Was Judas A Saint or A Sinner?


Judas was one of Jesus Christ's twelve Apostles. He is also the on who betrayed Him with a kiss. In Mark 14:43-45 And immediately, while he was yet speaking, Judas arrived and with him a crowd, with swords and clubs. Now His betrayer had given them a sign, saying " Whoever it is I kiss, this is he; take him into custody and lead him away safely. And he came straight up and approached him and said, "Rabbi" and kissed him.

The kiss that would identify Jesus to the soldiers who were looking for Him. Those soldiers would turn Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.

In the bible, we are taught that the main reason Judas betrayed Jesus was for money. Judas had an extreme desire for money. Judas was also the the treasurer of Jesus and his twelve Apostles. Since Judas loved money so much, he betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver. But, didn't Jesus say, " It is easier for a camel to enter the eye of a needle, then for the rich to enter Paradise"?

We also have a modern version of that saying " The love of money is the root of all evil"

However, there is another theory about Judas and the betrayal of Jesus.


Jesus Our Savior

As many of us know, Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the one who came into this world, not to save the Jewish people from the Roman Empire, but the the entire world of our sins. Jesus often spoke about The Kingdom of God. We know that God's Kingdom is not on earth, but it will be in Paradise. This is written in the book of Revelation.

Judas, however thought Jesus was going to save the Jewish people from the Roman Empire on earth. Jesus was supposed to restore the kingdom to Israel. ( acts 1:6) Even after Jesus had told Judas, and the other Apostles that the Kingdom was going to be of God. And that the Kingdom of God was going to be in Heaven, not on earth.

Since Jesus did not restore the kingdom on earth to Israel, that could be one of the reasons, Judas betrayed Jesus.

In John 18:3-4 Judas, after taking the band of Pharisees to the place where Jesus was, Jesus asked them who the were looking for. When they told Him they were looking for " Jesus of Nazareth", Jesus answered them " I am He" In this verse of the bible, Judas did not kiss Jesus, Jesus identified himself. However, Judas still collected the thirty pieces of silver.

After learning that Jesus was going to be crucified, Judas felt remorse and tried to return the silver. When the Pharisees refused to accept the silver back, Judas went off and hanged himself. We know that because Judas hung himself, he truly felt sorrow for betraying Jesus. He no longer wanted the money.

After Judas' death the Pharisees took the thirty pieces of silver a bought a field. Then they buried the Judas' body in this field. The name of this field is now "The field of blood"

The Dead Sea Scrolls

There exists a manuscript, which is on of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which were discovered between 1946 and 1956. They are a collection of 972 texts which were found in caves about one mile inland in caves northeast from the Dead Sea.

The Dead Sea Scrolls are very important and very delicate. About 40% of them contain the same writings that are included in Hebrew Bible. Many of them have been written in languages such as Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic. They are also very old. Some of them date back to 250 B.C, but most of them date back to 50-100 A.D. Because the scrolls are in very delicate condition, it has taken a very long time to translate them. There is one that has been translated, that is extremely interesting. It has been named the Gospel of Judas.

According to the Gospel of Judas, Judas betrayed Jesus to the authorities, because he was being obedient to Jesus to the instructions of Jesus himself. The Gospel of Judas also suggests, that Christ planned the events, which led to His death.

In the Gospel of Judas, Jesus also tells Judas that he will be cursed for generations. This has come true, in Russia it is illegal to name your child Judas. However, there are many other biblical names people use when naming their children. Names like Peter, Paul, Mary etc.

Judas had acted as a divinely appointed person, in order to help with the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ, in order to save the souls of all humanity. In other words, Judas was able to help Jesus Christ, be crucified, so we could be forgiven of our sins.

But, this is only in the book of Judas, the one that was found in the Dead Sea scrolls. Not all of it was able to be put back together perfectly. So, the translation was never able to be completed.

The book of Judas dates back to about 300 A.D. so even though has the signature " Judas" on it, it was not written by Judas. So, it is not known if there is any truth to the book of Judas at all.

Was Judas a Saint or a Sinner

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Judas was the the only one who never call Jesus "Lord" Judas only called Jesus " Rabbi" Judas also loved money, and did betray Jesus for money. Judas also allowed satan to enter his heart. Luke 22:3, which happened before he went to the high priests and offered to hand over Jesus to the Romans for thirty pieces of silver.

