The division of Christianity into various sects was responsible for many wars in Europe

Beschrijving Charlemagne and Pope Adrian

Jesuit Martyrs in 16th Century Protestant England

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Pepin the short and Pope

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The protestant England and Catholic Spain

There was a war between protestant England and Catholic Spain, which ended with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 AD. There was a long drawn out war, beginning from 1618 and ending in 1648, between the northern and southern German States. Almost all the states of Europe took part in this Thirty Years' War which was an inconclusive war without any part being victorious. After German war, the rulers of the German States promised to be tolerant in matters of religion. It was, however, a very damaging war in which more than half population of Germany was wiped out. It was primarily on account of the religious wars that the German people could not be united into a single nation for a long time to come. The Catholic population of Ireland fought for centuries against the suppressions of their beliefs by their Protestant English rulers. In the history of Ireland, Catholicism and nationalism struggle against the Russian orthodox rulers of that country.

Politically, the greatest boon of the Reformation in England was that it relieved her from the extra territorial authority of the Roman Pope and thus made it easy for the English people to develop as a nation state. The Idea of a nation state became popular all over Europe. Earlier, European monarchs used to rule over territories which included populations with different languages, customs and religious practices. They ruled with the support of the Church and did not care for the aspirations of their subjects. The translation of the Bible into local languages and the use of local languages for literary creations gave a further boost to the spirit of nationalism. The Reformation also, ultimately, brought the European countries out of the unnecessary war fought for the sake of religion.

Economically, the withdrawal of payment of `Annates', prohibition of the sale of `Indulgences' and suppression of the monasteries saved a lot of money for investments in more profitable ventures. The policy of mercantilism was also a direct outcome of the availability of funds. Profitable of unemployment, poverty and pauperism were attended to. Europe saw the development of navies, trade and industry on a large scale.

As far as religion was concerned, removal of superstition was a welcome change. With the translation of the Bible into many other languages, people began to understand true religion in a clearer way.

StLeos Roman Catholic old Church

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