Religion, Atheism, and Crime

Religion and Peace

What is the relationship between religion and crime? Is a more religious society a more peaceful one? Does non-belief lead to more violence? To answer these questions, we will consider rates of religious adherence and rates of crime in the US nationally, among the US states, and among developed countries.

Church or synagogue attendance by state, 2006
Church or synagogue attendance by state, 2006 | Source

God and Crime in America: Trends Over Time

The United States has become more secular in the late 20th and early 21st century. We see the following patterns:

  • Christians: About 86% of Americans considered themselves Christians in 1990, but by 2008 this number had fallen to between 76 and 78%.
  • Nonbelievers: Americans with no religion rose from 8% in 1990 to 15% in 2008. Every state saw a rise in its proportion of nonbelievers.
  • Prayer: The percentage of people who ever prayed stood at 95% in 1983, and dropped to about 88% by 2008. Meanwhile, the number of people who reported "never" praying rose from about 4% to 11% in the same period.
  • Religious service attendance: In 1972, the majority of people attended religious services once a month or more frequently. In 2008, a slim majority attended several times a year or less often. The greatest growth has been among those never attending. Actual weekly church attendance is estimated at somewhere between 17 and 30%, not the 40% level common in self-reporting polls. This means that at least 70% of Americans do not attend church weekly, or even every other week. And this has been true for several decades.
  • Reading sacred texts: In 2007, 41% of people reported reading sacred texts less than once a year, or never.

So America has clearly become more secular in the last 40 years. What has crime done during this time? The data indicates that since 1970, crime has increased, and then decreased (see the chart below that I made in Microsoft Excel, using data from the BJS).

In 2007, violent crime was roughly where it was forty years earlier. And property crime was actually below where it had been. Decreasing religious belief has either had no impact, or a slightly positive impact, on the American crime rate.

American property and violent crime have increased, then decreased, since 1970
American property and violent crime have increased, then decreased, since 1970 | Source

God and Crime in America: Among the States

Among the American states, there is a neutral-to-positive correlation between religious behavior, and rates of crime. To see this relationship, I used three measures:

  1. The FBI's statistics for crime by state in 2006;
  2. Rates of church or synagogue attendance by state in 2006; and
  3. The importance of religion in people's daily lives by state in 2009

Religiosity had no significant relationship with violent crime, but it had a notable positive correlation with property crime. To see this, I simply used Microsoft Excel to plot the numbers against each other (see charts below).

If nothing else, this data disproves the notion that less religious belief inexorably contributes to, or is correlated with, more crime. Not only is this completely false, but the opposite--that religion is correlated with crime--is somewhat true.

Property crime correlated with religious attendance

Each dot represents a state. There is a positive correlation between property crime in a state, and religious attendance.
Each dot represents a state. There is a positive correlation between property crime in a state, and religious attendance. | Source

Property crime correlated with religion in daily life

Each dot represents a state. There is a positive correlation between property crime and the importance of religion in daily life.
Each dot represents a state. There is a positive correlation between property crime and the importance of religion in daily life. | Source

God and Crime Around the World

As a general rule, religiosity is highest among the poorest nations of the world, and lowest among the richest. This Gallup study of global religiosity, asked people around the world if religion was an important part of their daily lives. Unsurprisingly, there is a general correlation between the importance of religion in daily life, and homicide rates.

Less scientifically, we can generally see that the more secular and agnostic societies of the rich world tend to be among the most peaceful, at least in the area of homicides. The US is the most murderous country in the rich world by far, while being one of the most religious. About 33% of Americans indicate religion is not important in their daily lives. For the least murderous societies (which include Singapore, Austria, Norway, Switzerland and Germany), this number is never lower than 40%, and goes as high as 78%.

A similar trend is seen globally, but it is weaker because of challenges in collecting international data, the wide diversity in laws, political issues (including terrorism and war), and a number of cultural and social factors that affect crime rates. This BBC article explains the complexity and difficulty of international crime comparisons.

