Kahana and DNA 2

As promised, I’m not about to let this discussion die without putting a few nails in the coffin of those of the J1e haplotype proclaiming themselves as the one and only high priesthood of the Children of Israel.  Had they adopted the more conciliatory tone that perhaps there were separate and distinct lines of equal merit that developed within the priesthood, then perhaps I wouldn’t have become so vociferous, but it was this arrogant, and Rabbanite enforced attitude that brought me to the boil.  It is the very same attitude that they have displayed in their persecution of Karaites for over a thousand years that proves to me that they have learned nothing after all the persecutions that we Jews have suffered in general.  Their arrogance, isolationist attitude, condemnation of anything and anyone that is different from themselves, and Talmudic induced belief in superiority has been the bane of our existence. And still they cannot see the folly of their ways.  So now, I will present further arguments, facts that they will generally ignore and argue against vehemently, but as you follow their comments, should they choose to make them, you will see are emotionally based, and therefore irrelevant to factual discussion.

Facts About J2a

The J2a subclade to which my family belongs is present in the Middle East and Southcentral Asia (~4%), the latter of which includes India and Nepal. In India, there is a general trend for increased J2a frequency in higher castes. It has also been found in Crete (1-2%). As many of you are aware, I spend an incredible amount of time in China of late and as I have examined many of the Nepalese items, I have found items that are clearly Judaic influenced in nature. As suggested in my story about Mar Zutra, specifically his son Mar Yanqa, it is no surprise that we can find this influence in the south-western and north-western border areas of China. The time of origin for the J2a is calculated at 18,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago with the place of origin being Mesopotamia, Anatolia or the Levant which as mentioned in the previous article meshes well with the Patriarchal story of Abraham and therefore supports our early Hebraic origins.

First we must understand exactly what does the J2 Haplotype refer to. Also known as M172 it is typically found in Iraqis 29.7% (Sanchez et al. 2005), Lebanese 29.5% (wells et al. 2001), Syrians 29%, Sephardic Jews 29%, Kurds 28.4%, Turks 27.9%, Georgians 26.7% , Iranians 23.3%, Ashkenazi Jews 23.2%, Greeks 22.8%, Tajiks 18.4%, Italians 19.3% (Onofri et al. 2008)and therefore supports the contention that my family was more Misrachi than Ashekenazi but that wasn’t in doubt from the many tales of my family’s existence in Mahoza in what would now be considered Iraq. The haplogroup is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12 of which my family belongs to the former. Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia and it is associated with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery the idols and graven images commonly referred to in the story of Abraham and the other Patriarchs. Another important fact about the distribution of Haplogroup J2 is that it appears to have dispersed from a Middle Eastern homeland to the west through a primarily maritime route, as it is found in high concentrations among the populations of the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea in both Eurasia and Africa, and particularly along the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean in Europe. If we were to associate this with the commercial and colonial activities that we know about King Solomon’s reign, then we have what may be further evidence of its early Hebraic roots, well established before the migration of the J1 sublcade into the region. It has been reported that a sample of Italian Cohens belong to Network 1.2, a group of Y chromosomes characterized by a value of the DYS413 marker less or equal to 18. This deletion has been placed in the J2a-M410 clade and could be an indication of the recorded dispersal of aristocratic prisoners taken by the Romans back to Rome following the destruction of Jerusalem. Again, another historic indication that the actual Jerusalemite High Priesthood was selectively from the J2a4 population amongst the Jews.

History of the J2a4h Priesthood

When the first and second Temples were built, the Kohanim assumed these same roles in these permanent structures in Jerusalem. They high priests  were divided into 24 groups, each group consisting of six priestly family's. Each of the 24 served for one complete week with one of the six serving one day per week, on the  Sabbath and all six worked in tandem. These 24 groups changed every  Sabbath at the completion of the evening service. On the biblical festivals all 24 were present in the Temple for duty.  So this tells us that at the time of King Solomon we roughly had 256 Kohens serving in the Temple.  This figure corresponds well to approximately five generations from the Exodus each parent having four sons, a typical family being  perhaps eight children of a 50:50 sex ratio.