However, if Judas had not helped Identify Jesus Christ to the Romans, then would Jesus Christ have ever been crucified? What would have happened to the human race if Jesus Christ had never been crucified, died, then rose from the dead. Would have ever been forgiven of our sins? The reason God gave us His only begotten Son, was that He would be crucified, died, and would rise from the dead three days later.

We know that we have been forgiven of our sins. But, what if we had not been forgiven of our sins? What would the world be like today, if our sins had not been forgiven? Would our souls be lost forever? Would we never be allowed to go to Paradise?

So, is Judas a sinner or a saint?

What do you think?

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Caves where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found

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billybuc profile image

billybuc 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

If Judas was a human being, which he was, then he was a sinner just like the rest of us. No avoiding that fact. :) Interesting thoughts, Michele.

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sheilamyers 3 years ago

I'm of the opinion that not everything in the Dead Sea Scrolls should be considered as accurate or authentic, but that's another topic for another day. I believe Jesus is God (one and the same), so I don't believe he would've given Judas an order to betray him. Why not? I see an order like that going against all that God is. If that happened, he'd be ordering someone to break at least one commandment - "You shall not kill". Judas would've been responsible for the death even if do order. Sure, God can do whatever he wants, but forcing that person to obey and order so opposed to a previous command which is still in force flies against the very nature of God.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hi Bill,

Thank you for your comment. Just thought I would write another different kind of hub :)

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hi sheilamyers, One of the reasons I wrote this hub is to ask a questions. I do not know the answer. That is why it has a question mark at the end. I really want to know the truth.

Thank you very much for your comment.

MsDora profile image

MsDora 3 years ago from The Caribbean

Still have to come to grips with Judas' part as described in the scrolls. Why would Jesus need his help? Have to get beyond that.

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Michelle, I have thought of this often. Judas acted as he was told but he already had it in his heart to betray Jesus when he saw how Jesus provoked the people. People fail to realize that Jesus organized his Church before he died and sent out missionaries called Seventy to preach to the Jews. They were called seventy because there were seventy of them. Judas was a leader in this organization and controlled the money yes, but he was concerned about the work the church was doing among the poor. If something happened to Jesus that would end in his mind--Judas that is.

I speculate that Judas thought he was protecting Jesus from the Roman soldiers by giving him over to the Jewish leaders who questioned him and abused him. He knew that if Jesus was accused of being a disturber of Roman interests, which he would be, the Romans would kill Jesus. Judas did not want that. Judas did not have faith in the plan as the other apostles. He wanted to save Jesus's life when Jesus was trying to give it up.

Judas thought he was saving the Savior, but he was proving that he had no faith in his master's plan. He was trying to steady the arch as it were.

In fact, because of Judas's lack of faith, he did not get to participate in the last supper and the washing of the feet to anoint him for teaching the Gospel after Christ's death.

His lack of faith, though good intentioned, cost him his life. He loved Jesus, but he did not share the same beliefs that Jesus had about the mission. Judas thought he had ended a powerful movement for change in Jerusalem and ended up killing himself because of it.

I do not think there was anything dark and sinister about Judas. He only had a lack of faith and wanted to put a plan in place to safe the master that he loved. It backfired in my opinion when the Jews turn Jesus over to the Romans.

Point again, it was the Jewish leaders who Judas betrayed Jesus to. The Jewish leader then handed Jesus over to the Romans out of frustration.

I might hub about it myself!

Jackie Lynnley profile image

Jackie Lynnley 3 years ago from The Beautiful South

Things like this bother me too, since we have no way of knowing. It does appear he was sorry, whether he asked forgiveness we have no idea. I would agree God would not have someone sin to suit His purpose. Sometimes I think it appears God caused something because it was foreknown to Him. Jesus knew what Judas would do but He did not ask Him to do it I feel sure.

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Jackie you are probably right. I read in my scripture where God has told people to kill before. He told Saul to slay an entire nation and all the things associated with it. I do not believe he told Judas to betray him, more like he acknowledged the Judas already decided to do it in his heart.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author


Thank you for your comment. It does help me a lot in my understanding of the bible.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Rodric29 I would love to see you write a hub about it. However, Judas was at the last supper. In Luke 22:20-21 after the supper, Jesus took the cup, saying " This cup is the new covenant, in my blood which is poured out for you. But, the hand of him who is going to betray me is with mine on the table"

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Yes, Jesus did know what Judas was going to do, but did not ask him to stop. You are very correct about that.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Jackie's comment makes a lot of sense. God can see what is in our hearts. God knows what is in our souls.