God and Crime: Conclusions

On an international, national or sub-national level, greater religiosity does not inevitably lead to a more peaceful society. Increasing rates of atheism and agnosticism do not and have not correlated with increasing crime rates. In fact, in many instances, the opposite has been true: increased religious adherence is correlated with more violence and social instability.

A number of reasons may be suggested for these results. Religion is caused by circumstances of poverty, lack of opportunities and violence (especially as people turn to religion to find peace). In addition, religion itself often cultivates violence, whether terrorism, domestic violence, or rivalry among religious groups with competing claims to the truth.

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Comments 68 comments

Joyus Crynoid profile image

Joyus Crynoid 5 years ago from Eden

Well done secularist10! I think the key correlation is with poverty, which attracts both crime and religion. The USA is a bit anamolous, but then we were founded by puritans. Thanks for busting the erroneous myth that religious belief is needed for ethical behavior.


Austinstar profile image

Austinstar 5 years ago from Somewhere in the universe

Sheesh, if religious belief and ethical behavior went together there would be no sex scandals of church officials. Is there some reason the religionists can't correlate this? But maybe saying some prayers for the poor constitutes redemption in their eyes.


f_hruz profile image

f_hruz 5 years ago from Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Great job!

Poverty and lack of education are most likely factors for higher crime rates and religious irrationality ... they are both socio-cultural problems!


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Thank you, Joyus.

The US is definitely the outlier among rich countries, but it's not just the US. Developed countries like Greece, Italy and Portugal show similar tendencies, relative to other rich countries, although not as pronounced.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Austinstar, yes--the most religious doing the worst things! We would expect the most religious people (church officials) to have uniformly the highest ethics, yet it turns out to be not the case. Great point.

I'm sure they will keep on praying, and I will keep on thinking.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

f_hruz, thank you. Yes, the numbers confirm what we all know from anecdotal evidence/ experience--poverty, religion and other social maladies rise and fall together.


Glassy profile image

Glassy 5 years ago from Aus

Fantastic Hub and very well researched.

As an Australian, it never ceases to amaze me when i hear about gun toting redneck bible bashers in the US and government leaders that are war mungers and go to church every Sunday and will start a war whenever they can. And then theres the lies which are told by the leaders in government which there are too many to mention.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Thanks, Glassy.

The numbers certainly have the power. People can't argue with facts.

It's amazing what some good research can do to shake up those old assumptions.


Glassy profile image

Glassy 5 years ago from Aus

Yes, the church going, so called honest Christian people would do anything to suppress those facts to make sure they wont come out and if those facts were out in the open, you would get channels such as Fox and the religious channels - twisting and manipulating the truth to suit their needs and the sad truth is, the majority will for for the spin.


Jane Bovary profile image

Jane Bovary 5 years ago from The Fatal Shore

Well conceived, well researched and well written...and what's more, you never make any spelling mistakes. You're a role model for hub writing secs. Great job.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Thanks, Jane. That's very kind. I wouldn't be able to live with myself with the kinds of mistakes I see on some hubs, lol. (Insider's tip: Safari automatically underlines misspelled words. I've always been a more or less perfect speller, but it does make the job much easier and quicker :)

The true test of a writer, though, is proper grammar and punctuation, while maintaining a consistent voice.

Anyway, this hub was a lot of work because of all the sources involved. Still very rewarding, though, as it always is.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

The Global Peace Index is another international measure that correlates strongly with secularism/ non-belief.

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads...

The GPI incorporates a variety of indicators that affect peace, including violent crime, political instability, exports of weaponry, likelihood of violent demonstrations, and prison population.


Jane Bovary profile image

Jane Bovary 5 years ago from The Fatal Shore

Secs, For some reason Safari keeps freezing and I don't know how to fix it. I had to download Firefox. I wonder what it could be...?


Trish_M profile image

Trish_M 5 years ago from The English Midlands

All those who claim that only Christian believers can be moral should read this :)


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Jane, not sure. Might have something to do with your operating system. I'm definitely no computer expert, though.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Trish--Exactly! Especially since the stats for the United States deal with a predominantly Christian population (at least in name). Plus Christianity is the dominant religion in many poorer countries that are studied in the international surveys.

