The Second Great Awakening

Second Great Awakening


The very year that the Deist Thomas Jefferson became President of the United States—1801—the Holy Spirit began to move powerfully across America. This greatest of all American revivals would become known as the Second Great Awakening.


It was a time of raucous revivals at giant camp meetings that featured intense fasting, prayer, and hymn singing. People came together to feast and to be fed by round-the clock preaching, even around bonfires at night. They stripped off their masks and pretenses; they examined their souls; they wept and shouted for joy together.


At the forefront were Presbyterian Scots such as James McGready. He was the perfect pioneer preacher—a loud, lanky man of unshakeable convictions. McGready preached hellfire to those who refuse to mend their ways, but the tender mercy of a forgiving God through the atoning sacrifice of His Son for those who will accept it. McGready would look a man right in the eye and challenge him to be man enough to confess the truth about himself.


In America, the number of preachers rose from 2,000 in 1800 to 40,000 by 1845. Evangelical denominations such as Baptists and Methodists exploded in membership. By the 1840s, the Methodists were the largest denomination in the United States with over a million active members. Millions of people pledged to abandon worldly sins in favor of a Godly life.


Just as the First Great Awakening sparked the American Revolution, the Second Great Awakening would bring an end to slavery. Tocqueville observed: "Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds that it is impossible to make them conceive of one without the other."


ARTIST'S ENGRAVING OF 1801 CANE RIDGE REVIVAL
ARTIST'S ENGRAVING OF 1801 CANE RIDGE REVIVAL
CANE RIDGE MEETING HOUSE (1801) AS IT IS PRESERVED TODAY
CANE RIDGE MEETING HOUSE (1801) AS IT IS PRESERVED TODAY

Cane Ridge


The Second Great Awakening kicked off in 1801 with a week-long, open-air camp meeting attended by 20,000 people at Cane Ridge, twenty miles west of Lexington, Kentucky. It was organized by Presbyterian pastor Barton Stone (1772-1844).


The typically quiet, reverent Presbyterian service turned shockingly emotional and ecstatic. After days of fasting and praying, God paid a personal visit to Cane Ridge. Men rolled in the mud, women swooned; there was groaning, agonized crying out, shrieking, shouting, clapping, laughing, and hugging. Ministers and regular folks alike were amazed at the movement of the Holy Spirit in their midst. Thousands of people came to the meeting and gave themselves to Christ.


The Camp Meeting concept soon spread over most of the United States, and hundreds of thousands of people went to them. In 1811, it is estimated that one-third of all Americans attended a camp meeting. After the Cane Ridge revival, the Altar Call became a permanent part of evangelism, as did presenting Christ as your personal savior with whom you can have a personal relationship.


Evangelists toured the country by all modes of transportation. They preached the importance of personal industry, sobriety, and self-discipline as examples of freely chosen moral behaviors.


The more conservative denominations rejected the emotionalism of revivals, especially in New England. Presbyterians were divided about whether or not revivals were a good thing that would be approved of by the Lord. But Baptists and Methodists had no doubts that the Holy Spirit was behind this spiritual awakening of hundreds of thousands of people. And they decided it was a call for America to end slavery, consumption of alcohol, philandering, and gambling.


TIMOTHY DWIGHT
TIMOTHY DWIGHT

Timothy Dwight


The Second Great Awakening was a response to growing secularism among intellectuals. In 1799, only a few graduates of Yale believed in Christ, and the next year only one went to church regularly. But the average American remained deeply religious. As Tocqueville observed decades later, "There is no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America."


Even at Yale, University President Timothy Dwight (grandson of Jonathan Edwards) led a revival that swept the student body and then all of New England in the early 19th Century.


Timothy Dwight (1752-1817) evangelized and taught the catechism to New England Indians when he was just four years old. He learned Latin and Greek before he entered Yale University at age thirteen. Dwight graduated at seventeen, and was hired as a tutor by Yale.


Timothy Dwight served as a chaplain for the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. In 1783, he was named pastor of the Greenfield, Connecticut Church, where he spoke and wrote against Deism. Dwight published an influential defense of the Christian Faith against French philosophy in 1794 entitled A Discourse on the Genuineness and Authenticity of the New Testament.


Timothy Dwight was called to become President of Yale in 1795, which was temporarily a hotbed of Deism. Under his guidance, one-third of the students turned to Christ.


BORN AGAIN
BORN AGAIN

Born Again


To be born again refers to a spiritual (and perhaps psychological) conversion experience during which you powerfully feel the presence of God. It only becomes available to you after you admit to being a lost sinner who needs the indwelling of the Holy Spirit to overcome sin; and after surrendering your personal will to the Will of God.


As Nathaniel Taylor, professor of theology at Yale, said: "The Bible is a plain book. It speaks, especially on the subject of sin, directly to human consciousness; and tells us beyond mistake, what sin is, and why we sin." Moral depravity simply is to reject God.


