Lucifer - Devil, or King, or Morning Star, or Fallen Bible Angel, or Something Else?
Who or what is or was Lucifer?
Who, or what, is, or was, 'Lucifer'?
Christians say that he is 'a fallen angel' and / or 'the devil'.
How do we / they know that?
Is Lucifer mentioned in the Bible? ~
If so, how many times? ~ In what context?
Does it say that he is 'the devil'?
What does 'Lucifer' mean?
Where is he mentioned?
Apparently, mention is made of 'Lucifer' in Isaiah 14!
Let us look more closely at the relevant item:
King James Bible - 1611 (First Edition)
King James Bible: Kindle and other formats available from Amazon
Isaiah 14 : 3 - 20 (King James Version)
This is the story, which contains the only mention of 'Lucifer' in the entire Bible:
(I am quoting the King James Bible for copyright reasons ~ and also for another reason which will soon become obvious.)
"And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve, That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!
The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.
He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth. .........
Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?
Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.
Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?
All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned."
Isaiah 14 - What is it Saying?
The Lord God will save and protect certain people, who have been suffering sorrow, fear and hard bondage.
They will be able use this saying against the King of Babylon: "How the oppressor has been forced to stop oppressing and how his golden city has ceased to be.''
The Lord God has broken the sceptre and staff of this wicked king.
He who made his people suffer is now suffering, himself ~ and no-one is coming to his aid.
His pomp is brought down to death.
People will ask if this is really the man who shook kingdoms, turned his realm into a wilderness, destroyed cities, and incarcerated people.
Most dead kings lie in glorious graves, within their nations, but not this one. He shall not be buried with other kings, because he has ruled so cruelly.
This story is about a harsh king of Babylon, and how he was, or will be, brought down ~ apparently by God ~ so that his people should no longer suffer.
Why is 'Lucifer' brought into this?
That is something of a mystery.
Isaiah 14 - The Important Bits:
If we look more closely, we can see what the story is actually about:
" ..the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage .... That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say:
How hath the oppressor ceased ~ the golden city ceased!
The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, and the sceptre of the rulers.
He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none hindereth. .........
Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, ....
They that see thee shall ... say: Is this the man ... that did shake kingdoms; That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?
All the kings of the nations ... lie in glory... .But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch ... .Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people ...."
Lucifer or Morning Star?
The two translations of Isaiah chapter 14, verse 12 are different!!!
The 1611 King James version reads: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! '
The 2010 New International Version reads: How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!
These translations are very interesting, since Lucifer is generally equated with Satan / the devil ~ but the Morning Star is not!
Furthermore, this is ~ or was ~ the only Biblical reference to Lucifer, anyway, and it was, quite obviously, used to describe a cruel and haughty Babylonian king.
So, the devil is not Lucifer. Lucifer is not Satan.
This is not even Biblical.
But why is Lucifer mentioned here at all?
It would appear that this king, who had such high opinions of himself, was being likened to Lucifer ~ bringer of light. Why would that be?
Was this king originally called 'Lucifer', in the book of Isaiah?
~ This seems unlikely, since the book was written in Hebrew and the name is a Latin one!
Note that, in the more modern translation, the sentence in question is translated: 'How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!'
Note, also, that in Canaanite mythology ~ as in the mythologies of most ancient cultures ~ the morning star and the dawn were both considered to be deities. In this case, 'the dawn' was believed to be the parent of 'the morning star'.
The Lucifer Aspect
Let us look, again, at the verses containing the reference to Lucifer. We shall compare the old 'James I' translation (1611) with the modern 'New International' translation (2010):
Isaiah 14 ~ King James Bible:
12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!
How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
Isaiah 14 ~ New International Version ©2010:
12 How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!
You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations!
13 You said in your heart, “I will ascend to the heavens;
I will raise my throne above the stars of God;
I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon ['Or of the north; Zaphon was the most sacred mountain of the Canaanites'].
14 I will ascend above the tops of the clouds;
I will make myself like the Most High.”
