Orthodox Church

CHRISTENDOM DIVIDED AFTER GREAT SCHISM
CHRISTENDOM DIVIDED AFTER GREAT SCHISM
POPE LEO IX
POPE LEO IX

The Great Schism

The Great Schism of 1054 divided Christianity between the Latin West (Roman Catholicism) and the Greek East (Eastern Orthodoxy). From 1054 onwards there were two supposedly universal and orthodox churches. The major scandal in the history of Christendom at the time, it has never been repaired.

Relations between the Greek and Latin Churches were increasingly strained in the 11th Century. The Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius (1000-1059), closed all the Latin churches in his city in 1043. The Roman Papacy passed into the hands of Leo IX (1002-1054) in 1049. Leo was the cousin of the German emperor and a strong believer in his own mission. He reformed the Church, enforcing celibacy of the clergy and striking down simony. Leo was the first pope to go on tour, preaching in Italy, France and Germany.

Leo sent a letter to Cerularius asserting the authority of the Papacy over all Christendom, which was rejected. He then dispatched one Cardinal Humbert (1015-1061) to Constantinople in 1054 to obtain confirmation of his papal supremacy from Cerularius. Instead, Cerularius published an aggressive manifesto against the Latin Church. Humbert toured the city denouncing its Christians as heretics until he became the most hated man in town. Humbert excommunicated Cerularius; then Cerularius excommunicated Humbert. This was the point of no return. This time there would be no reconciliation.

PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE MICHAEL CERULARIUS
PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE MICHAEL CERULARIUS
TONSURE
TONSURE
ORTHODOX CHRISMATION (CONFIRMATION)
ORTHODOX CHRISMATION (CONFIRMATION)
CATHOLIC CONFIRMATION
CATHOLIC CONFIRMATION
CATHOLIC EUCHARIST (COMMUNION) BREAD
CATHOLIC EUCHARIST (COMMUNION) BREAD
ORTHODOX EUCHARIST BREAD
ORTHODOX EUCHARIST BREAD

Great Schism

The Great Schism of 1054 between the Greeks and the Latins arose from differing mental images of the Truth. Cerularius said "O you who are Orthodox, flee the fellowship of those who have accepted the heretical Latins and who regard them as the first Christians in the catholic and holy church of God! The pope is a heretic!"

There were differences in practices and customs, such as the tonsure of monks or the propriety of beards among the clergy, which offended those who had been taught that only their way was the right way. In the West, Mary was a Saint but in the East she was Theotokos—the mother of God. In the East local priests administered the sacrament of confirmation to infants; in the West only a bishop could confirm—and this was delayed until the age of accountability. The West insisted on celibacy for the clergy; the East resisted, believing celibacy to be a personal choice beyond the authority of the church, not required by Scripture; and an absurd tradition. Icons never played the role in public liturgy of the West that they did in the East. The East used bread made with yeast in the Eucharist; the West would only use unleavened bread.

In regard to the Eucharist bread, the Greeks accused the Latins inserting Judaism into their communion service; the Latins responded that Christ had certainly used unleavened bread at the Last Supper since there was no leavened bread in all of Israel.

The Greeks had developed a more sophisticated theology by the 11th Century. They viewed the Latins as naive, who viewed them as decadent. The linguistic barrier didn't help, as neither side had a clear understanding of the other's language. A Latin polemical treatise sent to the Greeks was never answered because they were unable to find anyone to translate it. Greek was a superior language for expressing abstract ideas but it was also used to formulate heresy. Latin was considered a bit backward.

Michael Cerularius complained that the Church in Rome "does not count our saintly and great fathers—Gregory the Theologian, Basil the Great, and John Chrysostom—among the other saints." The Greeks had followed the Cappadocian Fathers while the Latins formed their traditions from St. Augustine—in particular the doctrine of Original Sin, which was foreign to the Greeks. The West viewed the hardening of Pharaoh's heart as predestination, which to the East was permitted by God but not foreordained.