Even aside from the numbers, just the existence of a single peaceful/ stable society of millions of people who are not religious at all (at least not in the traditional sense) is enough to completely disprove that notion. And there are several such societies in the world.


Trish_M profile image

Trish_M 5 years ago from The English Midlands

Very interesting. I'll have to look into this further :)


earnestshub profile image

earnestshub 5 years ago from Melbourne Australia

A very good read, and well written as others have pointed out.

The comments are informative too!

A great piece of work.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Thanks, Earnest. Appreciate it.

Glad you enjoyed it.


Shirley Aguas profile image

Shirley Aguas 5 years ago from Philippines

I do not know about the crime rate in religious countries as compared to countries who are not religious. However, i do know that a lot of religious people tend to say one thing and do exactly the opposite of what they preach.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Shirley, well the data show that more religious societies tend to have more social problems, including crime, than less religious ones. So there is a correlation there.

Hypocrisy is indeed very common among the religious. I think this is largely because the values and beliefs of most major religions were created eons ago in very different cultural and political climates from what people experience today.

So their beliefs and ideas end up clashing with the reality they experience in their day-to-day lives. This is also a major reason why religion is dying in the most prosperous societies.

Thanks for visiting.


gobangla 5 years ago

Higher levels of social problems lead to more religiosity. People in troubled societies turn to religion as a means of coping with uncertainty. Here is a good article that deals with this: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-human-beas...


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Very true, gobangla. The article mentions the interesting effect of social welfare programs--this helps to explain why religiosity is more common in the US than in other developed countries, since in the US the social programs are less developed and more limited.

In a way, religion often functions as a kind of alternative social program for people, especially psychologically and emotionally. The importance of sports and other entertainment activities in the decline of religion is also very important.


Chasuk 5 years ago

This is quite an interesting hub. Well written, and well-supported with facts.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 5 years ago from New York City Author

Thanks, Chasuk. Glad you liked it.


Davesworld profile image

Davesworld 4 years ago from Cottage Grove, MN 55016

Sure thing, Charlie. It is easy to take two sets of numbers with similar characteristics and assume a matching relationship exists. It is another thing to establish the relationship. This you have failed to do.

Years ago,someone noticed that when women's hemlines in the fall fashion shows were shorter, the stock market went up. And when hemlines got lower, the stock market went down. Does that mean that there really is is a co-relation between the two things? Can you draw the conclusion that stock investors a re a bunch of Male Chauvanist Pigs who like looking at women's thighs"?

Other factors may be at play here. Such as improved policing,, incarceration rates and longer sentences keeping criminals off the streets, improvements in home security systems, etc. Drawing a conclusion by carefully selecting your data is a fools errand.

Mark Twain said it best: "There are three kinds of lies, lies, damned lies and statistics."


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

Well, I don't know who Charlie is. If you actually read the article, you will note the word "cause" does not appear anywhere except in the last paragraph where I talk about what religion is caused by--which are the same kinds of things crime is caused by.

The word "correlation" does appear several times, though. And I do not believe religion causes crime per se, but overall the relationship is clear.

Yes, there is (or at least was) a correlation between skirt length and the stock market: they went in the same direction, as you mentioned. Does this mean that skirt length CAUSES the stock movements? Of course not.(Although, as someone who lives and works in New York City, and who has known plenty of financial guys, I can tell you that yes, they tend to be high on the testosterone scale!).

The reason that correlation exists (we can assume) is that they are both tied to economic circumstances. Briefly, the idea is women wear shorter skirts when they have more confidence, they feel more liberated, safer, and are more willing to take risks, all of which are closely tied to their economic well being. And increasing economic well being is obviously tied to a rising stock market.

Correlation is easy to establish, causation is much more difficult.

This article just clarifies the correlation. And in doing so, makes clear that many religious people's assertion that a decline in religion leads to an increase in crime is completely false.

Sure statistics can be manipulated. That is why I openly welcome anybody who has more comprehensive data indicating the opposite--that less religion is clearly correlated with more crime--to show it.


