Reverse Racism - An Introspective Look into What Creates Racist Attitudes

While it is common knowledge that African-Americans have experienced many injustices throughout the last few hundred years, we have entered an era where there should not exist the racial tensions and conflicts that continue to persist between Caucasians and African-Americans. Racism used to be prevalent in all circles of society with regards to persons of color and blacks were at one point thought to be a separate sub-species outside of the human family tree. Caucasians have learned that many of the values and beliefs held by their ancestors were immoral, cruel and just wrong. During the last century, things have changed drastically and for the first time in history, an African-American has achieved the highest position that can be held in America – that of President. Perceptions have changed regarding the black community and while there still do exist those people who choose ignorance over unity, a person of color has every opportunity afforded a Caucasian and some would argue that they have even more. The fact that a black man has a better chance of receiving college scholarships and obtaining an employment position due to minority status proves just how many opportunities are available.

However, many African-Americans choose to separate themselves and try to blame poverty, unemployment, lack of healthcare and even police brutality on the white race. Many Caucasians are imbedded with “white guilt” because of the actions of their forefathers and have therefore allowed the black community to develop racist tendencies against them without realizing that it will become a never-ending cycle of hate and guilt. There was a need for black-empowerment groups during the turbulent 60’s but times are different today. Groups such as the Nation of Islam, the Uhuru House, and other black radical groups still exist and are promoting reverse racism through exclusion of the white man. More than likely, the white man is not going to want to join a group dedicated to blaming every hardship on the white man, but the very fact that these groups still exist further proves that racism is a two-way street and there is a lot of traffic.

Before I continue, I need to add my own personal disclaimer and tell the reader that I am not racist and shall approach this piece with facts from both sides of the argument. I am not generalizing the attitudes of African-Americans and I know that there are many persons of color who do not share the views of those I am writing about.

America has a bloody history and much of that blood was from the very people who labored to build this Country. The people I refer to are the Africans, brought here against their will and forced into a life of slavery. The first slaves were indentured servants brought to Jamestown, VI in 1619, and were soon labeled as property. Slave abuse was common and living conditions were often deplorable. Slaves were intentionally kept uneducated to keep them from rebelling and, even though there did exist some sympathetic groups such as the Quakers, the majority of white Americans viewed slaves as animals and treated them as such. In 1862, President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation abolishing slavery and in 1865 the Constitution was amended giving all persons of color equal status to the white man.

Jump ahead a hundred years and even though slavery no longer exists, many of the racist attitudes still do. Blacks are still excluded from many white institutions and activities, racial epitaphs are still used in everyday conversation and there are very few decent paying employment opportunities available to them. Things had changed but not enough. African-Americans started to develop a sense of pride that they had not had for centuries and groups were created to voice their anger over such continuing racism and unfair treatment. Some groups preached non-violent action such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference under Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. while others promoted violence against the white man such as the Black Panther Movement. However these groups decided to approach the problem, the white man started to listen. Segregation was done away with and groups such as the N.A.A.C.P. organized scholarship and employment opportunities for African-Americans.

Suddenly the black man was considered equal to the white man and everything was good, right? Not quite because a new sense of entitlement started to snowball into hatred of everything the white man had done to the African-American ancestors. The “race card” was now officially in play. Anytime a black person was denied a seat in a full-to-capacity restaurant or not chosen for the job, they could simply accuse the person (if white) that the reason they were excluded was simply because they were black. The white man now had a dilemma. He was obligated to make things right for the black man due to his white guilt but secretly he started to hate the black man for doing that to him. Next, the white man started to fear any confrontation with the black man so he started to go out of his way to avoid him.

Another reason the white man holds a certain amount of fear for the black man is due to some of the radical groups that still exist and preach hatred toward the white man. Yes, the white man does have the KKK and Arian Nation but they are largely hated by both the black community as well as the white community. One group that preaches reverse racism is the Nation of Islam. While their message is all about the empowerment of the African-American culture, they openly label the white man as being the Devil and exclude any white person from joining or supporting their cause. One of the Nation’s most well-known and vocal leaders is Louis Farrakhan, and his views on the white race is openly racist, however he will never be labeled as such due to white guilt and fear of being considered racist for even considering it. In one of his speeches, he said “The human beast – the serpent, the dragon, the Devil and Satan – all mean one and the same: the people or race known as the white or Caucasian race, sometimes called the European race.” Stop and consider that if a white religious figure said this same thing about the black man, it would be considered blatently racist. So, why then can Louis Farrakhan get away with this behavior yet I, being a white man, can be called racist for not hiring an unqualified applicant because he/she's black?