Over the next 400 years until the time of the conquest by Babylon, if the birth rate was not interrupted and sickness or other inflictions did not interfere  the at the time of the exile there would have been approximately one million offspring but clearly this was not the case.  From the list of returnees in Ezra 2:36–39 (Neh. 7:39–41) the record of the general census after the rebuilding of the Temple shows that only four priestly clans were listed: the sons of Jedaiah (of the house of Jeshua), the sons of Immer, the sons of Pashhur, and the sons of Harim and these totalled 4,289, a mere fraction of the number of total priests that might still have been in Babylon.   Even if we measure the total number of priests by those of the returnees,  it would only suggest that there were approximately 21,000 priests that remained behind.  This should not be too surprising since war, disease, and other factors such as unequal female to male ratios would have influenced the numbers. 

 Still, with so many priests returning after the Babylonian exile,  a considerable number had to be  scattered throughout Israel as it was impossible for all of them to officiate at the same time.  An arrangement was therefore made whereby they were divided regionally into 24 mishmarot  or guards, which served in a regular weekly rotation. The mishmarot were further broken up into a varying number of battei avot or houses, each division and subdivision presided over by a head of the family.   But eventually this became unwieldy and only four of the Jerusalem based families, those with the most direct line of descent from the original returning four families retained the position of Kohen Gadol or the Chief High Priest.

Of course the rabbis have done their best to confuse this tracing of the Kohenim, since in their view the Kohanim serve no purpose in their form of Judaism and they have written conflicting versions of the lineage in their Talmud.  These conflicting stories are as follows:

(1) Moses established eight (priestly) mishmarot , to which David and Samuel added another eight. Finally, on the return from the Babylonian Exile, 24 were established (TJ, Ta'an. 4:2, 67);

(2) Moses established eight (priestly and levitical) mishmarot ; David and Samuel increased them to 24, and on the return from the Exile 24 (Israelite) ammudim (ma'amadot ) were established, parallel to the priestly and levitical mishmarot (Tosef., Ta'an. 4:2);

(3) Moses established 16 mishmarot , which were later increased to 24 (Ta'an. 27a).

(4) "And the prophets among them [or "in Jerusalem", according to the Tosefta; i.e., Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi] arose and made 24 lots, and put them into an urn." Then each of the four mishmarot drew five lots in addition to his own, making a total of six. Finally, the rashei mishmarot divided them into battei avot (TJ, Ta'an. 4:4, 68a, et al.).

Thus rabbinic sources trace the first origins of the mishmarot via David and Samuel back to Moses which is never specified in the Torah.  If this were true, then it would suggest that the high priesthood was not limited only to Aaron’s sons as there were not 8 or 16 distinct families existing as the rabbis have indicated.  But what this does support is that additions were made to the families as time went by, which could explain the rise of the J1e’s later on, as many claimants would still have existed in Babylon where they would have experienced the infiltration of migrants from the Arabian peninsula.  And since we know that the Pharisees had destroyed many of the original heredity records of the priesthood as well as took over the role of deciding who was and who wasn’t a priest as can be reviewed in the article http://hubpages.com/hub/Priest-Wars then this provided the opportunity for them to insert men of their own persuasion and obedient to themselves.  This would have resulted in a further reduction to the numbers of J2 priests and a rise in the presence of J1s.

Facts About J1e

Haplogroup J1, defined by the 267 marker is most frequent in the Arabian Peninsula Yemen (76%),  Saudi(64%), Qatar (58%), and Dagestan (56%).  J1 is generally frequent amongst Arab Bedouins (62%).  It is also very common among others such as those of the Southern Levant, i.e. Palestinians (38.4%), Ashkenazi Jews (65%), in Algeria (35%) , Iraq (28.2%), Tunisia (31%), Syria (30%), Egypt (20%) and the Sinai Peninsula.  The frequency of Haplogroup J1 collapses suddenly at the borders of Arabic speaking countries with mainly non-Arabic speaking countries, such as Turkey (9%) and Iran (3.5%)  clearly indicating that it was not a common haplotype associated with Mesopotamia from where our patriarchal forefather’s came.   Yet, in spite of these obviously Bedouin or Arabic origins that would have come later, post the Exodus and establishment of Israel we find it now has the  highest frequency  among Jews proclaiming themselves to be descendants of the original Kohanim caste.  Clear evidence of the Rabbinic adulteration of the High Priesthood, once they gained control during the Pharasaic period.