Davesworld profile image

Davesworld 4 years ago from Cottage Grove, MN 55016

You could just as easily determine that there is an inverse correlation between rising sea levels in Fiji and Crime in the United States, or a direct correlation with the decline in smokers in the general population with the apparent decline in religion. Both would be fairly simple exercises with a spreadsheet. Neither would establish anything of particular merit.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

The difference is that we know religion and religious belief influences people's behavior, values, lifestyle, life choices and ethics. These things have clear implications for crime. Sea levels do not.


grayknight profile image

grayknight 4 years ago

Trish, you posted a link to this hub on my hub:

http://hubpages.com/religion-philosophy/Top-10-Ath...

The fact that you think it applies just shows that you did not read my hub. In my hub, I do not claim that atheists have no morals. My hub is actually based on the assumption that many do. What I argue in my hub is that atheists are full of contradictions and inconsistencies. While claiming to be the most rational of people, they have no rational basis for the morals and ethics that they are so proud of. Any discussion of right and wrong is intrinsically a religious discussion based on unscientific religious beliefs - regardless of whether or not you believe in God or belong to a particular sect.

As I say in my hub, even an argument against murder is intrinsically religious, as it implies that there is some fundamental value to human life. However, discourse based strictly on scientific evidence is incapable of depicting such value.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

Gray Knight:

This comment really belongs on your own hub, but I left it because it's topical.

You are incorrect that morality requires religion. Pre-religious humans had moral and ethical standards (otherwise how did we get here). Trish is probably thinking of another point: that societies and cultures that are not religious, or where religion does not figure prominently, nevertheless have moral and ethical standards.

These standards are typically based on humanism or something like it. That is, rather than have God as the source of moral worth, human life is. This secular, humanist approach is actually far simpler, more straightforward and more elegant than any God-based or supernaturally-based morality.

"...argument against murder is intrinsically religious, as it implies that there is some fundamental value to human life. However, discourse based strictly on scientific evidence is incapable of depicting such value."

You confuse secular moral/ ethical thinking with the norms and standards of natural science. Two different things.


grayknight profile image

grayknight 4 years ago

I would not have posted on this hub had it not been linked to mine.

"These standards are typically based on humanism or something like it. That is, rather than have God as the source of moral worth, human life is."

Scientifically speaking, a human is oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and a smattering of other elements mixed in a certain way. Nothing more. As soon as you start talking about how human life is more than that, you are venture into the realm of religion. Whether or not your religion includes a belief in God or life after death, it is still religion.

"You confuse secular moral/ ethical thinking with the norms and standards of natural science. Two different things."

Atheists claim that there is nothing unscientific about their moral/ethical thinking. They pretend that all of their assumptions about wrong and right fall within the realms of what can be proven by science. However, this is false. At some point, all arguments about morality - whether among atheists or others - simply boil down to what "just feels right" - and this is religion. Therefore, while they claim to reject religion, moral atheists are religious people.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

I know that, but it still belonged on your hub. Just saying.

"As soon as you start talking about how human life is more than that, you are venture into the realm of religion."

Then you are defining religion far too broadly. Religion includes the belief in a supernatural world. That is one of its key distinguishing features from other belief systems or world views.

A secular morality can be deduced logically, but that is separate from natural science. Some atheists/ agnostics may say that secular morality is scientific. But regardless, a secular morality is certainly more logical and rational than religious, supernaturally-based morality.

This is because, among other reasons, we know for sure the natural world exists, but we don't know that the supernatural world exists. Therefore basing an idea on the natural world is more logical than basing it on the supernatural.

"At some point, all arguments about morality - whether among atheists or others - simply boil down to what "just feels right" - and this is religion."

First, this is not true. Secular humanistic morality does not depend on feelings nearly to the degree that religious morality does (if at all). Second, feelings alone do not constitute religion. Religion includes many other components such as established traditions, the proclamations of authority figures, rituals and ceremonies, ancient holy books, etc.


John 4 years ago

All of these assumptions are useless. These studies all use a large category of people that call themselves christian or some other religion when the largest percentage are non-practicing. None of your comments or comments of so called experts mean anything unless you can identify the people who take Christianity or another religion seriously, such as attend church weekly and attend church functions. When a study like that is done I'll pay attention


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

Well, John, maybe it's time to start paying attention, since evidently you did not read the article before commenting.