Shyron E Shenko profile image

Shyron E Shenko 3 years ago

Judas was a sinner that is for sure, but a saint? Jesus died for all our sins and I think that would include Judas' sins. But I don't think that in and of its self would make him a Saint, and I have never read anything about Judas written after his death.

Rodrick29, you said: Because of Judas's lack of faith, he did not get to participate in the last supper and the washing of the feet to anoint him for teaching the Gospel after Christ's death.

I thought he Judas was at the last supper and this is where Jesus said "He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me." I believe that is written in the Book of Matthew.

Deborah Brooks profile image

Deborah Brooks 3 years ago from Brownsville,TX

wow this is amazing writing Michelle and so much to think about. I still think Judas was a traitor.. but I am sure God would have used someone else if Judas wouldn't betray Jesus.. after all God knows our hearts.. Great hub Michelle.



Ericdierker profile image

Ericdierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

I cannot conclude. But I really like how this hub reminds us just how little we can get or know God's plan. That guy who is really messing with me,,, maybe I should slow down and ask why? What good could come of it?

It always seemed to me that Judas acted just like God planned. I do not completely get it, because I do not want to.

You did a marvelous job here. For sure you have a gift.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author


Judas was at the last supper. And you are correct about what has been written in the book of Matthew.

Thank you for your comment.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Thank you for your comment Debbie

God does know our hearts.

God bless you.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hello Eric,

I do not understand all of it either. Some of my hubs are questions, my lack of understanding God is great. But, I do ask a lot of questions.

Thank you very much for your comment!

lifegate profile image

lifegate 3 years ago from Pleasant Gap, PA

Hi Michele,

There's really nothing to guess about. Even though the Dead Sea Scrolls contain some Bible texts, it is not the Bible - and therefore not the final word. Jesus Himself gives us the final word about Judas.

In John 6:70, 71 Jesus says, " Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil? He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve. " Here Jesus refers to him as a devil.

Later in Jesus' High Priestly prayer in John 17:12, Jesus says, "While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled." Here Jesus refers to Judas as "the son of perdition," a term reserved only for Judas and the antichrist. Judas was not even saved.

II Thessalonians 2:3 reads, " Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; (referring to the antichrist).

Clearly Jesus disagrees with the gospel of Judas, and I must as well.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hi lifegate, I think you are correct. There are also some strange things about the gospel of Judas. Some very strange things.

The bible also teaches us that satan enters the body of Judas.

Thank you very much. You do help me learn so much.

Sparklea profile image

Sparklea 3 years ago from Upstate New York

Excellent hub Michelle. Judas was a human being, and, like us, has weaknesses and flaws. I believe he loved Jesus and the veil was removed from his eyes when he realized what awful deed he had done...he could not live with himself, the guilt drove him to hang himself. Imagine betraying the Son of God! And also having satan enter your body.

Blessings Sparklea

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author


Thank you, yes Judas was human. I believe he felt so horrible after he truly found out what an act of sin he had committed.

God bless you.

Michael-Milec profile image

Michael-Milec 3 years ago

Hello Michele.

Interesting question regarding every person' status: 'the saint or a sinner'? Every person born to this world according to God Almoghty wocabulary - is a sinner, given opportunity to meet requirement to become holy as God is Holy ! ( Lev. 11:44, 45 ; 19:2 ; 20:7; 1 Pet. 1:16).

Those who accepted challenge and met requirements via faith- thus being received into the fellowship of God's family ( John 1: 12, 13), of them " The Creator' declaration " who holy is... Did Judas have chance to reach that point ? I do not know. Was Judas a saint or a sinner - is between him and his God ( god).

Voted up an interesting .

Michele may fullness of God's blessing be upon you. Amen

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hello Michael-Milec,

I think you are right. Is he is sinner? That is God's choice.

Thank you so much for your comment.

God bless you.

Faith Reaper profile image

Faith Reaper 3 years ago from southern USA

Interesting hub here dearest Michele. If we are human, then we are all sinners, there is none perfect, except Jesus. I agree with Sparklea's comment that he loved Jesus and then felt so much guilt he could not live with himself. Jackie has good points there too.

Voted up and interesting

God bless you,

Faith Reaper

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Thanks for the correction Michelle. I was basing my info on a mistaken memory about Judas. Thanks for correcting me about the Communion meal.

It depends on what you consider a Saint. I say a Saint is just a sinner who fell down and then stood up. I am a saint because I have covenanted with Jesus Christ to be a witness of Him and stand as a representative of His love to others, especially those given me as my family.