THE BURNED OVER DISTRICT OF NEW YORK IN 1830
THE BURNED OVER DISTRICT OF NEW YORK IN 1830

The Burned Over District


The Burned-Over District refers to Upstate New York in the early 19th Century, meaning that the flames of revival swept over it like a forest fire. It was said at the time that Upstate New York had been "completely overthrown by the Holy Ghost." The theatres and taverns were devoid of customers, because "far higher and purer enjoyment has been found in exercises of devotion."


Lyman Beecher called the revival of 1831, "the greatest work of God, and the greatest revival of religion, that the world has ever seen. " In that year alone, the number of churches in New England grew by one-third.


CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1835)
CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1835)
CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1855)
CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1855)
CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1875)
CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY (1875)

Charles Grandison Finney


Charles Grandison Finney (1792-1875) could claim the title: "First Professional Evangelist." He became the leading revivalist of the 19th Century with a half a million people coming to Christ through his ministry.


As an attorney by profession, Finney observed, as he studied law, that the authors he read frequently quoted the Bible. So he began reading the Bible himself. He had a dramatic religious experience in 1821 that led him to quit his law practice to preach the Gospel, saying, "I have a retainer from the Lord Jesus to plead his case."


Finney's preaching style was earthy but colorful. He was known to pray in public for individuals by name. Charles Grandison Finney sparked another wave of revival in America, and is credited with 100,000 conversions in 1839 alone. One of his secrets of success was to bring masses of the unconverted into direct contact with serious Christians through spectacular public events. He would lead this group of strangers in prayer, which generates a sense of trust and common purpose.


Finney preached salvation through faith and good works. Every person, he said, was a "free moral agent." Each person was free to choose between a life of sin and the Christian life. Sinners simply needed a "change of heart" to embrace spiritual freedom—free from the bondage of sin.


Charles Grandison Finney never heard the name of God mentioned in his home growing up, with the exception of cuss words. Before his conversion he scoffed at prayer and church. Several young adults took to praying for him to be saved. One of them would become his future wife. God moved on his spirit, and Finney began to feel convicted of his sins and unbelief, to the point where he could not eat or sleep. Then, Finney testified, "A mighty baptism of the Holy Ghost overwhelmed him, in waves and waves of liquid love."


Charles Grandison Finney possessed eerily luminescent, hypnotic blue eyes and a mellifluous voice. Wherever he roamed he generated excitement and energized the faithful. Finney preached about community, but not in a socialist way. God forbid. He preached about the fact that sin and sinners drag down families, whole communities, and entire nations. Therefore individual sin was purely selfish, as it involved satisfying some temporary desire regardless of the damage done to others.


Finney said that a Christian wallowing in sin was an offense against America, because it would put Providence at risk. Therefore, living a godly life would improve not only your personal circumstances, and your reward in the hereafter, but it would improve the happiness and prosperity of your family, town, and country. "Since social evils were simply individual acts of selfishness compounded, it followed that deep and lasting reform meant an educational crusade based on the assumption that when a sufficient number of individual Americans had seen the light, they would automatically solve the country's social problems."


Charles Grandison Finney published Lectures on Revivals of Religion in 1835. This practical handbook for evangelists sold 12,000 copies in 90 days and it has never been excelled. Finney also became President of Oberlin College from 1851 to 1866—the first in America to admit women and blacks alongside white males, and a hotbed of the abolitionist movement.

Admit the truth about yourself and do something about it. Sin is pure and simple selfishness.

JAMES MCQUILKIN
JAMES MCQUILKIN
FIRST AHOGHILL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, COUNTY ANTRIM, ULSTER, NORTHERN IRELAND
FIRST AHOGHILL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, COUNTY ANTRIM, ULSTER, NORTHERN IRELAND

The Great Ulster Revival


James McQuilkin was invited to tea one fine Ulster day. A woman was there who, instead of making small talk, spoke about a subject that made McQuilkin uncomfortable: the condition of the soul. He was convicted in his heart by her words. He did not know Jesus. McQuilkin decided to trust in the Lord and a peaceful calm came over him.


The next year, James McQuilkin and a few of his friends were moved to gather once a week and pray for each person in their village by name.


In 1859, McQuilkin called a prayer meeting for all Christians at the Ahogill Presbyterian Church in County Antrim. So many people responded that the meeting had to be moved outside. Hundreds of souls knelt in the rain and mud to confess their sins and praise God.


Out of this prayer meeting sprang the Great Ulster Revival that is credited with one hundred thousand new converts to Christ. The Holy Spirit moved particularly among young people. Teenage boys began to preach on the streets. One clergyman counted 80 adults and 40 children listening to a twelve-year-old boy preach in the village square.


The results of turning to God were remarkable. In 1860, County Antrim had an empty jail and no crimes to investigate. Judges had no cases to hear. Pubs and distilleries closed as their owners came to Christ. Gambling on the horses fell by 95 percent. Church services were jammed to the rafters; small groups multiplied; families prayed together; Bible reading was ubiquitous; giving to charity went through the roof. This revival soon spread to Scotland, Wales, and England. It all started with one anonymous woman unafraid to speak the truth over tea.