The principle dogmatic difficulty was over the filioque. This Latin term means and from the Son. The West believed that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and from the Son. The East reacted violently to this "extreme effrontery", insisting the Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father, and that to say otherwise was wicked, blasphemous heresy. The East had the Church Councils on its side of the argument, as well as the Nicene Creed (which it suggested the West must have lost its copies of). Somehow, this dispute achieved great significance for both sides and a line was drawn in the sand.

ILLUSTRATION OF JEWS IN MIDDLE AGES
ILLUSTRATION OF JEWS IN MIDDLE AGES

Orthodox Church and Jews

The Church in the East, based in Constantinople, had conflicts with the Jews. Part of the reason for this was that most Jews had taken the side of Byzantium's enemies in various wars against the Persians; the Arabs; the Turks. Anti-Jewish literature began to appear.

There were also serious theological disputes between the Christians of the East and the Jews, centered on the Trinity, which Jews considered tritheism (the worship of three gods). Jews also objected to the use of icons, considering these to represent idolatry (the worship of stone and wood). Jews accused Christians of misinterpreting the prophecies in Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) to support the messiahship of Jesus. Jews found unacceptable the term "Son of God" applied to Jesus in the New Testament.

The Church of the East responded that God had taken away Israel from the Jews, as punishment for their complicity in the crucifixion of Christ, and that Christians were the new Israel—the chosen people of God. The nation of Israel had been the forerunner of the worldwide Israel to come: The Christian Church.

Jews objected to the Christian nullification of Mosaic Law, especially regarding the Sabbath, but also the dietary laws. Christians replied that they had a New Covenant and were no longer bound to the Old. And they stated that the prohibition of images was given specifically to Jews because of their long demonstrated inclination toward idolatry; not for Christians who serve God alone. The result of these dialogues was that the Christians in the East began to say of the Jews, "They are the enemies of the Cross."

MUSLIMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES
MUSLIMS IN THE MIDDLE AGES

Orthodox Church and Muslims

Christian contemporaries of Mohammed paid him no heed. Soon the Orthodox Church would be challenged by the religion of the prophet. The Church acknowledged that the Koran contained truths about God and Christ, but believed it to also be full of contradictions. Christians also objected to the sensuality, morality and conduct of Mohammed. Opinions varied, with some Byzantines believing Islam must be eradicated as a barbaric form of paganism; and others wanting to build bridges based on what the two religions had in common. Christian theologians wrote that Islam was simply a compilation of all previous heresies the church had endured, in particular Arianism.

Muslims accused Christians, as the Jews did, of worshipping more than one god, because of the Trinity. Muslims said that the worship of Mary; the cults of the saints and the relics; and the use of icons—were all blasphemies against God.

Christians were incensed that Muslims added words to the Gospels, especially a line that said, "I shall send you a prophet called Mohammed." Christians asked, "Since the Gospels have spread across much of the world in these 1000 years, and exist in many languages, how is it that no one anywhere except this tribe of Arabs has a line about Mohammed in their Bibles?" The Muslims countered that Christians had removed Mohammed's name from the Gospels. Christians were also upset that Muslims denied that Jesus was the Son of God, instead proclaiming him merely another prophet in a long line of prophets. Anti-Muslim literature began to appear throughout the Orthodox Church.

PLATO
PLATO
MICHAEL PSELLOS
MICHAEL PSELLOS

Orthodox Church and Philosophy

The theologians of the Church in the East, unlike those in the West, were schooled in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, literature, grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. The question is: was this a blessing or a curse? Eastern theologians believed philosophy had a legitimate function in Christian thought; and that Christian doctrine required philosophical terms and concepts to be explained and understood. They believed that since all Truth came from God, there was nothing wrong with intermingling theological and philosophical truths. Plato was the central figure of philosophy for these theologians in the Church of the East.

Michael Psellos (1017-1079) was the most learned man of his century. He said, "I belong entirely to Christ, but I refuse to deny the wiser of our writers or the knowledge of reality, both intelligible and sensible. Interceding with God by prayer according to my capacity, I will eagerly accept whatever may be granted to me." "It is foolish to reject the manifestation of supernatural power, including demonic activity, simply because no scientific explanation could be given for its causation." "Belief in divine providence must be distinguished from determinism, as well as from notions of chance. It is essential not to permit the idea of providence and of the sovereign will of God to produce a fatalistic inactivity instead of the obligation of man to act, which is the proper response, in the light of natural knowledge about the ways of God in human history."

