven into fabric of society racism is never funny.
The distorted mentality of a racist divides the races, interracial relationships are threatened, hatred permeates the atmosphere. As long as we're willing to look down on other races there is little humor to be found in the racial comedy.
Racism is in everybody, it is part of how we know who we are, by defining who creates the text that we are part of and who is outisde it - other.
If I am right in any respect it means that it will never go away completely unless all diversity is wiped awya, as CastleP puts it a general 'browning' of the whole world population.
But diversity is one of hte things that creates change and forward movement and so is a good thing to have.
So racism will always be a thing that we have to conciously guard against, which would be easier without the demonisation of hte other by religion and the right wing media.
I can't disagree with you more. Your assessment of our inability to accept one another for who we are illustrate a mentality that's even lower than juveniles. The animal kingdom can except differences ranging from colors to shape meaning that a house cat can mother a tiger cub. But the most superior beings on the planet cannot accept one another from the insane notion that skin color makes a difference. That type of thinking is mental illness.
The only thing I see preventing us behaving like me to adults is ignorant, selfishness.
I just find it incredible to think that we are supposed to be intelligent-enlightened people who have to look down on others in others to feel good about ourselves-Ridiculous!
You may like think so - but the reality says differently.
You may think it is incredible that we look down upon others to feel good about ourselves but that is what we do - some try to conciously control it but many don't - as you say 'ignorant selfishness'.
Blinding yourself to the mechanics behind the phenomenon only means that you will not be able to see how to overcome it.
The reality you are living in is not the reality I see in the rest of world. I don't understand your inability to look beyond the idea that color is simply an attribute in others your perspective is it's an issue to be argued, debated and judged that would indicate to me that you are closer to suffering delusions far more than I ever could. Whenever you change your talking about suffers from the same ideology that one race government is the only type of government acceptable. That type of thinking is unacceptable.
You clearly are not reading what I wrote.
I did not say or advocate any such thing.
maybe you could go back and read the posts from the beginning again ?
The implication of accept that behavior is taken from your statement:
Blinding yourself to the mechanics behind the phenomenon only means that you will not be able to see how to overcome it.
So racism will always be a thing that we have to conciously guard against, which would be easier without the demonisation of hte other by religion and the right wing media
and I also said this to sum it up.
and understanding why or how a thing happens IS the way to overcome it !
If you keep getting intense pain in the head and you examine your behaviour you will dicover that hitting yourself on the head with a hammer is the cause and then you know how to stop the pain. Or of course you can keep blaming others and running around in circles to escape.
How we differ is the lie perpetuated by those who supported bigotry is simply a lie but we legitimize it by saying things like only one race will resolve this problem-that is a lie.
Come to Hawaii - we have hilarious comedians here that use racial jokes all the time - they pick on the Samoans, Tongans, Filipinas, Hawaiians, Pollocks, and the haoles (whites) etc. and no one seems to mind - or if they do, they better shut up or risk being beat up by one big Samoan or Tongan hahaha - maybe you are taking it all to seriously. Aloha.
In recent years in North America many people of color have broken into the comedy clubs by making racist jokes about their own race. If most Whites tried to make those same jokes, they could lose their job and sometime their Careers
I just need to be careful on the comedy stage my ex wife is Aztec Mexican
I want everyone to be equal and treated fairly, but I don't want us all to be alike! Does that make sense? I love the diversity of America and believe that it's one element that makes us strong...and interesting! We have some Hispanic pals, and I love attending their parties and get-togethers and learning more about their rich culture. Same goes for the Japanese friends we used to have before they returned to Asia.
habee, isn't it by meeting and experiencing different people and cultures that we learn about us and the world we share? Most of these bigots don't fear the people, they fear knowledge.
You're probably right, Stump. I wish racists would get to personally know members of the groups they hate. It's a lot harder to hate an individual that it is to hate a faceless group.
Exactly habee. Just this weekend, a program was talking about the Boston Celtics, and how one particular coach fought racism. It is because he knew these men personally, and loved them--as human beings.
He refused to stay in hotels that discriminated.He said If our black players are not welcome, we aren't either.
Also happened with the "Rat Pack" in Hollywood.
When the hotels wouldn't allow Sammy Davis Jr. in, Frank Sinatra and his pals refused to stay too.
But there was also No Irish Need Apply....
It's really so stupid....but is as old as humanity.