MODERN ARTIST'S CONCEPTION OF REVIVAL IN JAMAICA
MODERN ARTIST'S CONCEPTION OF REVIVAL IN JAMAICA

Revival in Jamaica


Word of the prayer revivals that were sweeping the world reached Jamaica in 1860. The Christians there wanted to take part in this outpouring of the Spirit. They organized "peep of the day" (dawn) prayer meetings in a Moravian chapel in the town of Clifton led by the German missionary Theodor Sonderman.


The first prayer meeting was remarkable. Adults and children poured out their souls to God for several hours, begging for His mercy with tears rolling down all cheeks. Notorious sinners soon came to Christ. Anglicans, Baptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, and Presbyterians soon caught the Spirit.


In Bethel Town five hundred came to pray the first day. At least a hundred hardened sinners came to Christ. Within a year, 17,000 persons gave their lives to Jesus for the first time. Couples living in sin got married; divorced people got remarried; rum shops and gambling houses closed. It all began with a single prayer group.


A HUGE CROWD GATHERS IN NEW YORK CITY TO HEAR EVANGELIST GYPSY SMITH
A HUGE CROWD GATHERS IN NEW YORK CITY TO HEAR EVANGELIST GYPSY SMITH
GYPSY SMITH
GYPSY SMITH

Gyspy Smith


In 1860, Rodney Smith was born in a tent to illiterate Gypsy parents. His father, Cornelius Smith, had heard the Gospel in prison. Rodney's mother, Polly, came down with smallpox while he was still a boy. As she lay dying, Cornelius told her about Jesus—that He died for sinners and would be her savior if she looked to him. Before she died, Polly told her husband that she had prayed to Jesus, and that He had bathed her in the light of salvation.


Cornelius himself then had a conversion experience, and everyone who knew him said he became a brand new man. Observing this powerful change in his father made young Rodney desire this same life-changing experience and he gave his life to Christ.


Rodney Smith would become a great evangelist, known as "Gypsy Smith." Although uneducated, he was a winsome preacher who brought thousands to Christ with straight-forward sermons and simple Gospel songs. He traveled widely as an evangelist, making fifty trips to the United States. God specializes in the unexpected.


CHARLES SPURGEON
CHARLES SPURGEON
METROPOLITAN TABERNACLE OF LONDON
METROPOLITAN TABERNACLE OF LONDON

Charles Spurgeon


Charles Spurgeon (1834-1890) was born in Essex, England. He was of Dutch Huguenot ancestry; both his father and grandfather were pastors in the Congregational Church. Charles Spurgeon's favorite books growing up were Pilgrim's Progress and Foxe's Book of Martyrs. He would become the most famous preacher of his generation.


At the age of sixteen, Charles Spurgeon gave his life to Christ in a Methodist Chapel. He studied the controversy over infant baptism (sprinkles) and decided that baptism was properly done by full immersion of a new adult believer. Thus, Spurgeon joined the Baptist Church in Cambridge. It was there as a teenager that he was soon in demand as a gifted preacher.


Charles Spurgeon came to London for the first time at the age of 19 in 1853. He came to begin a ministry—that would last 38 years. Spurgeon was called to be the pastor of the Park Street Baptist Church. Within weeks, overflow crowds gathered to hear him. The Church moved to larger buildings a couple of times, but the crowds still overflowed. Finally, the Metropolitan Tabernacle was built to hold 6,500 souls. Spurgeon had fervently prayed that it would open debt-free—and so it did.


Charles Spurgeon preached at the Metropolitan Tabernacle for 32 years. It featured a social center, a school, a college for pastors, and an orphanage—all still in operation today. The Church provided for the needs of the poor out of its abundance, and distributed millions of pieces of religious literature. Metropolitan Tabernacle was truly one of the great churches of all time.


Charles Spurgeon died when he was only 56 years old. 100,000 people filed by his coffin to pay their last respects.


WILLIAM MILLER
WILLIAM MILLER
1833 ENGRAVING OF "THE NIGHT THE STARS FELL FROM THE SKY"
1833 ENGRAVING OF "THE NIGHT THE STARS FELL FROM THE SKY"
JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG GIVES A LECTURE AT HIS BATTLE CREEK SANITARIUM
JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG GIVES A LECTURE AT HIS BATTLE CREEK SANITARIUM
ELLEN G WHITE
ELLEN G WHITE

Seventh Day Adventists


The Seventh Day Adventist Church grew out of the Millerite Movement, which was based on the predictions of William Miller that the world would end in 1843. When the world kept on spinning, Miller decided it would end in 1844. Both times great excitement was widespread and thousands of people prepared for the Second Coming of the Lord, saying their goodbyes to their neighbors and waiting on hilltops.


William Miller was an honest farmer with a keen thirst for knowledge. He was known as a man of integrity, thrift, selflessness, benevolence, and energy. As a young man, Miller threw his lot in with Deists and Masons. They were good people, but he began to think they exerted an influence against the teachings of the Bible.