15 But you are brought down to the realm of the dead, to the depths of the pit.'
Bible verses and notes accessed at www.Biblegateway.com
To find 'Lucifer' in the Bible ...
In order to find 'Lucifer' in the Bible, one needs to obtain an old translation ~ one requires a King James Bible!
'Lucifer' is not to be found in modern translations ~ translations such as the 'New International Version' .
That is one other reason ~ apart from copyright concerns ~ why I had to quote the 'Lucifer' story from the 1611 King James Bible!
Why not have a look for yourselves, and see if you can find 'Lucifer' elsewhere.
Lucifer is the Morning Star - Also known as The Evening Star (Venus)
Lucifer is 'The Morning Star' not 'The Devil'
Lucifer means 'Bearer of Light' - This is not 'Satan', but 'The Morning Star'.
Why is this cruel king being called, or compared to, the 'morning star' (correctly, the planet Venus)?
Kaufmann Kohler, comments, in the JewishEncyclopedia.com, that there must have been a well-known mythical story, about star deities, that the people would, then, have understood ~ in relation to this tale of the cruel king, who received his just desserts.
Kohler states that: 'It is obvious that the prophet in attributing to the Babylonian king boastful pride, followed by a fall, borrowed the idea from a popular legend connected with the morning star'.
He adds that: 'Gunkel is undoubtedly correct when he holds that it represents a Babylonian or Hebrew star-myth similar to the Greek legend of Phaethon'.
['Schöpfung und Chaos', pp. 132-134] (See separate section: 'Phaeton and Phoebus'.)
'The Fall of Phaeton' by Johann Liss
Phaeton and Phoebus
I quoted Kaufmann Kohler stating: '[Hermann] Gunkel is undoubtedly correct when he holds that it [the Isaiah reference] represents a Babylonian or Hebrew star-myth similar to the Greek legend of Phaethon'. ['Schöpfung und Chaos', pp. 132-134]
'The Story of Phaeton' is found in 'Book the Second' of Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'.
'Metamorphoses'. was translated, in 1713, by John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, William Congreve and others, under the guiding direction of Sir Samuel Garth.
When Phaeton discovers that he is the son of the sun god, Phoebus (or Helios) he decides to visit him and ask if he might drive his chariot of the sun, to prove to all that he is, indeed, the son of this god.
Phoebus thinks that this is a rash and dangerous idea, and he is against it, but Phaeton begs and promises, and Phoebus relents.
Sadly, young Phaeton cannot control the horses, and the carriage veers out of control ~ either too close to, or too far from, the Earth.
He puts the world in danger and Phoebus knows that he has to be stopped. The god Jove comes to the rescue, but not without Phoebus losing his son:
'Jove call'd to witness ev'ry Pow'r above,
And ev'n the God, whose son the chariot drove,
That what he acts he is compell'd to do,
Or universal ruin must ensue.
At once from life and from the chariot driv'n,
Th' ambitious boy fell thunder-struck from Heav'n.'
So here, indeed, we have a demi-god who falls from heaven.
There is also a reference to Lucifer in the poem:
Before the boy sets out ....
'The stars were fled, for Lucifer had chased
The stars away, and fled himself at last.'
Isaiah is a Hebrew Biblical book; 'Lucifer' is a Latin word.
Why is the term 'Lucifer' in there at all?
According to Kaufmann Kohler, in the JewishEncyclopedia.com, this is a translation, found in the Septuagint of the Hebrew "Helel" / "Helal" ben Shahar". This meant 'the brilliant one' or 'son of the morning' and was a reference to 'the morning star' ~ also sometimes called 'the day star'.
What is 'the 'Septuagint'?
'The Septuagint .... is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the 3rd and 2nd century BCE in Alexandria. It was begun by the 3rd century BCE and completed before 132 BCE.
'It is the oldest of several ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean Basin from the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE).'
From New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia:
'The Septuagint is the most ancient translation of the Old Testament .....'
So how did a Latin word find its way into a Hebrew text translated into Koine Greek?