I don't agree that bigots don't fear the people, it is precisely the fear of the 'other' in their difference - then I could agree with you that it is accepting that there are other differences that are as valid, or more valid, than their own.
you may be correct unfortunately there are still people living today who remembers being denied job opportunities, not being allowed to eat at public restaurant counters, forced to sit at the back of the bus, little to no protection from law enforcement for no other reason than the color of their skin.
I might be taking it too seriously but it's serious enough to be taken seriously.
Still going on in the "Justice" system.
Black men are 12% of the population, but something like 80% of the convictions and imprisonment....this is no accident. Much as the tax policy favors the wealthy, the legal policy favors whites......AND wealthy, of course, too. IMO
Leave it to LMC to make the jump into another tired wealth envy argument....
I think everyone should make the effort, it's not just a white person's problem. In south Philly there was a high school mostly attended by black kids who beat up on asian kids and the school administration didn't do much about it. The asian kids had to boycott the school and ask the fed justice to come in. After investigations the fed said that the school admin allowed it to happen. How ironic is it that black people in that high school did to asian kids what they always complain about white people?
We all learn by experience ? Same kind of cycle where beaten kids usually beat their own kids.
This was not an isolated incident. The asian kids had been picked on for more than a year and the principal, who was black and old enough to have experienced the actual civil rights movement, did nothing. The Feds had to go in, replace the principal and put it in some sort of action plan to make sure that the school did not violate the asian kids' civil rights. Truly ironic.
Ironic I can agree - but also begs the question why we should expect better behaviour from people who have experienced the same problems than we do from others. In the UK my Asian friends were bullied all through school and nobody did anything about that either, In my school at the time that we got our fist influx of black immigrants I got suspended for fighting to protect the first black kid at our school - Catholic school of course. He went on to be bullied at any time he wasn't directly in my company and I probably made things worse not better, and the staff turned a blind eye the whole 3 or 4 years.
Of course I expect more of older black adults, especially from that whole civil rights era where the movement told the majority white race that what they did to the black race was reprehensible. I do expect them to be more empathetic when they see members of another race being harassed for their appearance and customs. You think my expectations were misplaced? That their talk about respecting people should only apply to a certain group of people and not to the whole rainbow of peoples? That's pretty sad.
What is sad is demanding higher standards from people who have been abused.
So you basically just see the whole civil rights movement as about being abused? Wow! That is more than sad. To see a group of people only as victims -- that's pathetic.
As you are still jailing a far higher percentage of black people than white - yeah they are still a group of victims.
It is not the outspoken racial abuse type of racism that is the big issue - it is the slow poison of subconcious racism of the type your posts display that keeps it going.
You can kid yourself that it's exposing subconscious racism, but your overt racism to only seeing a group of people as victims and not their leadership in seeing how far they have come and helped this society come to better race relations and have influenced other people and other societies lays bare not only your racism but your obvious paternalism not to mention a condescension that comes from a superiority mentality. How do you live with yourself?
I don't - I live with Sukie.
And with 1.4 billion Chinese and a few black friends who like me because I am the only white guy here who is not an outspoken racist or a dribbling christian moron.
And it would be more congenial on these forums if you kept your personal attacks to yourself.
What personal attacks? You were the one who exposed yourself by talking about black incarceration rates and applied it to the entire group and deemed them all victims in spite of the many black people who are successful and the success of the civil rights movement. Furthermore since you assigned them all to the role of victims you basically didn't expect much of a race of people. That is terrible. That you mention that you have black friends does not save your reputation.
I thought you said it was a race?
I'm winning .....I'm winning.
M. R . BEAN is in the lead
I NEVER go into these Politics forums, because I truly believe everyone is entitled to their opinions as long as no one is harmed in the process, but I just want to share this.
The only "race" to discuss is the human race.
There are different cultures and heritages, but only ONE race.
I'm teaching my Kindergarten class this by reading a Jamie Lee Curtis book Is There Really a Human Race. I hope they understand.
I'm with Kristen. And as the human race, we can end the cycle. If everyone would stop and say it ends with me, I won't be a part of hate, teach our children that we are all of the same race, we are all equal, then they can teach their children and so on.
The sad part is, the one's that do hate, don't want to change. They enjoy living in their ignorance, thinking they are better than someone else.
I agree that it's not just whites who are racist. Many of our black students considered Hispanics as inferior. Our Japanese friends considered Koreans as inferior. My Cambodian nephew gets a lot of verbal abuse from blacks - they call him "Mexican boy" and worse. Racism is a vicious cycle.