William Miller had a spiritual experience at age 34. He wrote: "Suddenly, the character of the Savior was vividly impressed upon my mind. It seemed that there might be a Being so good and compassionate as to Himself to atone for our transgressions, and thereby save us from suffering the penalty of sin. I immediately felt how lovely such a Being must be . . . in Jesus I had found a friend. The Bible now became my chief study . . . I searched it with great delight. . . . and marveled that I could have ever rejected it."


William Miller spent two years doing little but studying the Bible day and night. In 1818, he reached the conclusion that the Second Coming of Christ would be in 25 years. But he said nothing until 1831. Then, though fifty years old and unaccustomed to public speaking, he responded to demand that he travel from town to town explaining his ideas. Churches of many denominations invited him to address their congregations. It was noted that after his appearances, liquor stores were turned into Bible study meeting rooms, gambling dens broke up; infidels, profligates, and Deists came to church, many for the first time in years.


November 13, 1833, was the night the stars fell from the sky. A great meteoric shower was seen across the United States. It was described as the "whole heavens in motion" for "several hours in fiery commotion!" Some say it was the most extensive display of falling stars ever recorded. Some took it to be the fulfillment of Matthew 24:29 and/or Revelation 6:13.


William Miller was subject to much sneering ridicule after the world did not end in 1843 or 1844. He had left his comfortable home to travel at his own expense. Now he was called a liar or a lunatic—and that was by the Christians. Those who had believed in his prophecy were shunned or even cast out of their local congregations. This is what led them to band together and form their own church: the Seventh Day Adventists.


Those Millerites who observed the Jewish Sabbath—sundown Friday to sundown Saturday—rather than the Lord's Day (Sunday) became the Seventh Day Adventists and resettled in Battle Creek, Michigan in 1855. In 1866, Adventists opened the Battle Creek Sanitarium, which would later become the center of their movement toward vegetarianism. The Sanitarium also became the home base of one of the first nutritionists, the king of a breakfast cereal empire, John H. Kellogg (1852-1943). The Adventists popularized breakfast cereals throughout the world. Kellogg was the protégé of the prophet of the Adventists, Ellen G. White (1827-1915).


SOURCES


My primary sources for this article include The One Year Book of Christian History by E. Michael and Sharon Rusten; A History of Christianity by Paul Johnson; Fundamentalism and American Culture by George Marsden; and The Great Controversy by Ellen G. White.



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Comments 84 comments

liftandsoar profile image

liftandsoar 5 years ago from Richmond, VA

Thanks, James, great review of God's work. May a new and greater revival sweep our land in our times.


amymarie_5 profile image

amymarie_5 5 years ago from Chicago IL

Very fascinating. I never knew any of this before. Rated up and interesting.


Hyphenbird profile image

Hyphenbird 5 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful

This is a wonderful recounting of a great spiritual era in American history. I love when people abandon themselves in worship and would love to see this happen now. We sure need it in our country today. Thanks for a fascinating read.


Pastor Stella Ross 5 years ago

This is all wounderful history. although I don't see anything about azzua street revival


Neil Sperling profile image

Neil Sperling 5 years ago from Port Dover Ontario Canada

Wow -- what a lot of research and thought went into this hub - shows a powerful walk through history. Well done - thanks!


jloeding profile image

jloeding 5 years ago from Lafayette, LA

Another great commentary on the revivals and great manifestations of the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. It appears that it most often was after repentance and prayer. How we need that again! Have we as a nation passed the point of no return? I pray not. Keep up the wonderful accounts of spiritual awakening.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 5 years ago from Taos, NM

Well, this hub is quite interesting and it is very well researched. I found this very interesting. I'm not a person into revivals, and swooning and born again (I was already born into Christ at my baptism as a baby) but if this started the abolitionist movement in the U.S. then I'm all for it.


Apostle Jack profile image

Apostle Jack 5 years ago from Atlanta Ga

There shall also be another awakening that was prophesied by the Angel to the prophet Daniel in Daniel 12 v 4 that is not appointed to be reveal in that....they (the world)shall

run to and fro,and knowledge shall be increase.He spoke not of scientific,material,nor technical knowledge,but a SPIRITUAL INCREASE that shall challenge the intellect of humankind. That increase is now in progress.Be real,and be aware.


thelyricwriter profile image

thelyricwriter 5 years ago from West Virginia

Very, very well written article with so much great information. This is truly a great piece of work. Well done James.


BooksGalore profile image

BooksGalore 5 years ago from Hawaii

Fantastic! I knew about the 2nd Great Awakening but did not know all the details. America needs this again NOW!

I pray the Holy Spirit will move in a mighty way across this nation again! Thanks!


itakins profile image

itakins 5 years ago from Irl

'Moral depravity simply is to reject God'-and that's really what it's all about ,regardless of religious persuasion!Great article James.


PenMePretty 5 years ago from Franklin

Awesome work! Amen...