The percentage of people in the population who claim to be Christian or who claim to believe in God is important, and it is significant. It does say something about the overall religious beliefs of the people that the proportion of self-professed Christians has declined.

More importantly, in this article I specifically cite data for church and synagogue attendance by state, church attendance nationally, frequency of prayer and frequency of reading sacred texts. All the kinds of hard measures of religiosity you are interested in. Time to start paying attention.


Yourmom 4 years ago

It's one thing to disprove a christian but really? Trying to say there more violent man can people go low now and days ._.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 4 years ago from New York City Author

Well, it's normally the Christians claiming that atheist and secular populations are more likely to be violent and crime-ridden, so I suggest you talk to them first about "going low."

In any case, this article is not about specific individuals. This is about large scale trends and patterns over large populations. If you think this analysis wrong, then prove it with better data and facts.


AramaMihai 3 years ago

Religion and crime have always had a close connection it seems. I am personally disturbed when leaders of religious groups use God as an excuse for crimes, when all they preach about is love and peace. More of my opinions cam be found here: http://www.topictower.com/religion-forum/crimes-ma... and I am always glad to talk about such an important topic.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

Religion and god provide very convenient excuses for justifying all sorts of human behaviors, both positive and negative. Thanks for coming, Arama.


UtherPendragon 3 years ago

Guy's c'mon. Based on these numbers there is no correlation. An r-squared value of 0.7 or better is required.


hype13 3 years ago

I tend to think this is right but am not convinced this research is the best way of showing it - if your goal is to show whether religion or atheism causes crime then a time series approach would be better. As it stands, this doesn't actually prove anything - perhaps NY would be safer if more people were religious, or Texas would be less safe if there was less religion. You're just unable to make any such meaningful assertions with this as it stands.


Monty Gaither 3 years ago

Were the number of religious people is lower, one would expect to find fewer honor killings and killings over someone's religious beliefs being offened. One would expect to find fewer people who think a god told them to commit the crime that they commited, whether it is blowing up a clinic, killing a doctor, or killing the author of a book about one or more religions.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

Uther:

Where did you get that number from?

In any case, we never expect an extremely high correlation in the social sciences because there are countless factors that can also influence the results. Human society is far more complex than a simple laboratory experiment. In this case, we're talking about crime, which is influenced by many factors that have not been addressed in this data. In addition, there are many different ways of measuring and defining "religion" than what I have used here.

Moreover, you are referring to the data on the US states. But the robust relationship is seen in the US nationally over time and among countries globally. At the very least, you must recognize that there is certainly no correlation between lack of religion, and more crime, which is what many religious people claim.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

Hype:

"if your goal is to show whether religion or atheism causes crime..."

That is not my goal. As I have said many times, this analysis is not about showing CAUSE, it is about demonstrating CORRELATION.

In the final section of the essay, I offer some quick thoughts on why this correlation exists at every level of human organization, including the fact that religion and crime are both caused by similar factors: poverty, ignorance, etc.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

Monty:

Precisely. These kinds of crimes may not be significant in the rich world, but in the poorer societies where religious devotion is much greater, we see much higher rates of this kind of religiously-inspired violence such as honor killing, religious terrorism and other crimes.


Pointless 3 years ago

Anyone remark that the coefficient of determination R^2 indicates a regression line does not fit the data very well. This mean that there are no correlation .


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

The R squared values in those charts are significant in the context of very complex social dynamics, especially since I have not adjusted for any other influences over crime or religion.

As I just said above to another commenter, it is unreasonable to expect an extremely high correlation in these kinds of social scientific analyses because there are many other factors at play in society and culture.

Moreover, if there was not some kind of relationship between religion and crime, then it is unlikely that we would see this same correlation over time nationally in the US, and across countries on the global scale.