Another group that preached reverse racism was the Black Panther Movement. Founded in October, 1966, the group was formed with the intent of keeping the government from sending black men to fight in Vietnam. While the group did have some valid points, things quickly got out of hand when they started acquiring weapons and promoting violence. In a matter of years, things went from blaming the government to blaming the white government to simply blaming the white man. It became the white man’s fault that most blacks were uneducated and lived in poor areas. Crime was blamed on the white man as well as rampant drug use among young black men. Suddenly, everything was the white man’s fault even though there were just as many, if not more white soldiers dying in Vietnam. Even though the Panther Movement eventually died off, many of the attitudes taught to young black men during this time carried into the present. The infamous Crips gang that started in Los Angeles was inspired by Huey P. Newton, the original founder of the Panthers. Raymond Washington heard Huey speak when he was a young boy and decided to take action to help his own neighborhood. He and his friend Stanley “Tookie” Williams founded the Crips in 1969 and they modeled the structure of their organization after the Panther Movement. Originally started to take back the streets for citizens and help the black community, the Crips soon became a source of violence and drugs that actually further destroyed their own nieghborhoods. Today, the Crips are one of the most notorious and dangerous gangs in existence.

Among certain parts of the black community, there exists a level of distrust and hatred toward officers of the law and it’s amplified if the officer is white. Unfortunately, racial profiling does exist, and there's no denying that there are racist police officers out there but an officer of the law deserves courtesy and respect until given a reason not to be respected. Even then, the officer does not deserve to have a weapon pulled on him/her. Last year, there were two Police shooting instances in the bay area – one black male killed by Police at the San Francisco BART station, and another black male killed by Police in Oakland. In both instances, the deceased pulled a weapon on the officers, and in the case of Lovelle Mixon, he managed to kill four officers before being shot to death in his sister’s Oakland apartment. If you pull a weapon on a Police officer, expect to be shot - period. It does not matter if you are white, black or plaid. Nobody's bulletproof, and to die for your misguided beliefes is simple stupidity.

Lovelle Mixon, who was a convicted felon and rapist on parole, was pulled over for a cell phone violation and instead of getting the ticket, he shot the two officers who had pulled him over. He then fled to his sister’s house and killed two more officers before being shot himself. Now here’s the great part – The black community in Oakland hailed him as a “hero” and “freedom fighter.” He killed four Police officers doing their job, and on the same day the family of the slain officers were holding the funeral service, the black community in Oakland with the financial support of the Uhuru House (a non-profit Afro-centric media source and community center) held a march in honor of Lovelle Mixon. The Uhuru House is another organization that chooses to demonize the white man and by supporting this march, they proved just how far they will go to keep separatism alive. If Lovelle Mixon had killed four black officers, chances are that he would not be embraced by the black community and wouldn’t be thought of as a hero. He would just be yesterday’s news and another black funeral.

There are two sides of racism and my point is that the black population can be just as racist as a white man, yet the double standard allows them to get away with reverse racism. The white man has to tread lightly into any conversation with a member of one of the above listed groups for fear of saying something offensive. As I have said before, racism is fueled by ignorance and fear, and until we can educate ourselves as to our differences and learn to not be afraid of them, racism will always exist. Ironically, the very thing that most of these groups preach against is exactly the thing they practice. In order to eradicate racism, we need equal opportunities for all persons in regards to employment, education and civic responsibility (this already exists), we need to acclimate our children at an early age to different cultures and teach them acceptance, we need to find a common ground to share in regards to religious tolerance, social situations and socio-economical standing, we need to let go of the past and stop blaming each other for the mistakes of our forefathers and finally learn to accept each other. Even with a black man as the President, I don't see this happening, and I'll probably be called a racist for even writing this. Let's finally burn the "race-card" like we did the draft-card in the 60's. Black or white, help me put this issue to rest. Change the world.