BATTLE AT MANZIKERT AGAINST THE  MUSLIM TURKS
BATTLE AT MANZIKERT AGAINST THE MUSLIM TURKS

Orthodox Church After Schism

Byzantium found itself threatened with a new menace.  A tribe had swept down out of the steppes called the Turks.  The Arab empire was in decline.  The Turks converted to Islam.  They conquered Armenia, the oldest Christian kingdom, killing hundreds of thousands, smashing baby's heads with rocks, raping all the women.  Byzantium marched out to whip these upstarts but instead suffered a humiliating defeat in 1071 at Manzikert; and its imperial army was destroyed.  Before long the Turks conquered Asia Minor and it would soon have a new name: Turkey. 

POPE NICHOLAS II
POPE NICHOLAS II
POPE GREGORY VII
POPE GREGORY VII
KING HENRY IV OF GERMANY
KING HENRY IV OF GERMANY
WHAT'S A HAIRSHIRT?  LOOKS COMFY?  I HAVE THEM IN THREE COLORS.
WHAT'S A HAIRSHIRT? LOOKS COMFY? I HAVE THEM IN THREE COLORS.
EMPEROR HENRY IV BEGS POPE GREGORY VII FOR FORGIVENESS
EMPEROR HENRY IV BEGS POPE GREGORY VII FOR FORGIVENESS
CARTHUSIAN MONKS
CARTHUSIAN MONKS
CISTERCIAN MONKS BACK IN THE DAY
CISTERCIAN MONKS BACK IN THE DAY
ROBERT GUISCARD WITH HIS BROTHER ROGER
ROBERT GUISCARD WITH HIS BROTHER ROGER

Roman Catholic Church After Schism

Cardinal Humbert was still on stage. He enacted a revolution in church affairs by ending the practice of emperors appointing popes, bishops or priests; and instituted, through Pope Nicholas II, the election of the pope by a college of cardinals.

Nicholas needed protection in light of these reforms, so he named a Norman, Robert Guiscard (1015-1085), the Duke of southern Italy, which the Normans had already conquered anyway. In exchange, Guiscard pledged his loyalty and military power should papal lands be attacked. In 1066, Nicholas backed the Norman invasion of England.

The Byzantine historian Anna Comnena described Guiscard this way: "This Robert was of minor origin, in temper tyrannical, in mind most cunning, brave in action, very clever in attacking the wealth and substance of magnates, most obstinate in achievement, for he did not allow any obstacle to prevent his executing his desire. His stature was so lofty that he surpassed even the tallest; his shoulders were broad, and his eyes all but emitted sparks of fire. This man's cry it is said to have put thousands to flight. Thus equipped by fortune, physique and character, he was naturally indomitable, and subordinate to no one in the world."

Pope Gregory VII, unique among popes in that he is better known by his birth name, Hildebrand, issued his Dictatus papae in 1075, also known as the Gregorian Reforms. This paper proclaimed the pope as the ultimate ruler over Europe. It declared that the pope may depose emperors at will; that the Roman Catholic Church has never made a mistake and never will; that God Himself established the Roman Catholic Church; that all princes shall kiss the pope's feet; that only the name of the pope shall be spoken in churches and that his is the only name in the world [whatever that means]; that the pope may not be accused or judged by anyone; that the pope is the judge of people and can pass sentence on anyone; that no book or chapter is canonical without his say so; that the church is over the state.

This provoked indignation in the new German Emperor, Henry IV, since technically, these reforms cost Germany half its royal lands. Henry refused to comply and Hildebrand excommunicated him. Hildebrand was the first pope to stand up to a king. Henry had a change of heart and came to repent personally to Hildebrand. He found the pope in the Alps; where he was made to stand outside in the snow—barefoot, without food, wearing a hairshirt—for three days, before Hildebrand finally forgave him.