Just so that it is clear that an outside influence has perpetrated this act, it should be noted that the haplotypes of we who are J2 Kohanim, we comprise a unique cluster, a very small offshoot of J2a1
the J2a4h clade.  As  J2 Kohanim we  typically have a 4/6 match for the 6-marker CMH found amongst the J1e clade (with DYS19=15 rather than 14, and DYS388=15 rather than 16) but we  do ''not'' match the 12-marker J1-extended CMH, and therefore it is clear that we do ''not'' share a common ancestor with those proclaiming themselves to be  J1 Kohanim in a Biblical timeframe.  But since it is clear that we both are equal co-inheritors of a patrilineal tradition dating back well before the Diaspora then it can only be assumed that we have a situation of two families that cannot be historically related and the Arabian Penisula origins of the J1e suggest that they were not the original family .
 And since the entire claim of the J1e families is based on the Cohen Modal Haplotype, it should be pointed out that critics of the theory point out that the CMH has also been found in significant numbers in groups of non-Jews,  as mentioned previously non-Jewish Arab and Kurdish populations and Italians. Although they will attempt to explain this through migration, conquest, assimilation, and conversions, the sheer number of these others having the CMH marker suggests that its origin precedes all of these populations and is a precursor to some common ancestral group  and therefore not a definitive priestly indicator.

More Paternal Lineage Evidence

A new study of the Kohenim suggests the majority of contemporary Jewish priests descend from a limited number of paternal lineages, the 2 largest being in J1e (P58) and J2a (M410) with over 60% of Cohanim descend from one of these 2 paternal lines. Unfortunately the paper did not test for newly discovered SNP's L24 and L25 (rs35248080 and rs34534058), known to be found in a large set of J2 Ashkenazi Cohanim. These haplotypes were simply defined as J2a, M410 in this paper and which my family, the Kahana have tested positive for both.   The study identifies 2 principal founding lineages for Jewish priests, one in J1e (P58) dating back to a common ancestor who lived approximately 3190 years ago and another lineage in J2a (M410) dating back to a common ancestor who lived 4200 years ago. It is also interesting to see a 3rd lineage of Jewish priests from the island of Jerba defined by SNP M318 which also lies downstream of SNP's L24 and L25, also known as J2a4h.  Jerba which is located off Tunisia obviously would appear to have been a major influence on my family since we Kahana are part of this 3rd lineage, but none of the stories to date from my family have provided any mention of Tunisia in our history.

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Comments 19 comments

JacobMetz 22 months ago

Allahumma (اللَّهُمَّ) is purported to be an invocative containing the Arabic word for deity- Allah- and the vocative particle humma- O Allah. However, there is no sure etymology for this construction- this vocative particle appears on no other Arabic word. There are some Arabic etymologists who claimed that this word is old Southern Arabic, Qahtani, or of Hebrew origin. This might, very well, be the case.

The Arabic and the Hebrew contain the HM suffix, however these are 3rd masculine plural pronouns- their; this simply doesn't fit. Ugaritic, a northern Semitic Cana'anite language- which might have preceded the Israelite Hebrew- does have the HM ending aside from the 3rd masculine plural pronoun- as does Hebrew.

In Ugaritic, the masculine plurals end in huma; in Hebrew, the masculine plurals end in iYM. In Ugaritic, to say deities, it would be written ILuHuMa; in Hebrew, it is ELoHiYM. That this could be so can be surmised from the Arabic Qur'an's mimicking of the Hebrew Text in the usage of the pluralis majestatis- plural of majesty. In verses such as Genesis 1:26, the Hebrew Text reads, "And God (ELoHiYM) said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." Likewise, the Arabic Qur'an used similar language; in verses such as 95:4, it reads, "We have made man in the best of molds." In 97:1, it reads, "We have sent it down in the night of decree."

According to academic research on case endings, case endings only survive today in Akkadian, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Ugaritic. Akkadian and Ugaritic are both North Semitic languages; Arabic is South Semitic. The case endings in Ethiopic, also a South Semitic language, are limited to the accusative only. It is interesting that the earliest of all Semitic languages, Akkadian, used case endings which was passed to Ugaritic (Akkadian, Arabic, and Ugaritic conjugate nearly identically)- one of the early Cana'anite languages, and also to the south Arabian languages of Arabic and Ethiopic while bypassing both Aramaic and Hebrew. This demonstrates that Arabic originated in the North- not the South. Akkadian was a Northern Semitic language- the origin of all Semitic languages.

According to the Pentateuch, Eber had two sons- Peleg and Joktan. Peleg and his descendants lived from the South Eastern parts of Turkey, throughout Northern Mesopotamia, and into the North Eastern parts of Persia. Joktan and his descendants, as it is surmised, populated the Arabian peninsula- taking their language with them.