Snurre profile image

Snurre 5 years ago

This is an amazing hub - I just swallowed it in one go, it was so interesting. And very educational too! I think the whole world needs the Awakening these days.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

liftandsoar— Thank you for being my first visitor! I sure hope a new and greater revival sweeps our land. I appreciate your comments and you are most welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

amymarie_5— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Hyphenbird— You are quite welcome. Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub. I appreciate your kind compliments and I agree with your sentiments. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Pastor Stella Ross— I assure you that when I get to the 20th century in this series on the History of the Christian Faith, the Azusa Street Revival will have a prominent place. Thank you for visiting and commenting!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Neil Sperling— You are welcome, my friend. Thank you for recognizing my efforts. I appreciate this visitation.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

jloeding— Thank you very much for the gracious accolades! :D

I hope America has not passed the Rubicon. We do need revival in this nation. You are spot on that "great manifestations . . . of the Holy Spirit . . . most often was after repentance and prayer"

Yes. Indeed.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

suzettenaples— I am well pleased that you came by to check out my Hub and found it interesting. I appreciate your kind comments. Thank you for the visit! :)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Apostle Jack— Thank you for sharing this prophetic message with me and my readers. I pray it is fulfilled during my lifetime.

Thank you very much for taking the time to read my Hub. I sincerely appreciate your insightful remarks.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

thelyricwriter— Welcome to the HubPages Community! I used to collect coins and write song lyrics—as you do—for many years.

Thank you for the laudations!!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

BooksGalore— Like you, I have been known to beat the drums on occasion.

I agree with your comments and I will join you in that needful prayer.

Thank you for visiting and commenting. And you are welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

itakins— My! It has been a while since I have heard from you. This is a wonderful surprise. Thank you very much for the gracious compliment.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

PenMePretty— Thank you! Thank you very much.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Snurre— I surely agree with you that the whole world needs an Awakening. Thank you for the accolades. It is great to "see" you here.


drbj profile image

drbj 5 years ago from south Florida

I could sign up for a ten-week college course on Religion, James, and not learn as much as I do from your 'religious' hubs. Your writing skill and research ability is unmatched.


Eiddwen profile image

Eiddwen 5 years ago from Wales

You are indeed a great writer and teacher.

I also learn so much through your hubs.

Here's to many more to share on here and I vote up and away.

Take care

Eiddwen.


mindmatters profile image

mindmatters 5 years ago from South Africa

And do you think that a new awakening is imminent or will the name of God remain outlawed in schools and other public places except for use as a swear word?


wba108@yahoo.com profile image

wba108@yahoo.com 5 years ago from upstate, NY

Hi James- I like your quote:

Tocqueville observed: "Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds that it is impossible to make them conceive of one without the other."

This is significant proof of America's christian roots!

And this quote:

God paid a personal visit to Cane Ridge. Men rolled in the mud, women swooned; there was groaning, agonized crying out, shrieking, shouting, clapping, laughing, and hugging. Ministers and regular folks alike were amazed at the movement of the Holy Spirit in their midst.

Many fundamentalist churches and denominations today would reject this revival and attribute it as fanatism and a work of the devil!-Regards and blessings-WBA


prasetio30 profile image

prasetio30 5 years ago from malang-indonesia

Very inspiring hub. As usual, you give the American people raise their patriotism among modernity. Maybe they forget about the first president and didn't know about influential people in building America. You are number one in telling us about the history, especially for United States history. I always learn from you. Well done, James. Vote up!

Prasetio


always exploring profile image

always exploring 5 years ago from Southern Illinois

This was a very interesting account of the movements of early christianity in America. I can remember as a little child being taken to a tent church revival by my Grandmother Minnie. I can remember the meeting was a lot like you described in your article. Thank you for the research you had to put into this well documented piece..


Hxprof 5 years ago from Clearwater, Florida

Good work here James-as usual! I've read some about The Burned Over District-it was a hotbed for Christian revival as well as non-Christian spiritualist activities; these activities continue to influence spiritualist movements in America till today. A good read for a summary of the activity there is 'Occult America' by Mitch Horowitz.

Thanks for all the research you put into this.


dahoglund profile image

dahoglund 5 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids

I studied some of this history in college but you give a nice overview. It is not my religious persuasion but I am ecumenical and interested in the history.


Linda 5 years ago

I have been waiting for updates on biblical history. I have always like Spurgeon.


no body profile image

no body 5 years ago from Rochester, New York

It is amazing what one person that receives Christ can do. Receiving Christ is different than giving oneself to Christ. The Seventh day guy did that and ended up with something that not only missed the Scripture that "no one knows the day and the hour" and others but also missed the gospel all together. When one realizes they are in need of a Savior and invite Christ in because they are hopeless without Him then the world can be changed as they then say "Yes" to God and change others around them. So in fact they did "turn to Christ" but only after they "received Him" into their hearts. Jim you know how much I love your writing. I am convinced of your heart after reading this than anything else I have ever read of yours. Love ya bro.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

drbj— Why, your gracious accolades have made my day! Thank you ever much for the affirmation and encouragement. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Eiddwen— Thank you much for the lovely laudations!! Your words warmed the cockles of my heart. I so appreciate your visitation and comments.

James :D


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

mindmatters— You ask a great question. I hope we will have another Great Awakening. I believe we will.