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Comments 23 comments

shamelabboush profile image

shamelabboush 7 years ago

Yeah, racism sucks man. It's very ugly, thanks for the thoughts.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 7 years ago Author

It's a touchy subject, I know, but one I feel has to be addressed.


Last American profile image

Last American 7 years ago

Good thoughts on an incendiary subject. If more people were as honest as you about it I think we would be halfway there. Unfotunately, crying racism has become some sort of parlor game.


Dorkies profile image

Dorkies 6 years ago from Tennessee

I have to say that I enjoyed reading this passage. Racism is one of the many touchy subjects, but I like the fact that there are a few people who are open to "give their two cents" about it.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 6 years ago Author

Thanks Dorkies. I originally wrote an early draft of this for an English term paper and got an 'A'. I was concerned about when it would be peer-edited by members of our group (3 were of African-American descent), but it was well-recieved by everyone.


jiberish profile image

jiberish 6 years ago from florida

Delaney, I can admire the way you tip-toe'd through this very complex issue. Keep Hubbing!


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 6 years ago Author

Thanks jiberish. I feel that the whole "race-card" thing is a complete double standard. I wonder what it would be like if caucasians started trying to pull a "race-card"? Would it be, as the French would say, "carte blanche"? Hmm... I think I have a new idea for a hub...


Jimmy 6 years ago

Thank you for the essay. I wish the whole world could read this and understand how a lot of us feel toward society and how it views racism today. It's true about staying out of certain conversations because someone of a black race is involved. I've had racist things said about me, but I don't freak out about it and go suing people. Thank you for not choosing sides. It definitely shows how boths sides feel.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 6 years ago Author

Thanks for the comments Jimmy. I would never choose sides simply because of color. Black, white, yellow, red or plaid, there are good people and there are bad people. I just really hate the bad people that try to blame their actions on race. I'm tired of these segregationists (for the lack of better terms) groups that can claim tax-exemption, promote their racist agenda, literally get away with murder, oh... and I'M the one who's supposed to feel guilty?! I'll just do what I've always done and refuse to associate with people who would blame the color of MY skin for their own self-made hardships.


fed up 6 years ago

we already know how "someone like you feels' you and people like you have created systems that speak for themselves loudly about your white privilege and maintenance of it. No one can be racist if they don't have the power to back it up, being white within white systems you have that power. the only ones who have commented on your defunked 'essay' are WHITE! and of course they love what you say! Racism, the actual root word and it's meaning was brought over from Europe, within the Bible! It was not a lived or ingrained belief of the 100 million Aboriginal people of Turtle Island that were extinguished. We have to live out the other side of what your ancestors have cause me and my ancestors and you want us all to bury our head in the sand and agree with you...to leave the poor little white guy alone because he can't handle the truth or process the enormous damage caused by his ancestors. Excuse me! Go live in Africa or on a Reservation, do a personal experiment and try to live as a Black person or an Aboriginal person...you won't! That would be just too real for your tender sentiments of white justice while you stand on your soap box, hoping the poor black man won't mind shining your shoes and admiring them just because you have white skin! Just like your sappy ideology.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 6 years ago Author

Hello Fed Up and thanks for commenting. First, I have to ask how you would know how "someone like me" feels? You challenge me to live in Africa or on a reservation yet you, in all your semi-coherent wisdom, seem to know exactly what it's like to be a white man?! Sorry pal, but it looks like you contradicted your own statement there...

Not that it's important, but I am Native American and Irish, so your assumption that my "ancestors" are the ones that caused your people (your words, not mine) the problems they have to deal with is also unfounded. MY ancestors had their land taken by force and were considered savages and dirty. If we want to bring the Bible into this, let's just look at what the Church of England did my Irish ancestors, shall we?

But back to the point Fed Up, obviously my "defunked essay" struck a nerve with you, but I absolutely stand behind everything I've written. I don't need to "walk a day" in a black man's shoes to know that there are some socio-economic problems, but guess what? Most of the problems are created from the mentality of being "owed" by the "Man." It's an all too convenient excuse to simply blame all your problems on the white race, isn't it? Don't have a job? White Man's fault. Live in a shitty area? White Man's fault. Half your family is either "locked up or knocked up?" Well I guess that's our fault too!