Henry would come back in 1081 to lay siege to Rome for three years, before he deposed Hildebrand. Guiscard came too late to his rescue, having been off invading Greece, and by the time he got to Rome—Henry had gone home to Germany. So, Guiscard looted and burned the city on his way out.

Poland, Hungary and Scandinavia became Christian lands in the 11th Century. Poland would go on to be the prime bastion of Catholicism in the East. The monastic movement continued with the founding of the Carthusians and the Cistercians. Carthusians monks take vows of silence. Cistercians live with no possessions, minimal food, hard labor and no fire for heat. Itinerant preachers cropped up roaming the countryside—some with long hair, wearing rags, with no shoes, calling people outside of monasteries to a life of apostolic poverty and radical holiness.

New agricultural methods had begun to raise populations out of the grinding, brutish poverty of the Dark Ages. Cities were growing in importance along with schools and trades. Next in our series we will embark on the controversial adventures known as the Crusades.


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Comments 70 comments

DGMischSr profile image

DGMischSr 6 years ago from Maricopa, AZ

Very Good James. I know you always do your homework


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

DGMischSr— Thank you for being my first and . . . well . . . only . . . visitor. Lord knows I spent several days putting makeup on this pig. And now nobody wants eat it!


cameciob profile image

cameciob 6 years ago

Hi James. Great amount of information. Your hub reminds me about the many crimes that had been committed (and still are) in the name of God. Also, reading it, I noticed again how religion had shaped our values. I’m an orthodox living in a catholic culture and I can see the difference even in today’s world.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

cameciob— Hi! Thank you for coming. I appreciate your wise comments. I'm glad you're still with us on Hubpages.


Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 6 years ago from London, UK

I only say, " a perfect hub." Thank you and looking forward to you next. Religion supposed to bring goodness and yet it brings more trouble.


kaloomba profile image

kaloomba 6 years ago

Thank you, James, for doing some history research and sharing it in a hub. It's important that people learn and understand what the roots of their 'faith' is all about so that they may understand the TRUTH of God and what man has changed along the way.

Dagon is the fish god that the Pope resembles, let's see you do a historical article on that one.

(Also, feel free to check out my hubs on the subject of Christianity!).


Pamela99 profile image

Pamela99 6 years ago from United States

James. Great pictures to accompany your history. Very informative hub. Thanks.


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

James-

Actually a really great hub-the two sides at least appear to be making more effort to reach some sort of rapprochement in recent years.

I couldn't view your slides-maybe my pc acting up ,but I kept losing hub at pic 3-might explain slow burn!


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

King James:

Re: itakins above: "rapprochement"? My goodness.

If we're judged by the company we keep, you're looking better all the time.

And "rapprochement"? It just goes to show you have some of the most erudite and well-spoken readers on Hub Pages!

With that in mind, I was working with a Client who used the word 'denouement' in one of our discussions (which is comparable to 'rapprochement' ... first and only time I've heard the word used in general conversation.

What fun to learn something new every day!


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

James-

Re: ArchDynamics,Je pense qu'il ne parle pas Francais.


ethel smith profile image

ethel smith 6 years ago from Kingston-Upon-Hull

Such a lot of information James


Scott.Life 6 years ago

We as a faith have certainly had some growing pains to overcome haven't we. Once again James, a great piece of history and research.


Allan McGregor profile image

Allan McGregor 6 years ago from South Lanarkshire

I love it, I love it, I love it. You surpass yourself sir.

This is another informative piece of work. The Great Schism of 1054 was neither the first nor the last. The Byzantine/Roman Church has been fragementing for centuries into what we see today, but it was the hidden schism between Jewish and Gentile believers in the Mashiach/Christos that began it. Once the anti-Semites and Judophobes got a grip on the Church, Satan had done his job. But I've skipped to the back of the Book and read the end of the story: Jesus wins!