Ironically, our black and white students got along very well. When my youngest daughter was a high school cheerleader, we went to a banquet for the girls and their parents. All the other white girls on the squad were out of town for another function. One of the black girls decided to invite all the girls over to her house for a slumber party, but they were hesitant about inviting Melissa (my daughter) - not because the black girls were racist, but because they weren't sure Mel would want to go. I was pretty close to one of the girls, and I told her I thought Mel would love to go. She went, and she had a blast! They teased Mel good-naturedly for weeks afterward about being the only white girl there. One of them told me, laughing, "Melissa fit in just fine till we started doing hair. We didn't know what to do with all that long, straight red hair!" We all had a good laugh about it.
This is one reason I'm so supportive of school sports. It gets kids working together, and they get to know each other as individuals. At our school, basketball, football, and baseball were full of blacks and whites. Soccer got the whites, Hispanics, and Asians together.
Which is pretty much what I said earlier in this thread - racism is inherent in our make up, it takes a concious effort to not be racist, even a concious understanding of our own racist tendencies to start with.
We all know who we are in how those around us see us - so we make them part of what is us and the rest are 'other'. The more we are afraid of the other the more racist we get to be I suppose, which is why bringing people into our own sphere stops the racism.
Racism is Not nor has it Ever been inherent. I can’t believe in the 21th century we’re still walking around we the misconception about where racism comes from.
Put any two human babies together any where and see if they hate and reject each other because of the differences. We as adults need to get a better grip on reality so we can end racist ignorance.
Race hate has to be taught or implied by that which goes on around people's lives.
If you're talking about the division of separation regarding slaves, master, etc. These bounderies wer created by men and implimented by men. Just because they existed did mean that way things should have went it's just they way they made them to be.
Our countries all have government structures but these are put in place by people which isn't to say this the only way to govern nor the best way it's just our way.
No - I said nothing about slaves masters etc. I said: QUOTE
Explain then how races form in the first place, with set borders, restricted mixing between groups etc etc etc
To make it more clear - how do the races of the world originate?
All reference to race by people of different races is not racist. The comfort races find in their own race is not racist. Slavery is not unique, it's been a part of the human experience for thousands of years. Racism is unique to the American experience and was supported by many founding fathers. We hold these truth to be self evident..., didn't apply to all people in America.
Maybe you are late to the race ?
this is about the drivers of racism, nothing to do with slavery or the US or the founding fathers or any self evident truths whatever they may be.
Can I respectfully request that you take a trip back up this thread to seewht the debate is about and then comment ?
I'm sorry, I thought The birth of racism is the driver of racism today. This discussion is too controled, good day, china man .
Not being God,
Science says it's based on the region people lived in a the rays of the sun resulted in changing the pigment of people's skin color I guess to accommadate the climate they live in.
The question was nothing to do with colour - it was
HOW DO RACES GET STARTED?
There is the Germanic or Aryan as well as the Zulu - what glued all those people together into one 'people' or race, what keeps the Irish and Italian as a distinct group in America still ?
RACE,RACIAL became sensitive subjects eventually. Go back to origin, and there was no race. People in communities as men, women and children. Talking race or community is of too great diversity to hold in thought or any form of perspective.
Let us look at a family of 5 or 6 brothers. Are they not together until maturity and age of understanding/misunderstanding. They all grew under one roof in the care of mum and dad. Even before touching age 30, amongst that 5 or 6 of them, so much animosity has grown and they do not speak to each other and one can hear slander amongst them.
Now come to the real world of people. Race and colour and dialect separated communities into groups of population divided by rivers and mountains and imaginary borders. Politics must have born then and divide and rule came into application. Division by colour and complexions and labels may have resulted.
Time evolved races and physical factors helped label people as whites, blacks, browns and whatever else.
Then how do you explain Europe, with no natural divisions especially but still a great diversity of races ?
We are talking about hte races in Europe and elsewhere - not countries. How do races form in the first place ?
When I hear some Whites complain about Blacks and how they are the cause of most of the problems. I think to myself, hey! I'm white and most of time I’m with whites and most of my problem is with whites.
For many years now I have been with brown people, once you know the rules they are somewhat the same, it's just a few Browns think I am rich and I have to watch my money more carefully.
There is a brown over on a Katrina thread who is in need of a bit of support from someone as positive and grounded as you - do me a v=favour and pop over would you.