Author, John J. Robinson tried to find out, and this possibility was suggested:
'The first problem is that Lucifer is a Latin name. So how did it find its way into a Hebrew manuscript, written before there was a Roman language? To find the answer, I consulted a scholar at the library of the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. ..... The Hebrew scholar could only speculate that some early Christian scribes, writing in the Latin tongue used by the Church, had decided for themselves that they wanted the story to be about a fallen angel, a creature not even mentioned in the original Hebrew text, and to whom they gave the name "Lucifer".'
[A Pilgrim's Path, pp. 47-48]
Were there also early Latin translations of the Bible ~ or of parts thereof?
Could the term 'Lucifer' have arrived in the King James Bible via such a translation?
Yes, there were early Latin versions of the Bible!
Let us take a look:
The saint, whom we know as 'Jerome' ~ otherwise Hierom, or Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus ~ lived between 347 and 420 AD.
He is best known for translating the Bible ~ resulting in the Latin Bible ~ the 'Vulgate'.
Prior to that, in 382 AD, he started work on amending errors in the 'Vetus Latina'. This is sometimes referred to as the 'Old Latin Bible', but it is not a full translation; rather it is a partial set of manuscripts, already translated into Latin before St Jerome embarked on his Vulgate. These early translations were based on the Septuagint.
Jerome had already translated parts of the Septuagint before he started work on the Vulgate, but for this great opus, he decided to go back to the original Hebrew. Augustine and others advised against this, but he went ahead with it ~ though his knowledge of Hebrew seems not to have been of the highest quality. Scholars believe that he utilised Origen of Alexandria's 'Hexapla' to help him in his work. Jerome worked on the Vulgate from 390 to 405 AD
The Latin term 'Lucifer' could have been found in one of the early Latin translations ~ either of the Hebrew or the Greek. Maybe Saint Jerome, himself, was responsible??
This brief explanation, from the website of the 'United Methodist Women', is useful:
'The first translations of the Bible were of the Hebrew Bible. The Septuagint was a Greek translation written about three centuries before the birth of Christ. Two other early translations, composed after the birth of Christ, were the Peshitta in Syriac and the Vulgate in Latin. These three translations, the Septuagint, Peshitta, and Vulgate became the official translations of the Old Testament for the Greek-, Syriac-, and Latin-speaking churches respectively. Each also became the basis for other translations of the Bible.'
John J. Robinson Quotes
'Jerome had mistranslated the Hebraic metaphor, "Day star, son of the Dawn," as "Lucifer", and over the centuries a metamorphosis took place. Lucifer the morning star became a disobedient angel, cast out of heaven to rule eternally in hell.
'Theologians, writers, and poets interwove the myth with the doctrine of the Fall, and in Christian tradition Lucifer is now the same as Satan, the Devil, and, ironically, the Prince of Darkness.'
[John J. Robinson]
"there are those who do not read beyond the King James Version of the Bible, who say “Lucifer is Satan: so says the Word of God."
[John J. Robinson]
A meteor during the peak of the 2009 Leonid Meteor Shower - meteor, afterglow, and wake
Falling Star? Fallen Angel? Defeated King???
To summarise; 'Lucifer' means 'bringer of light' and is used as a name for the bright morning star ~ the planet Venus.
The only place that the term is found in the Bible is in old translations of the Book of Isaiah ~ ie. it is found in the King James Bible of 1611.
There, it is used to describe a cruel, but defeated, king of Babylon.
Perhaps this king was actually known as 'The Morning Star', because he was so dazzling and important ~ just as Louis IV of France was designated 'The Sun King'. It is a possibility.
Perhaps there was a well-known myth, about a shining star, or planet, which believed itself to be more important than it was (celestial bodies were often personified**) ~ and this boastful king was simply being compared to 'the morning star'?
Perhaps stars and angels were considered to be related somehow, just as stars and gods were seen as the same entities.
Could the story be related to the sighting of a meteor? That is a possibility.
There were, indeed, stories of fallen angels, and Lucifer has long been regarded as one of these.
Is this reference to 'Lucifer' somehow related to stories of fallen stars or fallen angels?