Here's a thought for you though... Maybe if instead of constantly trying to blame the white man for all your problems and actually doing something to better your situation, you'd actually become a better person and therefore the white man would treat you with respect instead of fear. Did you even READ my essay?! Try reading it again but this time, open your damned eyes!

I want to thank you again for commenting, because your attitude has just solidified the validity of my claim. YOU are living proof that reverse racism exists.


Javy 5 years ago

While Fed UP responded heavily and reverse racism exists. He is responding in the context of being white-priviledged due to being the majority or brain-washing a society with Eurocentric values. No race on this Earth colonizes other places like Europeans. Delaney, you have to consider the fact that you are white and regardless of whatever socio-dyanamics exist for minorities, they are still at your mercy when it's all said and done. This is coming from an Asian man. Asians don't even have a voice in this country. But I can see the perspective of the black man and I tell you that you have and advantage regardless because you are labelled within the majority.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 5 years ago Author

Hello Javy,

First off, the label "white-privilaged" is in and of itself a form of racism, is it not? You don't know me. You don't know my background. You don't know my situation, so how DARE you label me as privileged. And "brain-washing" society with Euro-centric values? Seriously, what planet are YOU from? Now as for minorities being at "MY mercy," I never realized I wield such power. Maybe I was too busy trying to avoid getting the living shit kicked out of me when I went to an all-black middle school... simply because I was white. Maybe those white cops in Oakland DESERVED to get killed for pulling over a black man. Maybe it was the "Christian" thing for an entire black community to do to rally a parade HONORING the man who killed those police officers... in front of the CHURCH where the families of the fallen officers were holding their funerals!

Sorry if I sound mad, but I am. Maybe as a white man, I should just come to terms with the fact that anytime a person of color wants to do ME an injustice because of the color of MY skin, I should let them because of what I "owe" them. CAN YOU NOT SEE THAT YOU'RE ONLY FURTHER VALIDATING MY POINT?!!!

Also, "Asians not having a voice" in this country? I know PLENTY of captains of industry who happen to be Asian. YOUR situation might suck, but is it really due to "Euro-centric" values, or are you just too busy blaming the white man for YOUR shortcomings?

In summation, I have to ask - are you actually condoning the violent acts against white by blacks, or did you only read the title of my essay before jumping to conclusions? I want to laugh, but it's sad that both yours and Fed Up's attitudes merely solidify my point that whites are NOT the ones keeping racism alive. You are. Your racism is coming through loud and clear. Period.


Javy 5 years ago

Condoning violence is absolutely wrong. I'm not blaming you I am just maintaining that their is such thing as Euro-centrism that exist around the world and in America prevails white privilege. How can a "Black Dominican" man hate and despise African Americans without even meeting or interacting with one? If somehow Asians colonized the world like Europeans and established Asia-centric values and came with it the brutal history of the past 600 years then you would be in no different position then I am speaking to you in this context. I read your essay, but you have to consider the fact that when Fed UP reads it, in his mind, you already can propose and think anyway you like because at the end of the day you aesthetically are the majority of this country and have the privilege of not experiencing what Fed Up does in his everyday life. Consider the majority of doors that are closed due to institutional racism, how establishments of the wealthiest and most powerful kind all has exploitations of the past that in turn offer an inheritance that forms the social structure of today's America. If you need more convincing about the power of being white in this world, maybe you need to visit places like South Africa, Australia, the vast majority of Latin Americas. See and understand who tends to live in absolute poverty and who establishes rule. There are several anti-white racists whites that understand this predicament in the world. I'm not asking you to do anything about it other than be more understanding. Consider reverse-racism as useless context that has no bearing when you consider the underlying factors. Nice talking to you.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 5 years ago Author

I'll simply respond by saying this...

"...at the end of the day you aesthetically are the majority of this country and have the privilege of not experiencing what Fed Up does in his everyday life."

There you go again assuming I grew up privileged. I make no assumptions about you, yet you continue to think my upbringing was all fucking roses because I'm white.

"Consider the majority of doors that are closed due to institutional racism"

Umm, last time I checked, a black man is the President. Correct me if I'm wrong, but obviously HE was able to open some doors... or do you EXPECT the white man to open doors for the black man instead?