The Ugaritic shared similar qualities with Hebrew as well as Arabic. For Hebrew, the Ugaritied shared the locative- He- which is suffixed to nouns to indicate motion toward the noun. In morphology, the Ugaritic shared the assimilation of the Nun with the Hebrew. Before any other non-guttural consonant, the Nun assimilates into the following non-guttural consonant. The 2nd independant pronoun- Anta- in Ugaritic became Atta; the same is found in Hebrew, but not Arabic. The ugaritic masculine plural is huma in the nominitive and ima in the accusative and genitive while in Hebrew it is iYM; the feminine plural in Hebrew is oTH while in Ugaritic it is at (the related case endings are added- a, i, or u). The conjugation of verbs in Ugaritic, resemble the Arabic verbal conjugation more than it does the Hebrew.

The importance of this is that it demonstrates the opposite of what some mainstream academics are teaching- that the Semites arrived in the North from the Arabian Peninsula. That Arabic has similar features to both Akkadian and Ugaritic proves that Arabic branched off from Akkadian very early- probably during the time the Akkadians ruled the Sumerian kingdoms. Ugaritic was- more than likely- prior to the Phoenician language- which resembles Hebrew more than any other language. The similarities between Ugaritc, Phoenician, and Hebrew demonstrates the Western migration of the Semetic people- which is what is shown in both archealogy and genetics- Haplogroup J is the ancestral haplogroup of all Semetic people; this divided, early, into J1 to the South and J2 to the North. The Torah explained that the sons of Eber- probably- separated during the time of the Akkadian rule of Sumeria as well. This gives linguistic evidence toward the historical accuracy of the Bible's historical narratives.


JacobMetz 22 months ago

It is a misconception that Ishmael was the father of the Arabs. Even the Arabs claim different.

Sa'adia Gaon's Judeo-Arabic Translation of the Pentateuch: Genesis 10:25-30. (This was the first Jewish translation of the Hebrew scripture to Arabic- in the 10th century CE)

"And for Abir was born two sons, the name of one of the two Falaj- for in his days the earth was divided- and the name of his brother Qahtan. And Qahtan begat AlMudad, Shalaf, Hazarmawt, Yarach, Haduram, Uzal, Diqlah, Ubal, AbimaIl, Shaba, Ufir, Hawilah, and Yubab; all these are the sons of Qahtan. And their habitation was from Makkah as you go to AlMadinah to the Eastern Mountain."

The last verse is very important. Eber had two sons- Peleg and Joktan; yet it was Shem who was called the father of the sons of Eber (the Hebrews). This means both Peleg and Joktan were Hebrews (sons of Eber). The sons of Joktan were the progenitors of the Arabs of the Hejaz and Yemen (the ancestral home of the Quraish- the tribe of Muhammad).

Many Western scholars mistakenly claim Ishmael as the father of the Arabs, but even the Arabs claim otherwise. The following is taken from the Islamic hadith:

"The Prophet added, "May Allah bestow Mercy on Ishmael's mother! Had she let the Zam-zam (flow without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water) (to fill her water-skin), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth." The Prophet further added, "Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her, 'Don't be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.' The House (i.e. Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada'. They landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said, 'This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.' They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water, and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water)." The Prophet added, "Ishmael's mother was sitting near the water. They asked her, 'Do you allow us to stay with you?" She replied, 'Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.' They agreed to that." The Prophet further said, "Ishmael's mother was pleased with the whole situation as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ishmael) grew up and learnt Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them."

Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 583

This proves that the Arabs were around before Ishmael- how could he learn Arabic if he were the father of the Arabs?

Sa'adia Gaon makes it clear that the Arabs were Hebrews- sons of Eber (Heber). Genetically, they should be the same, right?

A genetic haplogroup is based upon the paternal and maternal genetic material passed on to their children. The paternal lineage is traced through the paternal Y chromosomes and the maternal lineage is traced through the mitochondrial DNA. According to geneticists (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.... the Semitic haplogroup is Y-haplogroup J. This haplogroup has two lines- J1 and J2. J1 is specifically from the Arabian peninsula; J2 is specifically Mesopotamian. The estimated time that the split between J1 and J2 occurred is around 4-10 thousand years ago.