I assume Judas made those same covenants, but he betrayed the Master because he made a mistake, for which he killed himself. I do not see him as perdition. He is just a fallen saint who repented but the grief of what he did overtook him and he killed himself.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Rodric29 You are not the only one who needs correction. I do also. Yesterday, I went to the library and read the book of Judas. It is very different. It tells us there are other gods. I do not believe in other gods. But, then I started to wonder about the first commandment.

"Thou shall not worship any other gods before me"

I still do not believe in any other gods.

Only one God. The God who created us.

But, back to the betrayal. In the book of Judas, Jesus does tell Judas to betray him and that he will be cursed for generations. At least that part is true. But, in terms of what I believe, that is the only part that could have any truth at all.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Thank you for your comment Faith Reaper. I agree with you, and Sparklea.

God bless you

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Wow, the only curse that I can see being on Judas is having to wait to the very end of everything before he is resurrected by Jesus Christ. All the wicked will be cursed in that same manner from my understanding of scripture.

Then again, it is my belief that all of us will be resurrected and the wicked will then be resurrected and given punishment for eternity. I assume Judas could be number among those who are wicked. i don't know. The only person whom I am told has been revealed their eternal punishment is David. So I dare not say Judas is going to hell because I cannot make the judgement. I do wonder about his soul.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Hello Rodric29 I also wonder about his soul. I just don't know. That is why some of my hubs are questions. By the way, I just commented on one of your hubs about 20 seconds ago!

Maggie Bennett profile image

Maggie Bennett 3 years ago from New York

Interesting piece. I enjoyed it very much.

You also brought up that little tidbit many forget. That being that the four Gospels do not always tell the same story the same way which only compounds the confusion.

Voted up and interesting.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Thank you for your comment Maggie, that is true. But, the most important thing is Jesus died for our sins, then rose from the dead. Our sins have been forgiven!

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

It is that truth that our sins will be forgiven that leads me to believe the so will Judas' sins be forgiven. He hung himself, which is suicide though. I am glad that Jesus is judge and not me. I want Judas' soul to be sage because he made a mistake and tried to make good on it but it was too late.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author


Thank you very much for your answer. You are one of the people here on hub pages that is very helpful to me and I appreciate that.

God bless you.

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passingtheword 3 years ago

I have a thought. is it true i don't know just talking out loud... but I wounder if Judas had help killing himself. some of the comon acts of killing people at the time was hanging someone and then cutting their Stomach open. and i guess that person's insides would fall out and hit the ground.

i am not saying it is biblical so don't blame the bible. it's just "man" thinking out loud.

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

It is a possibility passingtheword. I have heard among lore in my faith that Judas had to kill himself as a penance for betraying the Savior because of his office as apostle. I am not sure where it came from, but I did read it many years ago and heard someone refer to it.

It is possible there were other people involved.

Michele, I feel the same about you.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

passingtheword That is very interesting, and could also be true. Thank you very much for your comment. It could very well be possible

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

Thank you Rodric.

I have not read it, and am not sure why I thought about it. Guess I just did think about it.

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

Also, in answer to one of you questions about what would happen if there was no atonement made for us by Jesus Christ. There is a scripture in teh Book of Mormon which captures it.

"...Wherefore, the first judgment which came upon man must needs have remained to an endless duration. And if so, this flesh must have laid down to rot and to crumble to its mother earth, to rise no more.

8 O the wisdom of God, his mercy and grace! For behold, if the flesh should rise no more our spirits must become subject to that angel who fell from before the presence of the Eternal God, and became the devil, to rise no more.

9 And our spirits must have become like unto him, and we become devils, angels to a devil, to be shut out from the presence of our God, and to remain with the father of lies, in misery, like unto himself; yea, to that being who beguiled our first parents, who transformeth himself nigh unto an angel of light, and stirreth up the children of men unto secret combinations of murder and all manner of secret works of darkness." 2 Nephi 9:7-9

Whether you believe the Book of Mormon is the word of God or not, the sentiment expressed about what would happen without Jesus Christ's atonement is true.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

I am sorry Rodric29, I do not know anything about the book of Morman, but I still appreciate your comments.

JeremyLBrown profile image

JeremyLBrown 3 years ago from Maine

Judas was indeed playing out the part that had been prophesied about him. And as a human he was indeed a sinner.

In terms of sainthood: he was called the son of perdition. The only other person to have that title in the Bible is the Antichrist/Man of Lawlessness.