"...maybe you need to visit places like South Africa, Australia, the vast majority of Latin Americas. See and understand who tends to live in absolute poverty and who establishes rule."

While I understand that there are certain areas of the world where certain classes are afforded more opportunities, my essay deals with the black population in America. I know PLENTY of black Americans who grew up poor, and now live fulfilled lives BECAUSE they didn't accept their situations. They DIDN'T simply throw up their hands because "the white man keeps them down." They grabbed life by the reigns and galloped to success. But again, my essay isn't even ABOUT that - it's about the continual violence towards white people by blacks and the fear it breeds.

"...Consider reverse-racism as useless context that has no bearing when you consider the underlying factors."

Has no bearing?! Reverse-racism is keeping the cycle of hate going! Do you honestly expect me to just accept all the black-on-white hatred and segregation, yet still have any semblance of respect for those people that constantly blame their situation on ME?! You're delusional...

If you respect me, I'll respect you. Period. With attitudes like yours, racism will never die. Take that thought to bed with you tonight Javy.


Javy 5 years ago

I agree that an attitude where you just resent people without getting to know the individual is down right vile. It's not how the world should be. I see many Blacks, Asians, Whites and etc that have this attitude and I simply stay away from them all or know who they are and keep them at bay and maybe try to help them resolve the conflict in their minds if possible. Do you see how Fed Up responded? I used strong / heavily, because I want you to see how he thinks. That's why I played the switching of roles for you, so that you can get the perspective from the other person. Some people can be reasoned with and some cannot. Those that are in the New Black Panther Party and those that are in Aryan Nation in most cases cannot. But if we want to make this world better we can help those that are lost in frustration out of it. That curbs all forms of racism agree? Any type of harboring of hate kills a mind body and soul.


Saari 5 years ago

I can fully understand what Fed and Jaavy are saying.

You see, no assumes your life was 'fucking roses' because you were white. But try to see it this way: Your whole little argument just screams 'WHITE PRIVILEGE'You see, white privilege doesn't necessarily mean your life was this nice little floaty thing, it just means- at it's base that you're ignorant.

Yep. Now judging from your responses I don't think you've lived in a majority-white area. And well that actually doesn't matter. Like, at all. Makes you no less ignorant and no more understanding than the next white (Or whatever you are.) guy.

You see, you can live without having the cops stop you (Black and white cops alike.) just because a man of your race is driving a nice car. You don't have to have this argument. You don't have to worry about people getting the wrong ideas about the Black Panther Party (The old one, not the new one. The new one is just horrible.) to the point of comparing them to the KKK, and then relating to the birth of the Crips. (I know plenty of white Crips. Not a racially-exclusive thing man.)You didn;t have to, as a child, feel odd and ugly because your hair wasn't straight enough. Because you weren't light enough. You can argue that blacks are getting over and that whites have stopped being racist.

You can close your eyes to reality and act like you know what blacks have been going through and have (some, not all people.) nod their heads and say, "Yeah! I agree with you!)

The fact that you called it reverse-racism is a white privilege thing in itself. I was always taught to believe that reverse racism was the general practice of black police officers who were harder on their own race. The practice of light-skinned and dark-skinned blacks alike who were oh-so quick to sing the praises of the white man and then lobby the same insults that you've done: "Well does the white man have to do everything for the minorities to feel comfortable?"

Blacks and whites are not equal. We never have been. Just because ONE mixed-race male has made it into the White office, that doesn't mean so many of them after him will. (And I absolutely LOVED how you ignored how difficult it was for him to get there. How much disrespect he's just sat and smiled through while he's been there. Now don't try to say- 'It's not because he's black', because it is. Whether you acknowledge it or not.

The fact that you feel so many black people are playing the race card is what actually hurts me so much. Because you have no idea what it is like to wonder if you are or not. OR, when some people do, to feel ashamed of yourself. You will never have any idea what it is like to question your success because others chalk it up to the "Almighty" race card.

You will never experience that.

Ever.


Delaney Boling profile image

Delaney Boling 5 years ago Author

1) The Crips WAS created as a "call-to-arms" in a predominantly black neighborhood. Sure, there are white Crips today, but back when? Check your history.