The Church will not only draw back together in the Last Days, with denominations healing their rifts, but Jew and Gentile believers in Yeshua/Jesus will at last become the 'One New Man' our Father envisaged that we should and our Lord died that we would.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Hello, hello,— A perfect Hub. Wow! It doesn't get any better than that. I'm basking in the glow of your high praise.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

kaloomba— You are welcome. Thank you for your insightful comments. Dagon . . . That's in the Bible, right? Maybe also in Paradise Lost? I will look into that. And I am going to check out your Hubs today. Book it.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Pamela99— Thank you for coming by to visit. I appreciate your compliments. And you are welcome.


John Cain profile image

John Cain 6 years ago from Dayton, Texas

A very informative piece of work. Reflects vast knowledge and penmanship. I love your work. Keep it coming. Blessings!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

iakins— I love that word, too, as my arch arch friend says. :D

Orthodox and Catholic may come together soon. The signs are encouraging.

hmmm . . . The slideshow is working for me.

Thank you ever much for your readership and fine comments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ArchDynamics— Rapprochement and denouement are both lovely words. I like erudite, too. That describes you well, my friend. You are a great friend and incredible architect. If I hang out with you, you make me look good.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

itakins— Vos perceptions seraient sur la cible


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ethel smith— I do prattle on sometimes. But it's a big subject. You should have seen the first draft!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Scott.Life— That we have, my friend. Thank you for the accolades. And the visitation.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Allan McGregor— These laudations coming from an eminent scholar such as yourself have lifted my spirits to the moon!

You are spot on about the divisions.

Jesus wins!

I love your last paragraph, brother. Amen!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

John Cain— Thank you very much for your gracious comments. I am gratified to have read them. God Bless You!


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

itakins:

Now, now ... this is a genteel forum and we must respect James' efforts at keeping this a happy place. Perhaps you misread what was, in actuality, a compliment.

So, if I have offended you, I certainly apologize.

In regards to the two being comparable, move a touch beyond the literal and allow for a shade of gray in there. Both refer to a degree of outcome and resolution.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ArchDynamics— I don't think itakins was offended at all. I get it. One is a final resolution and one is getting back together. In which case, both would be true if the Church is reconciled.


dusanotes profile image

dusanotes 6 years ago from Windermere, FL

I really enjoyed your Hub, James. You always research these very well. I am so amazed - where do you get such beautiful images? Keep up the good work.

Maybe you know. A friend went to Italy and viewed the Sistine Chapel, which as you know was almost completely destroyed by the Muslims. It was rebuilt - some of it with blocks from the great Coliseum which was sacked. Inside was a rug over what looked like a hole in the floor. This friend, when no one was around, pulled up the carpet and found a baptismal fount, with stairs leading down to it. As you know, Catholics sprinkle and today don't baptize as did John The Baptist by immersion. Apparently, due to the various meetings the Catholics had and including the resultant Nician Creed, immersion baptism was once performed in Catholic churches but was voted out. That's interesting. I thought this was a church where the Pope was infalible because he received revelations from God. Apparently no longer, because their teachings have been polluted. That may be too strong a word. "Changed." I hope I haven't stepped on some Christian toes, especially yours, here. Just an observation. Great Hub, by the way. I always look forward to reading your articles.

Don White


dusanotes profile image

dusanotes 6 years ago from Windermere, FL

Please see my comment above. Thanks again James. This great Hub needed two comments, not just one from me. You're a wonderful writer. Don White


infonaturale profile image

infonaturale 6 years ago from Nigeria

Captivating and highly informative. James, you are so good a writer.


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

ArchDynamics-Thank you for the compliment!

No offence-I was joking.Yes I do grey rather well.

God Bless.


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

James ,

Of course-blame it on my Irish humour.I'm sure he is very fluent in French.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

dusanotes— I am glad you enjoyed it, Don. Thank you for saying so.

I spent a fair amount of time searching the internet for these photos. They are hard to find when the subject is from so long ago.

I hear you on the sprinkling. I never have understood where that came from. Nor have I understood how so many today baptize babies, who can't possibly know what it means. The Jews used Mikvahs for ritual cleansing by full immersion. John the Baptist was surely no sprinkler.