Abraham lived during the time of the Eastern Semitic kings- among whom was one named Amraphel (Genesis 14:1). Assyriologist, Archibald Sayce, explained that the Biblical Amraphel was- none other than- Hammurabi (The Early History of the Hebrews 14). If Sayce is correct, then Abraham was definitely alive during the reign of Hammurabi sometime between 1792 BCE to 1750 BCE- that is between 3,807 to 3,765 years ago. Based upon the genealogy of Genesis 11, Abraham was born 225 years after Eber; add to this the age of Abraham when the confederation of Kings, along with Amraphel, came and took Lot captive (Genesis 14)- at least 75 years- and this makes the time Eber lived between 4,137 to 4,095 years ago. This means that the J1 and J2 lines began with the sons of Eber- Peleg and Joktan; Eber, then, was Haplogroup J.

Peleg and his sons made their habitation in Mesopotamia, the origin of Haplogroup J2. Joktan and his sons went to the south- to the Arabian peninsula- the origin of Haplogroup J1. Abraham and the Israelites, therefore, would have been Haplogroup J2.

Today's genetic studies have shown that the Jewish people are comprised of various haplogroups; the four most proficient of the Haplogroups are J1, J2, E1b1, and R1b1. Haplogroup J1 is the largest Haplogroup while J2 is the largest minority. Haplogroup E1b1 is an African Haplogroup- Pharaoh Ramses II was Haplogroup E1b1. R1b1 is a European Haplogroup and is the largest Haplogroup among European Jews. The E1b1 Haplogroup entered into the Israelite lineage due to the 400 years they were in captivity in Egypt. The account of the Exodus in Exodus 12:38 explained that a great mixture went out of Egypt with the Israelites. This mixture is the mixed marriages between the Israelites and the Egyptians. As for the European Haplogroup R1b1, this, more than likely, entered into the Israelite lineage due to the occupation of Israel by the Greeks, and Romans as well as the invasion of the European nations during the crusades.

The J1 haplogroup, which is Arabian, entered the Israelite lineage after the destruction of the second Temple by the Romans. At this time, many of the Israelites fled to Arabia- which was host to the Himyarite Kingdom of Yemen. The Himyarites were the descendants of Joktan- called Qahtan by the Arabs. This tribe is the progenitor of the Jurhum tribe into which Ishmael married and learned Arabic. The Himyarite Kings- all Arabs of the J1 Haplogroup- converted to Judaism and was the largest Jewish kingdom outside Israel since the time of David and Solomon. The Jewish people spent almost a thousand years among the Arab populations. During this time, around the 2nd century CE, the Rabbis changed the laws of lineage- from the Biblical patrilineal descent to the matrilineal descent. This meant that any man- from any ethnic group- could marry a Jewish woman and their children would be 100% Jewish. On the other hand, any Jewish man who married a non-Jewish woman would have non-Jewish children. This is why there were so many foreign Haplogroups which entered into the Israelite lineages.

The Bible, and modern genetics, have shown that the Mesopotamian peoples- the people of Abraham- were J2 and the Arabs made the J1 lineages. Both are Hebrews, but only the J2 (specifically J2a4 and the various J2a4 lines- L24- F3133) are the original lineage of the Israelites.


Ya'aqov ben Yisrael 22 months ago

Allahumma: Semitic Languages and Migrations

Allahumma (اللَّهُمَّ) is purported to be an invocative containing the Arabic word for deity- Allah- and the vocative particle humma- O Allah. However, there is no sure etymology for this construction- this vocative particle appears on no other Arabic word. There are some Arabic etymologists who claimed that this word is old Southern Arabic, Qahtani, or of Hebrew origin. This might, very well, be the case.

The Arabic and the Hebrew contain the HM suffix, however these are 3rd masculine plural pronouns- their; this simply doesn't fit. Ugaritic, a northern Semitic Cana'anite language- which might have preceded the Israelite Hebrew- does have the HM ending aside from the 3rd masculine plural pronoun- as does Hebrew.

In Ugaritic, the masculine plurals end in huma; in Hebrew, the masculine plurals end in iYM. In Ugaritic, to say deities, it would be written ILuHuMa; in Hebrew, it is ELoHiYM. That this could be so can be surmised from the Arabic Qur'an's mimicking of the Hebrew Text in the usage of the pluralis majestatis- plural of majesty. In verses such as Genesis 1:26, the Hebrew Text reads, "And God (ELoHiYM) said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." Likewise, the Arabic Qur'an used similar language; in verses such as 95:4, it reads, "We have made man in the best of molds." In 97:1, it reads, "We have sent it down in the night of decree."