2) You say I didn't have to know what it was like to feel ugly (different) when I was a child? I went to an all-black middle school where I was in fear of my life because of the color of MY skin. Part of me wants to say "Boo-hoo... you got made fun of. Well guess what? I got pummeled and tortured on a regular basis - because I was white."

3)Paragraph 6 doesn't even make sense. Are you in SUPPORT of the white man doing whatever it takes to make persons of color feel comfortable, or against it? I'm confused...

4) Difficult for Obama to get into the White House? First, let me preceed with saying that whatever criticisms I have of Obama as the POTUS is because of his failure to deliver upon promises and general ineptitude. You say it was "difficult" for him to become POTUS? Do you realize that he only served ONE term as a Senator before running for and winning the Presidency?! That's FOUR YEARS! Four years that he was in charge of ANYTHING to do with leading the country. Before that, he was a lawyer. So why did he end up as the POTUS? Because for the first time since immediately following JFK's term, the black population came out in droves to vote. Don't go assuming that's a racist comment either because the poll stats show the proof. Not just that, but George Bush's ineffectual policies and overall failure as POTUS left Americans desperate for an energetic and promising POTUS. Obama came out of nowhere with his "Yes we can!" campaign, and he seemed like a shining beacon of light in a dark economic climate. Back to the point though, it was certainly NOT difficult for him to achieve the Presidency, and if it HAD been after Bush, it would NOT have been because of his skin color.

5)You state that I will never know what it's like to question success because of the "race-card" issue... I agree, and I feel that you are justified in your statement 100%. I truly wish that wasn't so, but unfortunately, many caucasians are forced to consider the over-insensitivities of many persons of color, because when they "call foul," it makes us look like the racists that many automatically perceive us to be. I challenge you to NOT question whether or not the race-card has come into play regarding your success, but rather to focus on your accomplishments as being deserved through hard work and effort.

6) To sum things up, call me a racist if you want, but I know that I am not. I would love nothing more than a world that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. envisioned for ALL our children. I appreciate your commenting but I make no apologies for my observations. Hopefully one day, this essay will be obsolete, but in the meantime, I stand behind what I say. Thanks and peace.


Mike 5 years ago

As I am sure you already know, racism is a extremely emotional subject. It is true that reverse racism does exist and it is wrong, but it is a response to the social conditioning that has been ingrained in our society since the colonial days. I do not know you or your background and I would not call you a racist with out just cause. But try some introspection, imagine that you were a slave for 75% of your life, you have seen you sister raped by your master, your father beaten, and other members of your family hung and mutilated. The next 25% of your life you are now free and trying to make a living on your own but seem to come up to nothing but closed doors. Imagine how that feels, then ask yourself if you have gotten the rights you deserve. White privilege does exist, just like the male privilege exist. I have two pdf files that I think you should read; tell me what you think, and if it helps to broaden your prospective any

www.antiracistalliance.com/WhentheRulesareFairButtheGameIsnt.pdf

www.nymbp.org/reference/WhitePrivilege.pdf


Guest 4 years ago

I think racism is indeed a cycle of mistrust, resentment and fear. This cycle is perpetuated when a few bad people incite anger and fear in the other side, creating a defensive response, and more prejudice.

Frankly, the talk of privilege has become dogma. Privilege and power are contextual, and certainly not an all or nothing privilege. Nobody has zero power. Everybody has some privilege -- black males are men, Asian females are not gay, gay men are not disabled .... In some contexts, a minority can be the dominant group and control the values, consciousness and norms, and a local minority within that community could be the victim of discrimination. ie. An Asian living in a 90% black city would be the minority and blacks the majority. In a 90% Asian community, blacks are the majority. In a national context, both are minorities subject to some discrimination and stereotypes. In their own communities, they have some power to do the same.


The Faceless Hunter from DC Universe 4 years ago

This was a term-paper that got an 'A'? It is mostly emotive, and it is not published. Who cares?


B-Dawg 4 years ago

Black skin will PROTECT the white man. SPRAY TAN till u black. peace.


Brian 4 years ago

I am gonna spray tan my skin black. The reasons i want to be black are 1. More job protection 2. don't have to deal with racial politics 3. Black men are viewed as stronger 4. White women Love black men 5. I feel like I can protect white people better with a black face 6 there is a high demand for good black men in our society.

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