I am absolutely sure that racism and "selfishness" though not the same but they are part of human nature whether you like it or not. It is instinctively ingrained into us in subconscious level- by whom? God? Nature? I don't know. Hitler tried to completely wipe out some of the races he though "inferior" during second world war. It is not something we can be proud of of but we cannot deny it. It is a part of "preserving species" like in animals. In a wilderness the neigbour tribe will kill you and eat(not always) you because you are not them. If you notice usually less educated,less civilised people expose it more openly. Educated, thinking people reject it ourageously and vhemently, because they find it disgustingly stupid and it is crazy if you think about it - as a human being. It just proves that we somehow are part of animal kingdom too - human animal.
If you're looking for the development of life there are a number of website that entertain that concept:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
"Homo sapiens" redirects here. For other uses, see Homo sapiens (disambiguation).
This article is about modern humans. For other human species, see Homo. For other uses, see Human (disambiguation).
Human!<-- This template has to be "warmed up" before it can be used, for some reason -->
Humans, known taxonomically as Homo sapiens (Latin for "wise man" or "knowing man"), are the only living species in the Homo genus of bipedal primates in Hominidae, the great ape family. Anatomically modern-appearing humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago, reaching full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life … index.html
The evolution of modern humans
How did humans first come about? Chris Stringer discusses the 'Out of Africa' theory and modern human variation across the world.
I appreciate the information that I am already well aware of - but you seem determined to miss the point.
The issue is RACE and you challenged my assertion that we are all racist by nature,
I then asked you to consider why races formed in the first place, not humankind but the development of races.
The point being that we separate into racial groups of people who look and behave as we do - naturally - and this natural behaviour is what drives the basic trend toward racism in everyone - a natural impulse that we must conciously recognise and overcome to NOT be racist.
I'm not challenging your assertion to nature of racism-I'm saying your wrong!
We are not born with any tendencies to be racist. The fact that one is racist is from outward events like watching daddy and/or momma, maybe the television and for the live of me why you can't grasp this fact is beyond my ability to understand it. Perhaps clinging on to some notion that magically we just have to be hateful others we don't know because hate is in the air- is all I can guess.
If you already know something then why are you acting like you don't since you ask the question???
I'm not challenging your assertion to nature of racism-I'm saying your wrong!
means you are challenging my assertion !
You have already told me what you think, + I asked you to answer the simple question "how do races form in the first place".
And when you find that information it will show you that I am closer to any truth in the matter than your opinion. Closer because in the nature/nurture balance both have an effect - but the whole concept of RACE is at the base of racism to start with.
If finding the orgin of life was simple you wouldn't have people more intelligent then you are me still looking for-please get serious.
Challenge means there's a bases to consider a possibility, wrong means I there's nothing to consider.
the statement you made "the whoe concept of RACE is at the base of racism" I see that as so far from the issue of racism it's not even funny.
You clearly do not see anything at all - or cannot read.
Where do you pull the origin of life from !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the really really simple question was
HOW DO RACES COME ABOUT
WHAT SOCIAL MECHANISM SEPERATES PEOPLE INTO RACES
WHY ARE THERE RACES OF PEOPLE
I can't be any more clear, and on that note I am going to bed as it is 5 in the morning here.
Perhaps your inability to effectively write questions and or statements tha make sense which could be cause you not to effective communicate.
Since you have all the answers why don't hold them close to your brain and keep them to yourself. My you have a good night sleep and wake up in this reality.
It is predicted that by 2040, white Americans will be a racial minority. The situation is similar in parts of Western Europe, such as in my hometown of Birmingham, where no one race has a majority. This is especially so for the youngest generation, of whom over 70% are non-white. Outdated ideas of racial superiority will not be able to survive in such a melting pot.
there will always be prejudice or bias not only because of race but also because there are some things which we value more.
There is also stereotyping. As social beings we are classified by ethnicity, race, social status, age, sex and income
True - and all these things are used against us by people at the opposite side of the spectrum I think. Young against old, rich agains poor, or more prevalent middle class high income against low income, race against race - and ethnic background picked on by everyone if you are in the minority.
Lovely creatures aren't we.
When human make up DNA biology is 99% the same in all races. I wonder how did we and the world get so heavey discrinmating of race, sex and cultures of each other. I wonder if my DNA was design already for me to be a happy person or to what degree did I make myself happy.
In hard core prison inmates mostly separtate into race groups. In order protect to each other, they say. Yet gangs begin to hate and wars starts up again.
I am telling you you we are animals by nature and if we get lucky - human beings by upbringing!