You haven't stepped on my toes. Anybody can write anything they want here. It is a free for all! :D

Thanks for coming. Your comments are always interesting and encouraging.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

dusanotes— You're back! You are welcome and thank you for the kind compliments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

infonaturale— Thank you so much for the nice compliments. It's nice to hear from the man of Nigeria. :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

itakins— I love Irish humor and even more Irish music and even more Irish beer.


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

itakins - my sincere thanks for your kind and sweet reply. Indeed, my fumbled intention was meant to do nothing BUT heap praise upon you as one of King James' discerning and loyal readers.

As far as Irish humor and beer, I'll buy you BOTH a pint or two. Maybe we can get President Obama to host. What do you think?


Peggy W profile image

Peggy W 6 years ago from Houston, Texas

THAT would be a camera moment to capture...James Watkins and President Obama at a beer summit. Hope the cameras are rolling! :)

Interesting hub as always James. Thanks!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ArchDynamics— Gee, I'm collecting titles here: King James, the Professor. Those are both pretty good! :)

I would love to have a beer with you, itakins and the President. That would be quite interesting. Line it up and I'll be there.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Peggy W— I'm all for it. A beer at the White House. I've been in the White House but I didn't have the temerity to drink a beer in there. :D

You are welcome, Peggy. Thank you!


itakins profile image

itakins 6 years ago from Irl

King James professor sir ,and ArchDynamics,

In preparation for the night out in the White House-please watch and learn-we could do a kind of 'session' with the man himself

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HplZ_taHXLM


ArchDynamics profile image

ArchDynamics 6 years ago from Orlando, FL

OMG, now THAT was funny!

O'Leary, O'Reilly

O'Hare and O'Hara,

There's no one as Irish as Barack Obama.

Gotta love that. See, James? Aren't you lucky that we're not just 'erudite', but funny, too?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

itakins— That's funny! Who knew? Thanks for the link.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

ArchDynamics— I am truly lucky to have you two carrying on about the Orthodox Church. :D


jiberish profile image

jiberish 6 years ago from florida

James, I reguard all your work as a lesson. If you had been my professor i may have stayed for four years. Thank you for your hard work and your talent for making it interesting.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

jiberish— Thank you for coming by to read my work and for leaving your gracious compliments. You are welcome.


Shetslo profile image

Shetslo 6 years ago

I'm late, as usual. It takes time to read your hubs, but it saves me lots of time researching. Though I've read a lot about the Great Schism, but still your hub provides new information I didn't know. Thank you!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

socit2009— Thank you and you are welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Shetslo— You are right on time, brother. I know the history hubs are long. Sorry about that. And that's after I cut half of it out! :)

I appreciate your warm words. You are welcome. You know what I like? I like your avatar. Grace shines right from your face along with Christlike humility. I don't see that often. But I know it when I see it.


Rebecca E. profile image

Rebecca E. 6 years ago from Canada

So much to learn so little time, but you've made it easy!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Rebecca E.— I thank you for taking the time to visit my humble Hub. I appreciate you letting me know you were here.


Beth Solomon profile image

Beth Solomon 6 years ago from Massachusetts

Excellent hub! I look forward to reading more of your hubs.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Beth Solomon— Thank you! I appreciate the visit and the comments. Welcome to HubPages!


communazi 6 years ago

James wrote: I love Irish humor and even more Irish music...

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=ort...

not completely off topic :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

communazi— That's quite a name you have chosen for yourself there, matey. That link is interesting. Who knew? A Serbian Irish music band! :)


Tom Whitworth profile image

Tom Whitworth 6 years ago from Moundsville, WV

James this is the absolute best compilation of religion and politics I have ever seen. The mix of these concepts can only result in oblivion. The founders of America must of realized this fact thus the separation of church and state.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Tom Whitworth— Thank you for this high praise, Tom. The founders of America embraced Christianity—believing a democracy could not survive without it—but rebuked a state-enforced denominational choice. This has been twisted in our day to mean something it didn't mean to the founders.


Kebennett1 profile image

Kebennett1 6 years ago from San Bernardino County, California

James, As always, a wonderful Hub. The History of Christianity is a very interesting topic. I have learned a lot from you. Thank you.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

kebennett1— Thank you, dear! I love this subject the most. :-)

I am pleased to be of some service. You're welcome.