According to academic research on case endings, case endings only survive today in Akkadian, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Ugaritic. Akkadian and Ugaritic are both North Semitic languages; Arabic is South Semitic. The case endings in Ethiopic, also a South Semitic language, are limited to the accusative only. It is interesting that the earliest of all Semitic languages, Akkadian, used case endings which was passed to Ugaritic (Akkadian, Arabic, and Ugaritic conjugate nearly identically)- one of the early Cana'anite languages, and also to the south Arabian languages of Arabic and Ethiopic while bypassing both Aramaic and Hebrew. This demonstrates that Arabic originated in the North- not the South. Akkadian was a Northern Semitic language- the origin of all Semitic languages.

According to the Pentateuch, Eber had two sons- Peleg and Joktan. Peleg and his descendants lived from the South Eastern parts of Turkey, throughout Northern Mesopotamia, and into the North Eastern parts of Persia. Joktan and his descendants, as it is surmised, populated the Arabian peninsula- taking their language with them.

The Ugaritic shared similar qualities with Hebrew as well as Arabic. For Hebrew, the Ugaritied shared the locative- He- which is suffixed to nouns to indicate motion toward the noun. In morphology, the Ugaritic shared the assimilation of the Nun with the Hebrew. Before any other non-guttural consonant, the Nun assimilates into the following non-guttural consonant. The 2nd independent pronoun- Anta- in Ugaritic became Atta; the same is found in Hebrew, but not Arabic. The ugaritic masculine plural is huma in the nominitive and ima in the accusative and genitive while in Hebrew it is iYM; the feminine plural in Hebrew is oTH while in Ugaritic it is at (the related case endings are added- a, i, or u). The conjugation of verbs in Ugaritic, resemble the Arabic verbal conjugation more than it does the Hebrew.

The importance of this is that it demonstrates the opposite of what some mainstream academics are teaching- that the Semites arrived in the North from the Arabian Peninsula. That Arabic has similar features to both Akkadian and Ugaritic proves that Arabic branched off from Akkadian very early- probably during the time the Akkadians ruled the Sumerian kingdoms. Ugaritic was- more than likely- prior to the Phoenician language- which resembles Hebrew more than any other language. The similarities between Ugaritc, Phoenician, and Hebrew demonstrates the Western migration of the Semetic people- which is what is shown in both archealogy and genetics- Haplogroup J is the ancestral haplogroup of all Semetic people; this divided, early, into J1 to the South and J2 to the North. The Torah explained that the sons of Eber- probably- separated during the time of the Akkadian rule of Sumeria as well. This gives linguistic evidence toward the historical accuracy of the Bible's historical narratives.

Abraham lived during the time of the Eastern Semitic kings- among whom was one named Amraphel (Genesis 14:1). Assyriologist, Archibald Sayce, explained that the Biblical Amraphel was- none other than- Hammurabi (The Early History of the Hebrews 14). If Sayce is correct, then Abraham was possibly alive during the reign of Hammurabi from 1792 BCE to 1750 BCE- that is between 3,807 to 3,765 years ago. Based upon the genealogy of Genesis 11, Abraham was born 225 years after Eber; add to this the age of Abraham when the confederation of Kings, along with Amraphel, came and took Lot captive (Genesis 14)- at least 75 years- and this makes the time Eber lived between 4,137 to 4,095 years ago.

Eber was the progenitor of all the Hebrews; he had two sons- Peleg and Joktan. Peleg remained in the North, in Mesopotamia and the Levant. Joktan was the father of the Southern Arabian tribes- not Ishmael. This is within the time that J1 and J2 diverged which means Eber was J. The high presence of J2a4h among the Israelites and the Samaritans proves that J2a4 is the original Israelite Haplogroup.


Ya'aqov ben Yisrael 22 months ago

Ishmael, according to Torah, married an Egyptian, but according to Islamic tradition, married into the Jurhum a tribe of Qahtan who was identified by Saadia Gain as Yaqtan.

Since Ishmael was a son of Avraham, a Mesopotamian descendant of Peleg, he would have been, J2- not J1. The small presence of J2 among the Quraish- the tribe of Muhammad who claimed descent from Ishmael, shows that the northern J2 entered Arabia.

ISHMAEL, contrary to popular opinion, was not the Father of Arabs, but Ever was as he was the father of all Hebrews. There is only one haplogroup which split northern and southern and that is J which split into J1 to the south and J2 to the North.


Ya'aqov ben Yisrael 22 months ago

I find it interesting that Ever had two sons, Yaqtan and Peleg. Yaqtan is associated with the southern Arabians and Peleg with the Mesopotamains.