But I can also see that the day could come when those who believe in Christ will be persecuted here in America.

The public schools will have to be dismantled—and should be—to stop the promotion of atheism and socialism among our children.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

wba108@yahoo.com— Hello! I am glad you appreciated that marvelous quote from Alexis de Tocqueville. And the descriptive account of God paying a personal visit to Cane Ridge. :)

Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article. It was a joy to research and put together. I am grateful for your blessings.

JAW


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

prasetio30— Thank you, my friend, for your lovely laudations. I surely appreciate your kind comments, warm words, and the voted up!

Your own Hubs are fabulous! I will be over soon to read more of your work. :)

James


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

always exploring— You are quite welcome, my dear. I have been to revival meetings, too, and I enjoyed them very much. I attended one in Lakeland, Florida, a few years ago that was fascinating.

I am glad you found this piece interesting and recognized the research I put into it. Thank you for visiting and commenting. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Hxprof— It is great to hear from and to see that you are still with us, my friend. You are spot on in your remarks about the Burned Over District. I made a note to check out the book you mentioned.

Thank you for the compliments. And you are most welcome.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

dahoglund— Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your comments.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 5 years ago from Chicago Author

Linda— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :D


Sueswan 4 years ago

Hi James

"Out of this prayer meeting sprang the Great Ulster Revival that is credited with one hundred thousand new converts to Christ."

This shows how much people were hungering for the word of God.

Voted up and awesome.


Spirit Whisperer profile image

Spirit Whisperer 4 years ago from Isle of Man

Another very well researched and written hub. I could feel the energy of these people jump off the page so you have definitely captured the mood with this article. Thank you.


Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 4 years ago from London, UK

Brilliantly written tribute to these great men and their interesting lives. Thank you for doing all this research and sharing the information.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

no body— I apologize for not responding sooner to your outstanding comments, my brother. I was sans computer this weekend as I was traveling a bit.

As you say "no one knows the day and the hour." I don't get caught up in all this Revelation prophecy because of this Scripture.

I agree with you that it surely is amazing what a single person can do if Christ lives through them.

I appreciate your warm words of love, encouragement, and affirmation. Thank you for visiting this Hub, and for your gracious comments. :D

James


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James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Sueswan— Hello there! I surely agree with your astute analysis of the Ulster Revival. Thank you for the voted up and awesome! God Bless You.

James :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Spirit Whisperer— You are welcome. Thank you very much for your gracious compliments. I appreciate you taking the time to read my work and comment on it.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Hello, hello,— You are quite welcome. Thank you for the visit and the accolades. :D


blog8withJ 4 years ago

People should be concern for an Spiritual Awakening than any other. Well..just a thought. Great hub. Very useful information stating about the facts.


jimagain profile image

jimagain 4 years ago from Hattiesburg, Mississippi

You certainly hit on one of my favorite topics, The Great Awakening. I thoroughly enjoyed becoming reacquainted with this great epoch of human and American history. I can't wait to read more of your Hubs.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

blog8withJ— I surely agree with your thoughts. Thank you for expressing them here. I appreciate this visit from you. Welcome to the HubPages Community! :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

jimagain— I am glad you enjoyed this piece. I appreciate you letting me know. Thank you very much for taking the time to read it.

I enjoyed reading your profile page. It is quite witty. I look forward to perusing some of your material. :D


cristina327 profile image

cristina327 4 years ago from Manila

Another excellent hub from you James voted up and interesting.I am always longing that fires of revival will spark among the churches in our time.Hope there will be another Charles Finney and Charles Spurgeon amidst us. I am always interested in the ministires of Charles Finney and Charles Spurgeon. The Holy Spirit's power is very much alive in their ministries. Hope God will raise up new Finneys and Spurgeouns amidst us.Thank you for sharing this great accounts of revivals. This is indeed a great wealth of information. May you be blessed today and always. Best regards.


DeBorrah K. Ogans profile image

DeBorrah K. Ogans 4 years ago

James A Watkins, Fascinating thought provoking informative article on The Second Great Awakening! Intriguing roster of Revivalists! Their collective passionate accolades for The Gospel are invigorating as well as inspiring! Truly having an encounter with The Lord in your life makes all the difference in the world! However it remains clear that along with the anointing comes a large degree of skepticism from in and without The Church…. One must remain focused on The Lord to endure the denigration. Many underestimate the power and influence the Presence of The Lord has in one’s life! Revival is still what is so needed today! “With God ALL things are possible!”

Thank you for once again presenting another well researched commentary professor! Your lectures via The HubPages are phenomenal and rather enlightening! In His Love, Grace, Joy, Peace & Blessings!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

cristina327— You are quite welcome. I too hope we see God raise up another Finney or Spurgeon.

Thank you very much for the kind regards, gracious compliments, and warm blessings. I surely appreciate the voted up and interesting as well. It is always a pleasure to read your remarks. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

DeBorrah K. Ogans— You are most welcome, Sister. I am inspired and encouraged by you.

As you put it so well "Truly having an encounter with The Lord in your life makes all the difference in the world! . . . Many underestimate the power and influence the Presence of The Lord has in one’s life! Revival is still what is so needed today!"