UtherPendragon 3 years ago

Secularisto, I get those numbers because I deal with very large data sets numbering in the millions of data points from complex biological systems, and I have a very strong backgound in statistics. Unless your going to present a more rigorous treatment with more statistical power I remain skeptical of your conclusions. As you've pointed out, your system is complex and your trying to correlate an outcome with only one factor. Shouldn't you also test the significance of all the factors in your model or at least tell us what those factors are? If your going to use math to prove your points you can't handwave rational for supporting your conclusion by just saying its complex and therefore we have to trust your reasoning without data. I'm guessing, just by looking at your data that if you ran a control chart you'd find that all your data can be explained by random variation.


UtherPendragon 3 years ago

"just the existence of a single peaceful/ stable society of millions of people who are not religious at all (at least not in the traditional sense) is enough to completely disprove that notion. And there are several such societies in the world" I'm just curious which country are you referring to?


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 3 years ago from New York City Author

If you have a very strong background in statistics, then you should know that different values are considered "significant" by different people in different fields, working with different data sets and with different assumptions. The bottom line is that "significant" is a fundamentally subjective assessment.

I am working on another article that is more rigorous and will try to control for various other factors. I don't know when I will post that though.

"I'm guessing, just by looking at your data that if you ran a control chart you'd find that all your data can be explained by random variation."

Be my guest. The links to my sources are all up there if you want to look at the numbers yourself.

"...and therefore we have to trust your reasoning without data."

My reasoning is BASED on the data. The data is all there for everyone to see. It's publicly available. I'm not hiding anything.

But again, you are ignoring the other, less-quantified aspects of the argument. The robust relationship is seen on many scales, as I said.

"I'm just curious which country are you referring to?"

The quote you cited of me was in response to the statement (referenced by another commenter) that only Christians can be moral. Since that is an absolute statement, it only takes one counter-example to demolish it. So if you're asking me for a specific country where millions of people are not religious and moral, I didn't have one in mind when I wrote that. But Sweden would be a good example. As would Japan, the Netherlands, Canada and many others.


UtherPendragon 3 years ago

Well I looked it up and it seem that in one sense you're correct about the low values but the acceptable range in the field appears to be from 0.4-0.6, e.g., Bollen, Kennith. 1989. Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley & Sons.


Ronald D Bruno 2 years ago

You cannot correlate Christian beliefs or church attendance with over-all rates of crime. You need to examine the crime levels within the Christian believers and church-goers. Put the blame where it belongs, on the criminals themselves, WHO btw are not the ones believing and going to church. FOLLOWING JESUS TRANSFORMS YOUR LIFE, THE WAY YOU LIVE AND TREAT OTHERS -FACT. Get your facts straight. It's as if you are trying to use selective and slanted reasoning to thwart Christianity and other religions. Jesus saves and changes lives -- don't forget that statistic!

But let me give you some figures. In 1900, there were 500 million Christians, now there are 2.3 billion. That's growth and God is right on track with 1/3 of the population of the world. Godliness is practiced and spread but so is evil spread and the two will soon be separated during a period of time called the Great Tribulation/Judgment Day. You'll see hell on earth and wonder where's God or where is the good. God did not intend man to struggle in a sinful world for eons without end. His plan to finite and we will see it. Then we will experience peace on earth for 1000 years. Belief it ... or not, your choice! And remember this, there aren't too many atheists in fox holes!


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 2 years ago from New York City Author

Ronald:

The correlation is there, I didn't create it. I just explained it. It would still be there whether I wrote about it or not.

"You need to examine the crime levels within the Christian believers and church-goers."

That would be an interesting exercise, but separate from this topic.

You cannot escape the fact that more religious places tend to have more crime (as well as other social problems).

Your comment is mostly just the same tired old traditional Christian beliefs repeated. At least I have evidence for my claims. You do not.


Ronald D. Bruno 2 years ago

To Secularist,

Apart from God, you can do nothing. When catastrophe engulfs the world soon (and I would say within a year), your world, your future and your perspective will come crashing down. You will either get on your knees and ask Jesus for forgiveness and life or you will shake your fist and curse him_ but you will believe that there is a God, His wrath will be evident! Every knee will bow, those who rejected Jesus will be destroyed. Secularism, atheism, will no longer exist. So go ahead and critique Christ, reject Him, while you plan and build your future and sit on your self appointed throne_ as master of your destiny ... We'll soon see how long that lasts.