According to most geneticists, the J1 and J2 diverged from J around 4-10 thousand years ago. Amraphel, according to many Assyriologists, was Hammurabi. Avraham was at least 75 when Amraphel took Lot. Since Avraham was 225 years after Ever, and lived during the reign of Hammurabi, then that would make the separation between Yaqtan and Peleg around 4000 years ago.

The small amount of J2 among that Arabians, demonstrate, as geneticists have proven, that J2 is specific to the northern Levant and Anatolia Harangue is the ancestral home of Avraham and is located in modern Turkey.

The J1 haplogroup, more than likely, entered the Israelites as a result of the Himyar conversions in Southern Arabia. The Himyar nobility converted en mass which created the largest Jewish Kingdom outside Israel.

I, too, am J2a4 L24 which, I believe to be the original haplogroup of all Israelites.


Al 22 months ago

Very interesting thank you , im j2a4b m67 .. from northern England . I really hope one day that this J1 -J2 issue is solved .


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Kahana 5 years ago Author

Yes B.B. 182634 is my DNA registration and the Katz family (name comprised from KA-hana TZ-adek)is very closely related as we were the same family five centuries ago. For those wishing to contact me by email, I can be reached on biovet@xtra.co.nz


B.B 5 years ago

katz are very tradition cohanim family which belong to j2a4h haplotype TMCRA between me nad katz no:671 FTDNA cohen project in 67 markers is 3120 years ago and iam j2 m47.but with sepahrdic cohanim TMCRA is 2880 years ago and they belong to J2a4 and also they are tradition cohanim.


B.B 5 years ago

Thank you for reply

TMCRA for number: 182634 kahana from FTDNA cohen project with me is 2970 years ago if this is your kit but in 37 markers by the way iam not from jewish family but middleasterian and have jews matches from both ashkenazi and sephardic in one step till 5 steps iam j2 M410+,L27+,M47+ ites interesting that i have common ancestor with them in 3000-3200 years ago with them

in 67 markers. mr kahana how i can contact you by email?

Thank you


Kahana profile image

Kahana 5 years ago Author

B.B. I have to leave that question open for those that have a tradition in their families of being Cohen but are not of the J2a4h haplotype. Obviously all J2a4 will have a common ancestory but whether or not it was a further division within family lines that determined the Aaronic inheritance will have to be established from their responses.


B.B 5 years ago

Hello

Mr kahana do you think cohenes are just in j2a4h subcalde or can be from j2a4 till j2a4h subcaldes? iam j2 and in 2 step i have algerian sephardic match (j2a4d) and in 3 step many ashkenazi and sephardic matches from different countries and from all j2a4 subcaldes(j2a4a,j2a4b,j2a4h and...)


richardt 5 years ago

I'm not sure if anyone has seen this article, but it's very interesting. It's about two families that have an oral tradition of descending from the Hasmonean Dynasty. Both families had their DNA tested and there was an exact match, and their shared haplogroup was J2!!!!

Here is the article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Hasmoneans

Regards,

RichardT

P.S. I have no agenda, in fact, on both sides of my family I have J1e ancestry. Aaron was a man of peace, and I want to be like him but fall short.


richardt 6 years ago

Kahana, your family history and tradition of descending from High Priest Phiabi is very intriguing. The arguments for which one is Aaron haplogroup J1 or J2 can go on to infinity it seems. Another strong point for J2 is family traditions such as yours and others just like you that carry J2. We cannot ignore the traditions of the Kohanim that have been in Djerba for a long time, since the last Temple, if not before, that also carry a sub branch of J2. According to another tradition of these same priests is the fact that they brought a Temple gate or door with them to Djerba connecting them directly to the Temple.

On a different note the Samaritans have a similar situation as the Kohanim. The Samaritans claim to be descendants of three tribes, Levi, Ephraim and Manesseh, but like the Kohanim, Ephraim and Manesseh come from the same father Joseph, but one family is J1 and the other J2 yet both have convincing arguments based on their traditions.

It's possible and likely although we have progressed rapidly in our understanding of genetics that some surprises might be in store that no one has thought of before that could solve the issues at hand. Hopefully soon!