** Personification of celestial bodies:
Even in the Bible, stars were personified:
Job 38 (King James Version):
'1 Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said .... 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? ... who laid the cornerstone thereof; 7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?'
Perhaps falling demi-gods, falling angels, or falling 'Nephilim', somehow relate to personified meteors and comets ~ shooting stars?
Lucifer - Illustration for John Milton’s “Paradise Lost“ by Gustave Doré, 1866.
'The Fall' - Something Else Worth Considering.
Genesis 3 - 'The Fall'
Could there be a connection???
According to the Book of Genesis, Adam and Eve were created by God and placed in a wonderful garden ~ the Garden of Eden.
God told them that they could eat any fruit from the garden, except that from one certain tree, and that, if they disobeyed, then they would die!
A cunning serpent in the garden convinced Eve that, in spite of what God had said, she and Adam would not die if they ate fruit from the tree in the middle of the garden, but, rather, that their eyes would be opened, so that they would be like gods, knowing good and evil.
So the couple ate some of the fruit ~ and they did begin to understand the difference between good and evil.
Because of their disobedience, God ejected Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, to a place east of Eden, and told them that, henceforth, life would be difficult, for them and their descendants, in many ways.
Because of the serpent's part in what had happened, he was cursed and would, for ever more, move around upon his belly.
There are similarities between this story and that of the Babylonian king.
1. A character in the story has been identified as 'the devil', even though the Bible does not say that he is the devil ~ ie. the serpent and Lucifer.
2. The Adam and Eve story is known as the story of 'the fall' ~ ejection from the heavenly garden ~ and the Babylonian king, likened to Lucifer, has, apparently, fallen from ~ or been cast out of ~ heaven.
Are these parallel stories?
~ The fall from Heaven and the fall from Eden?
'The Fall' - Adam and Eve - Michelangelo Buonarroti
Fall, Falling and Talk of the Devil???
It is possible, that certain references to 'falling' have been connected, somehow, to the story of 'the fall' of Adam and Eve, in the Book of Genesis.
It is especially telling that 'the devil' is also ~ supposedly ~ involved.
What About Those Fallen Angels?
Were 'fallen angels' specifically a part of the Judeo-Christian tradition?
Here is a quote from Emil G. Hirsch (JewishEncyclopedia.com):
"The conception of fallen angels — angels who, for wilful, rebellious conduct against God, or through weakness under temptation.thereby forfeiting their angelic dignity, were degraded and condemned to a life of mischief or shame on earth or in a place of punishment — is wide-spread."
'Old Testament' 'Fallen Angels':
There is a reference in 'Jude' to angels who lost their authority ~ the fallen angels???
Jude 1:6 (New International Version, ©2010):
6 And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling — these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.
Are the "Nephilim" fallen 'angels'?
The 'Nephilim' are a real mystery! They are found in two books of the Bible: Genesis and Numbers. They seem to be special beings ~ the term has been tranlated as 'giant' ~ but could they be some kind of fallen demi-god, or angel???
The word 'Nephilim' is probably related to the Hebrew root 'npl'. This means 'to fall' or 'to cause to fall ~ or even 'to kill' or 'to ruin'.
[Nephilim ~ Wikipedia]
According to the site nwcreation.net: 'The "giants" translation may have come from the Greek old testament where "nephilim" was "gegantes" which looks like "giant" but in modern Greek would be "titans". In Greek mythos, the titans were the supernaturally powerful offspring of gods and humans.'
See link, below: ''Who were the Nephilim?'
'Nephilim' could mean 'fallen ones' ~ possibly some kind of fallen demi-gods ~ or maybe, angels???
"Nephilim" ~ The Bible Quotes:
Genesis 6:1-4 (King James Version):
1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
Genesis 6:1-4 (New International Version, ©2010):
1 When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. 3 Then the LORD said, “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal; their days will be a hundred and twenty years.”
4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days — and also afterward — when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.
* * * *
Numbers 13:28-35 (King James Version):
30 And Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it. 31 But the men that went up with him said, We be not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we.
32 And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had searched unto the children of Israel, saying, The land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature.33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.