Uther 2 years ago

Based solely on the data you presented I can't accept your conclusions.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 2 years ago from New York City Author

Ronald:

End-times apocalyptic doomsayers have been saying that for centuries. You might want to do a little research into the many failed end-of-world predictions. You can start here: http://hubpages.com/education/A-History-of-the-End...

"When catastrophe engulfs the world soon (and I would say within a year)..."

Thanks for the clear prediction. I hope within one year's time you will have the courage to come back here and discuss whether your prediction has come true and if not, why not.


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 2 years ago from New York City Author

Uther:

That statement is not very productive without further elaboration.

The data says what it says. The correlations are there in the data itself.

The first paragraph of the conclusion is simply a rewording of what the data already demonstrated. The second is where I take the leap and offer some potential explanations for the results, that I think are legitimate, but which obviously would require more evidence and discussion to verify beyond the scope of this essay.


TheBudness profile image

TheBudness 22 months ago from Appalachia

Google is a search engine, not a research engine. What are you trying to argue here?


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 22 months ago from New York City Author

I'm not sure what Google has to do with anything.

If you don't understand the essay, I suggest you try reading again.


TheBudness profile image

TheBudness 22 months ago from Appalachia

You have not made an argument. My google comment was dripping with sarcasm. It was a nice way of saying that you don't know how to research, only search and click. Well, not nice. If u don't get it you have proven that you are a charlatan, and not a writer. Goodnight


secularist10 profile image

secularist10 21 months ago from New York City Author

Whether or not I know how to research is irrelevant. I did not create this data.

Instead of addressing the substance of the article, you have simply changed the topic and attacked the person. In other words, an ad hominem fallacy.

Since you're such an expert on "research," surely you should be able to provide some evidence or data on this topic, beyond childish snark.


William 19 months ago

A nation without religion, no Christianity? Don't we have a modern day example in North Korea?


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secularist10 19 months ago from New York City Author

Yes, what's your point?

We have a lot more examples of secular or agnostic countries than North Korea in any case. Moreover North Korean secularism, such as it is, is government-imposed. Whereas the secularism in Western countries is not.


Joel 15 months ago

Funny how the charts only start a decade after the Bible and school prayer were removed from public schools. Before then all those same charts show crime and poverty were non-existent compared to now.

The poorest nations share Socialism, not religion. Everyone is religious, including Atheists. There are even official Atheist Churches now all over the world.

This blog is dishonest.


God Loves Me 14 months ago

Those of us that know that there is a God also know that God gave us all free will. It seems that some need to be reminded that we are all HUMAN, even our religious leaders are too, leaving us open to Satin's influence. It is our job to tell Satin no. Everyone has a sense of right and wrong even if they do not believe in God but this sense of right and wrong was developed over thousands of years by religious beliefs.

I wounder if their search would of been done over a 60 to 100 years time if the results would of been completely different. Most of our great grandparents where dirt poor and very religious yet not criminals.


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secularist10 13 months ago from New York City Author

Joel:

I don't know where you get the idea that poverty was ever "nonexistent" anywhere. School prayer is a minor issue. What matters is people's beliefs and lifestyle.

"The poorest nations share Socialism, not religion."

This is obviously an absurd statement. The poorest nations are found in Africa and Asia, and have highly religious cultures. Places like Congo, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and so on. The richest countries are almost uniformly nonreligious or highly secular.


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secularist10 13 months ago from New York City Author

God loves me:

"Everyone has a sense of right and wrong even if they do not believe in God but this sense of right and wrong was developed over thousands of years by religious beliefs."

To the contrary, this sense of right and wrong was developed over thousands of years of evolution. Religion has often been an obstacle to this innate moral sense.

"Most of our great grandparents where dirt poor and very religious yet not criminals."

Criminals have always been in the minority, in any population. Nevertheless, crime has always been concentrated in the lower tier of society.


Rusty Shackleford 8 months ago

Correlation is not causation. Do you even science?

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