Amen! I could not agree with these words more.

Thank you ever much for the accolades and blessings. I sincerely appreciate and enjoyed reading your thoughtful, insightful remarks, as always. God Bless You!


robilyn profile image

robilyn 4 years ago from Largo, Florida

As I was reading through your Hubs, this particular article jumped out and caught my attention. Not only was I amazed in regards to your acuracy and your emotional connection within your article, but your comments were compelling as well. Thank you! With all of my heart, I pray that this reaches out to others.. not only those who have had a life full of spirituality, but those who have never experienced it. If only to awaken one lost soul, it could change the entire outlook on one word... hope. As in the story of Pandora's Box, all of the most important words of emotion, love, and faith flew away before closing the lid.. leaving only one word left inside.. hope. :o)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

robilyn— Welcome to the HubPages Community! I once lived in Largo; back around the mid to late 80s. Nice town. I played a lot of music around the Tampa Bay area.

I just love your comments. I completely agree with you and share the same hopes. I humbly accept your lovely laudations. Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I very much appreciate your gracious remarks. They are wonderfully made. And you are most welcome. :D


Phyllis Doyle profile image

Phyllis Doyle 4 years ago from High desert of Nevada.

James, what a powerfully and well-written article. I was so moved by the dedication and perseverance of the people you wrote about. Well done. Up and Awesome!


LuxmiH profile image

LuxmiH 4 years ago from Fort Pierce, Florida

Terrific Hub! Wouldn't it be wonderful if this spiritual history could be taught in schools?

Your Hub confirms my belief that America, from conception, has God's guiding Light, even prior to the founding fathers and throughout the pages of her history. The small group of pilgrams arrived on America's shores in search of spiritual freedom, allowing them to worship God in their own way. They were the God seed that has blossomed into the amazing God based TV broadcasts and mega churches, like that of Lakewood TX (Joel Oesteen).

Perhaps the crisis in America and the rest of the world, is not an economic dilema, it is more a spiritual one.

Many opressed countries are throwing off the shackles of their government, while in America we are facing a take-over of an ungodly aministration that would have us lose our American soul.

We must stand up for our Love of God and become United, One Nation Under God. This is what could be the Third Great Awakening, where we regain our spiritual and economic freedom.

God is all powerful, and we are His feet on the ground. May He guide our feet to take appropriate action.

Like mindmatters, I look forward to a Third Great. Awakening. Voted up, interesting, useful.


phdast7 profile image

phdast7 4 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

Well researched and thorough. As a historian, I really appreciate the quality of your writing and I especially appreciate that you cite sources and provide references in case anyone wants to pursue the topic. Very good work.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Phyllis Doyle— I am grateful for your lovely laudations! I appreciate the voted up and awesome! Thank you very much for reading my article. It is always good to hear from you. :-)


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

LuxmiH— Thank you!!

You asked: "Wouldn't it be wonderful if this spiritual history could be taught in schools?"

Yes, indeed it would be absolutely wonderful.

You wrote: "Your Hub confirms my belief that America, from conception, has God's guiding Light, even prior to the founding fathers and throughout the pages of her history. The small group of pilgrams arrived on America's shores in search of spiritual freedom, allowing them to worship God in their own way."

Yes, my dear. Your perceptions are quite discerning. But the pages of this history are now being deleted by the secular humanists who control the education received in our public school systems.

As you said "Perhaps the crisis in America and the rest of the world, is not an economic dilema, it is more a spiritual one."

Perhaps!? There is no perhaps to it. It is the Truth!

You said: "In America we are facing a take-over of an ungodly aministration that would have us lose our American soul.

We must stand up for our Love of God and become United, One Nation Under God. This is what could be the Third Great Awakening, where we regain our spiritual and economic freedom."

AMEN!! I have not met a soul that gets this better than you do.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

phdast7— Coming from you, a true historian in our land, your accolades mean a great deal to me. I feel blessed by your affirmation and encouragement.

Thank you so much for visiting this Hub, and for recognizing my work. You have made my day.


Johanan 4 years ago

You missed one important point. Miller was a Baptist minister, he never became a Seventh-day Adventist.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Johanan— Yes. Thank you for that corrective. I appreciate this visitation from you.


Johanan 4 years ago

One more comment. It is my understanding that the Bible refers to the sabbath as the sabbath of the Lord or as my sabbath, I am trying to understand why I people refer to it as the Jewish Sabbath when the Bible does not refer to it as such. In addition, it is my understanding the the Bible refers to the the Lord's day or the day of the Lord to the day of his appearance not to the first day of the week. Can you help me out?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Johanan— Some people refer to the Old Testament Sabbath as the Jewish Sabbath because Jews have kept to the Sabbath for thousands of years—sundown Friday to sundown Saturday.

The vast majority of Christians have Sunday as their Holy Day of the week because the Resurrection—the very basis for the Christian Faith—was on a Sunday morning. Also it seems the Apostles came together as a community on Sundays in the 1st century. This would be the Lord's Day.