DeBorrah K. Ogans profile image

DeBorrah K. Ogans 6 years ago

James A. Watkins, This is another wonderful comprehensive commentary on the Orthodox Church, I am always amazed by the massive amount of dissension that permeates the history of Christianity. You have pointed out some interesting essential facts! Schism resulting in division that continued to further splinter and yield the mandate for one to endorse someone’s perceived beliefs such as wearing or not wearing a beard or who does what and when or be faced with being penalized or even the possibility of being excommunicated?

In no way does it undermine the authenticity of the Scriptures! But serves to affirm the finite mindset of man and what occurs when one becomes dogmatic in their enforcement of doctrinal views rather than the principles of the Word. Whereas respect is merited, there is nothing wrong with protocol and the order that comes along with it! The real challenge is operating from the perspective that “ God is not a respecter of persons.” He is the true Authority! What we should line up with as Christians is His Word, The Holy Scriptures! We must keep in mind it is God who we WORSHIP! The question is to what extent does the dissension continue now and to what degree does it impact the overall spiritual growth of God’s Universal Church?

As usual Excellent informative and thorough hub professor! Thank you for sharing, In His Love Blessings!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

DeBorrah K. Ogans— Thank you very much for your gracious accolades! And you are welcome. I always love to see your face on my page. It is a joy to read your wonderful words every single time.

I agree with you that much of this arguing is about nothing. The denominational conflicts, which I will discuss later in this series, are even more ridiculous in their hair-splitting. You are so right: The Bible is what counts. It's all that counts. I will be discussing that when I get to the Reformation. But first, it's off to the Crusades! :0


djbraman profile image

djbraman 6 years ago

Great research, I'm much harder on the schisms than you and the damage that was done to the roots of our Christianity. I love the up close personalities you detail that had involvement in the Catholic Orthodoxy history. Great pictorials to go with your article.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

djbraman— There was great damage wrought by the Schisms, true. Thank you for appreciating my research and pictures. I'll be coming to read some of your Hubs soon.


AdsenseStrategies profile image

AdsenseStrategies 6 years ago from CONTACT ME at Adsensibilities@gmail.com

This is a great hub. I mean really great. Leagues ahead of so many others, and certainly far more complete than any of my own. Kudos


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 6 years ago from Chicago Author

Adsense Strategies— Thank you so much for the applause. I will be over soon to review some of your Hubs. Methinks you are too modest about your work.


Daniyyel profile image

Daniyyel 5 years ago

Your hubs are all so interesting because you really research and use that information to focus on the humanities and history. Keep up the good work! I know I'll keep reading


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Daniyyel— Thank you for reading my work. I very much appreciate your thoughtful and kind compliments. I am grateful for your encouragement. Welcome to the Hub Pages Community!


cristina327 profile image

cristina327 5 years ago from Manila

Excellent hub voted up and useful. I find this hub highly educational and informative. Thank you for sharing this great wealth of information here at Hubpages. May you be blessed today and always. Best regards.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

cristina327— It is always a pleasure to read your comments on my Hubs. Your Hubs are wonderful. I appreciate your compliments and blessings; as well as the voted up and useful. Thank you for the encouragement. And you are most welcome. :D


Mark.Issa profile image

Mark.Issa 3 years ago from Sydney, Australia

Amazing hub James. Very neutral, factual and straight-to-the-point. I've honestly never read anything like that.

Would you consider writing a hub about the Oriental Orthodox churches that split up with the Greeks and Latins in the 5th century?

And maybe one about the Assyrian Church; the 1st church to leave the communion?

I believe these churches provide excellent study cases because they remained isolated from other Christian churches for so long and have survived as minorities in Muslim countries.

God bless you,

Mark


Alexandra 3 years ago

- Hi Tim, those are some interesting facts about you. I solerlcd down to see that your little one is a newborn. I do pray that the MRI tests show that she will be okay. I will pray for her!Thank you for your reply to my band. Are you really interested in our playing at your church? If so, please contact me via email: .Thank you and be blessed,Carole

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