Kahana profile image

Kahana 6 years ago Author

I will soon be releasing several more articles on this subject. Especially as it relates to the known traditions of the 16th and 17th centuries which I believe the readers will find very interesting.


richardt 6 years ago

Just adding one more thing, look at the section, "Origin" for J1e here:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J1c3_%28Y-... The highest variance being where? Here's what it says, "A recent 2009 study concluded that the haplogroup at a more Northern origin than previously thought. The origin of J1c3 is likely in the more northerly populations, spreading southward into the Arabian Peninsula. The high YSTR variance of J1c3 in Turks and Syrians supports the inference of an origin of J1c3 in nearby eastern Anatolia (the largest variance occurs in eastern Turkey, northern Iraq and northwestern Iran). Moreover, the network analysis of J1c3 haplotypes shows that some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion in the Arabian Desert.[1] The overall conclusion of the study was that that J1c3 arose from pastoral nomads who would migrate based on rainfall patterns from the Zagros and Taurus mountains to the Levant, with the first such migration occurring during the neolithic period." Speaks of highest variance in the North and not Arabia where it eventually spread quickly leaving a star pattern which means quick expansion revealing its' origin was most likely Northern Iraq or North western Iran or Eastern Turkey leaving room for Abraham and his fathers to have been J1. All evidence must be looked at not just ones we favor. If J2 is from Aaron and is verified some how in the future then Praise G-D, if it's J1 then Praise the Lord also for He is good and for He has preserved His Priestly line according to His Word!


richardt 6 years ago

I find this post very interesting. I appreciate the thoughts of the author of this site. I'm neither J1 or J2 so I have nothing to gain or lose. Here we are in 2010-2011 looking at DNA as it pertains to an ancient people, especially the Kohanim. G-D Himself might have had His hand in the haplogroups as He separated the Aaron and his sons unto Himself. I believe Eliyahu will have to sort out the tribes as it pertains to Malachi's prophecy that Elijah will turn the hearts to the fathers and the fathers to the sons. I think G-d has the first say and the last, especially to matters of importance of who are Aaron's sons. Personally, there is an argument to be made that is provocative for both J1 and J2 as being the Aaronic haplogroup.

1) Argument for J2 is its' MRCA that does seem to go back to a common ancestor to the time of Aaron, while J1 seems to be a more recent development. J2 is much more common along the Mesopotamian crescent than J1.

2) Argument for J1 is most of the Ishmaeli tribes are in J1, and who was Ishmael's father? Wasn't it Abraham. Also, J1 being numerous in its spread is due to a recent growth rate, (that's why we don't see this exact J1 CMH among other people) but back 2500 years ago it would have been a small remnant that might correlate to the four "Priestly" families that returned with Ezra. J1 is also found among the Mesopotamian crescent but in smaller numbers, but most Ishmaeli tribes would agree that their ancestors also originated in the Mesopotamian area but in time spread out to the Arabian areas, which would include the sons of Abraham's last wife Keturah, that became the Midianites which became part of Arabia, possibly carrying J1.

Just my two cents, thank you.


richardt 6 years ago

I find this post very interesting.I appreciate the thoughts of the author of this site. I'm neither J1 or J2 so I have nothing to gain or lose. Here we are in 2010-2011 looking at DNA as it pertains to an ancient people, especially the Kohanim. G-D Himself might have had His hand in the haplogroups as He separated the Aaron and his sons unto Himself. I believe Eliyahu will have to sort out the tribes as it pertains to Malachi's prophecy that Elijah will turn the hearts to the fathers and the fathers to the sons. I think G-d has the first say and the last, especially to matters of importance of who are Aaron's sons. Personally, there is an argument to be made that is provocative for both J1 and J2 as being the Aaronic haplogroup.

1) Argument for J2 is its' MRCA that does seem to go back to a common ancestor to the time of Aaron, while J1 seems to be a more recent development. J2 is much more common along the Mesopotamian crescent than J1.

2) Argument for J1 is most of the Ishmaeli tribes are in J1, and who was Ishmael's father? Wasn't it Abraham. Also, J1 being numerous in its spread is due to a recent growth rate, (that's why we don't see this exact J1 CMH among other people) but back 2500 years ago it would have been a small remnant that might correlate to the four "Priestly" families that returned with Ezra. J1 is also found among the Mesopotamian crescent but in smaller numbers, but most Ishmaeli tribes would agree that their ancestors also originated in the Mesopotamian area but in time spread out to the Arabian areas, which would include the sons of Abraham's last wife Keturah, that became the Midianites which became part of Arabia, possibly carrying J1.

Just my two cents, thank you.


Ilan 6 years ago

Amazing as usual!!! Looking forward to the next chapter...


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Tamarajo 6 years ago from Southern Minnesota

I find it amazing that the priesthood has been preserved and can now be identified through genetic identification and made what might have seemed impossible at one time possible.

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