I was a Seventh Day Adventist for a while and personally, I think they've got the Sabbath right—the same as the Jewish Sabbath. But one day a visiting preacher came who was highly regarded in SDA and he preached that people who go to church on Sunday are going to hell. I never went back because I come from a large family of wonderfully devout Christian people who go to church on Sunday and there is no way God is codemning them to hell for it—whether they are right or they are wrong.

I like what Paul said: Some people esteem one day above another and some people don't. Let each be persuaded in his own mind.

Perhaps it is good to worship (and make as holy as possible) every day of the week. You can't go wrong then! :D

Thank you for posing such fascinating questions.


Greg Sereda profile image

Greg Sereda 4 years ago from Sandomierz, Poland

Very refreshing. Although, why do you call the seventh-day that the Adventists honor the "Jewish Sabbath"? As far as I could remember, the Bible calls it "the sabbath of the LORD they God" (Ex. 20:10). In other words, it is the Lord's day; instead of Sunday, which is often referred to as the Lord's day, without any actual biblical support.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Greg Sereda— Welcome to the HubPages Community! I look forward to reading your articles and gaining insight from your Polish Perspective.

I agree with you that "The Sabbath" is the "Jewish Sabbath." The Lord's Day I equate with the daylight hours of Sunday.

I hereby declare that we should all worship God Almighty from sundown Friday to sundown Sunday, thereby circumventing this dispute for all times. :D

Thank you for your most excellent comments.


Greg Sereda profile image

Greg Sereda 4 years ago from Sandomierz, Poland

@James A Watkins: That's not what I said... Anyway, thank you for the welcome; and I hope you enjoy my articles.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Greg Sereda— I am sorry if I disappointed you with my response. I believe that the Seventh Day Adventists are correct about the Sabbath Day. I do not agree with their more rabid gurus who claim that people who worship God on Sunday are going to Hell for it. Some people esteem one day over another and some don't. Let each one be persuaded in his own mind. And God will continue to be a reader of hearts, not of doctrines.


Greg Sereda profile image

Greg Sereda 4 years ago from Sandomierz, Poland

James A Watkins - We will just leave it at that. I am not going to argue with you. I don't think this is the proper platform for a debate. It seems like it would just be distasteful here.


Johanan 4 years ago

Sorry, I did not intend to debate the issue. As the Lord said "let us reason together" in a kind and Christian spirit. After all, it was an Adventist author who wrote that "A kind, courteous Christian is the most powerful argument that can be produced in favor of Christianity."

This is how I see it. James made a decision to leave the SDA church based on a sermon he heard. However, before I posted anything, I decided to learn more about the church. James, I do not find any official doctrine that the Church teaches that those who worship on Sunday are going to hell. On the contrary, I found this statement: "Salvation is like sunshine. It belongs to the whole world." I find this statement inconsistent with the words of the preacher you heard. Whatever the preacher said, it was his opinion. His opinion is not the position of the church. It is my understanding, for the little that I read, that the church believes that there are sincere Christians in every church.

I believe that James has every right to state his disagreement with "their more rabid gurus who claim that people who worship on Sunday are going to hell for it." However, I attempted to look for the official position of the church not the teachings of "rabid gurus" (every church has them)and I did not find the church to teach such a thing,on the contrary...

Interestingly I also found a statement that Adventists are told to teach their youth to be "thinkers and not mere reflectors of other men's opinions."

Finally, I hereby declare that we should all worship God Almighty as the creator of all things everyday of our lives.


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Greg Sereda— I ask for your forgiveness if I seemed argumentative. That was not my intention. I am sorry for my unintentional affront. God Bless You!

James


Greg Sereda profile image

Greg Sereda 4 years ago from Sandomierz, Poland

Apology accepted. God bless you too, brother!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Johanan— Thank you very much for coming back.

I love that you wrote: 'As the Lord said "let us reason together" in a kind and Christian spirit. After all, it was an Adventist author who wrote that "A kind, courteous Christian is the most powerful argument that can be produced in favor of Christianity."'

I agree with you that the official position papers of the SDA Church as a denomination do not condemn Sunday-Going Christians to Hellfire and damnation. Even back when this happened, I did not think that. I had been invited to this particular church by a close friend. I liked the people in the congregation, the location was not far from home, and mostly I was convinced about the Sabbath Day and about vegetarianism as being "best practices."

I went there a year or so and that entire time I heard in the most reverent tones about this Pastor Bob that had led a Bible Study there at one time and "taught us so much about Scripture." When he came there I was offended deeply but I did not complain about it. I simply went back to my former church on Sundays. It wasn't any big deal. Let's not blow it out of proportion. I know that all SDA folks do not feel that way but the "guru" of this congregation did and that is the congregation I had been invited into by my close friend.

God Bless You and Keep You!


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago Author

Greg Sereda— Amen! And Amen.


irenealcantar19@yahoo .com 3 years ago

Praise the lord . All Mighty


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 3 years ago from Chicago Author

irenealcantar19@yahoo .com— Thank you! Thank you very much. :-)

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