If I were a hard core Christian, I might be offended by being call an animal.... not
Biologists say our what our minds can not see that Humans share 99% of their DNA with chimpanzees but in which many other scientists think that we are ways is genetics evidence for Evolution? |
Race is a human construct, of course. It isn't anymore 'real' that we wish it to be. Even in this discussion thread, there is no real consistency in how the word is defined, some referring to the traditional “races” we might have memorized in high school, some referring to other ethnicities (Korean, Japanese, for example) as ‘races’.
If anything, genetics is making such distinctions even more ludicrous. With DNA testing - am I 85% Northern European, 15% African genetically? Do I lump myself in with other 85% Northern European - or is 80% OK? Are 90% better or worse? 25% African – is it better or worse? It's such nonsense.
I think it is true that children do not naturally divide each other into 'race' if for no other reason than they have to be taught the current definition of ‘race’ in order to use it.
And still, children DO divide and separate. They do it all the time. Children are not necessarily all that peaceable, left to their own devices.
I think the tendency to divide IS human. It is part of our consciousness. We divide everything and everyone. Who is prettier? Who is richer? Who is fatter - that's a really popular one right now.
And if it is prettier or richer or lighter or darker or more educated THEN it is better. And we all want to be 'better than', not 'lesser than'. And if I'm ‘better then’ that is 'good'. And what is not 'good' is 'bad', or at least something to be improved upon. “Race’ is the pseudo-scientific cherry on that self-serving ice cream sundae.
Frankly, the only thing better than referring to a deity to prove I am better than you, is to use Science to prove I am better than you. See how rational and non-biased I am. It can’t be helped if my race has a bigger brain or makes more money or runs faster or whatever.
In all of the different ways we have to look human, we all look human.
We just choose to act as if those differences 'mean' something.
I can agree with some of what you say regarding who people but the idea that some inherent trigger inside people kids exist is what I can't agree with.
The elements you speak of like pretty, dark, light skin whatever are still all taught from the environment surrounding us.
To further show you how powerful being taught by those around you and/or the environment itself: Several times I've seend documentaries where when a Black child is raised in a White family usually one with a good family income that child rejects their own race and idenifies with the White family and the same is truth in reverse but I'll go even further then that-A Black couple working for the government move to Japan had 2 Black daughters that attended Japanese school. After a period of time the husband and wife felt the child didn't get enough of their own cultural so the purchase some videos of Blacks and one of the video was LA riot so when the parents said to the 2 girls those are your people both girls said they aren't us We Are Japanese!
Nothing inherent cause these things to happen, they happened because of the enviroment people were living.
I agree that nothing inherent makes us select one factor over another, for instance a man made identifier such as 'race'. Still I think we humans do butt against each other, especially if we perceive someone or something to 'other' in juxtaposition to what we percieve ourselves to be or what is important to us. I think that is part of us. It doesn't have to be ugly. It is that need that creates conversation, for instance. Ann
I can see your point Ann and you're right about how we response to one-another unfortunately it is the type of enviroment we've created for ourselves take for example in America when we play sport it "Winner Take All" but in Japan (I believe it's Japan) they believe a good out come is when both parties are tided that way no one looses face.
We don't know better or worse something can be because one that something is established we rarely change from it.
It is hard to change one's way of responding to the world. And behaviors and ideas about others because they've always 'been that way' and all that.
I agree with you Esatchel it is hard to change but what gets me even more is many people don't even try.
If someone has a drinking problem and they know they have a drinking problem they need to recognize that they can't keep doing what they've been doing, and they're going to have to make that effort to change.
by SPomposello3 years ago
My wife and I are an interracial couple, I'm italian and she's black/spanish mixed, and we live in NY. So I pretty much have no issues when it comes to different races and people. I work at a job that involves dealing...
by Susannah Birch5 years ago
"Today, racism is regarded as a crime if practiced by a majority--but as an inalienable right if practiced by a minority. The notion that one’s culture is superior to all others solely because it represents...
by TMMason5 years ago
So I came across this the other day. Appearently Racism is genetic, along with alchoholism gays etc... and white people are the only ones to have ever had slaves. Okay... This man is just absurd and a great example of...
by kirstenblog3 years ago
If the various race anti-discrimination laws were to go how much racism do you think would prevail in America? Is America's tolerance, acceptance and even embrace of diversity a superficial and shallow thing that must...
by Renee S5 years ago
an African American president made it worse or better in your opinion?
by preacherdon5 years ago
I am wondering about racism in the world, particularly towards Africans and African-Americans. I know that there are underpinnings of racist attitudes in the US but what about other nations like Canada, Central or South...
Copyright © 2016 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.