Numbers 13 (New International Version, ©2010):
30 Then Caleb silenced the people before Moses and said, “We should go up and take possession of the land, for we can certainly do it.” 31 But the men who had gone up with him said, “We can’t attack those people; they are stronger than we are. 32 And they spread among the Israelites a bad report about the land they had explored. They said, “The land we explored devours those living in it. All the people we saw there are of great size. 33 We saw the Nephilim there (the descendants of Anak come from the Nephilim). We seemed like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and we looked the same to them.”
New Testament 'Fallen Angels' - Are They 'Shooting Stars'?
In Luke, chapter 10, verse 18, the author claims that Jesus told his followers:
'I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven'. (King James Version)
chapter 12, verses 7-10 tell of a battle in Heaven, with the devil and
his angels being cast out ~ ie, falling to earth.
7And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, 8And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
9And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
10And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. (King James Version)
41Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels ...' (King James Version)
Lucifer, the Morning Star - and Jesus!
We have seen that 'Lucifer' was mentioned once in the King James Bible ~ and that he was not the devil.
We have seen that in the latest 'New International Version' translation 'Lucifer' is now called 'the Morning Star'.
Are there any more references in the Bible to 'the Morning Star'?
~ Yes, in the 'New International Version there are!
2 Peter 1 (New International Version, ©2010):
16 For we did not follow cleverly devised stories when we told you about the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 17 He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. 18 We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.
19 We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.
Revelation 2 (New International Version, ©2010):0
18 “To the angel of the church in Thyatira write:
These are the words of the Son of God, whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished bronze. ............
26 To the one who is victorious and does my will to the end, I will give authority over the nations — 27 that one ‘will rule them with an iron scepter and will dash them to pieces like pottery’— just as I have received authority from my Father. 28 I will also give that one the morning star. 29 Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches.
Revelation 22 (New International Version, ©2010):
12 “Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done. 13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End. ..... 16 “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.”
From the Devil to the Messiah
In the book of Isaiah, an old translation, which refers to a cruel Babylonian king, likens that harsh ruler to 'Lucifer'. And 'Lucifer' has been equated, by readers of that item, with 'the Devil' ~ a fallen angel.
But 'Lucifer' means 'Bringer of Light' and is often used to refer to Venus, the 'morning star'.
Indeed, in the more modern translations, the word 'Lucifer' has been replaced ~ the term 'morning star' is used instead.
And, in Revelation, we find the term 'morning star' again. This time, it certainly does not refer to the devil ~ it refers to Jesus the Christ:
Isaiah (King James):
'How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!'
'How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!'
"I, Jesus, ... I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star."
Jesus, Light of the World - William Holman Hunt
Light of the World - Jesus
Jesus is often equated with light:
12 Then spake Jesus again .. saying, "I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life".
3Jesus answered ... 5 "As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world".
(King James Version)
'Jesus, Light of the World'
This is a beautiful painting by William Holman Hunt (1853).
'The lantern is the light of conscience and the light around the head is the light of salvation ... The bright light over the figure is the morning star, the dawn of the new day ...'
Morning Star in Ancient Egyptian Belief
In 'Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection', the author, D. M. Murdock, quotes a number of occasions where the Egyptian gods, Osiris and Horus, are described as the Morning Star.
Two examples are:
~ Coffin Texts: 722 ~ where Osiris is the morning star.
~ Pyramin Texts: (519:1207a) where Horus of the Duat is called the morning star.
The Morning Star and Many Gods and Goddesses
The 'Bright Morning Star' was the planet Venus, also known as the 'evening star'.
It has been related to numerous gods, goddesses, folk heroes, etc:
If 'Lucifer' means 'morning star', and Jesus is reputed to have said "I am ... the bright Morning Star", then 'Lucifer' cannot also refer to 'the devil' ~ surely???!!!
Furthermore, since the 'morning star' was also equated with Horus and Osiris, and with the goddess Venus, among many other traditional gods, goddesses and heroes, then this is not an epithet restricted to Judeo Christian beliefs.
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