Also, Jesus referred to him as a devil and clearly excluded him in certain comments; as an example when he was saying that he has not lost any of those that the Father gave to him (and then he went out of his way to clarify that Judas was not one of them).

Food for thought.

JeremyLBrown profile image

JeremyLBrown 3 years ago from Maine

Rodric29 - nobody had the office of apostle until after Jesus' death, burial , Resurrection and Ascension. That is a gift that was imparted by the Holy Spirit to a select few, and the Holy Spirit was given starting at the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2. This was well after Judas hung himself.

Judas never declared Christ Lord and put his faith in Jesus. He simply had guilt at betraying an innocent man and friend of 3 years into the hands of those who would torture and crucify him. There is a difference between the two. The suicide and the return of the silver were not acts of repentance to God, which was never recorded of Judas Iscariot in Scripture.

Rodric29 profile image

Rodric29 3 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

I have to disagree with you Jeremey, but that is okay. Jesus ordained his apostles and gave the authority to act in his name. What they recieved at pentecost was a manifestation of the gift of the Holy Ghost which had already been conferred upon them and others felt it too causing them to desire baptism after they were invited.

Jesus organized his church before he dies and he sent out missionaries to the Jews called the Seventy. The Apostles directed this missionary work if you read closely in the gospels.

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author

There is also more then just one Antichrist.

“The antichrist” is shown to be a class made up of individual antichrists — 1 Jo 2:18; 2 Jo 7.

1 John 2:18 — Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour.

After that will come the false prophet and the first beast, it is the second beast that is the one that God will send down to the lake of fire. But, you both already know that.

I still have problems figuring out the truth about Judas though. If Judas had not betrayed Jesus, then how would our sins have been forgiven? What other way, would Jesus have been crucified?

If Judas' betrayal was a horrible sin, would he have the chance of being forgiven if he asked for forgiveness?

What about the 1,000 year second resurrection? can he be forgiven then?

FSlovenec profile image

FSlovenec 3 years ago from San Francisco, CA

Two things of many: Gospel of Judas is not in the Bible. Jesus said in John 17: "None has been lost except the one doomed t destruction so that the Scriptures would be fulfilled." Judas betrayed Jesus in his own free will..

Michele Travis profile image

Michele Travis 3 years ago from U.S.A. Ohio Author


Thank you for answering one of my ( many ) questions.

God bless you

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Deborah Sexton 2 years ago

Acts 1:25

Speaking Of Judas saya

25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.

His own place? sounds as though he came from the realm of demons

Satan didn’t just mess with Judas’ heart, but entered him Read John13:27 and Luke 22:1-6

Matt 26:24
 The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born.

About Jesus, Sacrifice, and Salvation

God has always saved those who ask forgiveness and turned to God. God has never asked for a human sacrifice. God did away even with animal sacrifice and prayer took the place of sacrifices

Hosea 14:3 reads, "Take with you words, and turn to the Lord. Say to Him, forgive all iniquity and receive us graciously, so we will offer the words of our lips instead of calves."

“The Scriptures clearly tells us that, ‘To do what is right and just is more acceptable to the LORD than sacrifice’ (Prov. 21:3).”

“The book of Jonah totally shoots down all arguments about sacrifice and atonement, especially with reference to Gentiles. You see, when Jonah preached, the people repented and God forgave them no sacrifice, no blood offering.

Isaiah 43:10,11,15,25

10…...that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me.

11. I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour.

15. I am the Lord, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King.

25 I, even I, am he that blots out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.

Isaiah 44:6,8,22

6 …I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.

8 ….Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not any.

22 I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a cloud, thy sins: return unto me; for I have redeemed thee.

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Deborah Sexton 2 years ago

In biblical times when sacrifices were made, Jews saw repentance as the most important and sacrifice as the least important way to gain forgiveness from God.

Few sins required animal sacrifice. According to the Torah, forgiveness for an intentional sin could only be atoned for through repentance, not through an animal sacrifice (Psalms 32:5, 51:16-19). Animal sacrifices were only prescribed for unintentional sins (Leviticus 4:2, 13, 22, 27; 5:5, 15 and Numbers 15:30). The one exception was when an individual who was accused of theft swore falsely in an effort to gain acquittal (Leviticus 5:24-26).

Furthermore, sacrifices could not make amends for a crime unless the person making the offering sincerely repented before making the sacrifice and made restitution to any person harmed by the sin.

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