That depends on the level you're speaking of. Absolute base level human nature - self-preservation - will never change. Ever. Lying, stealing, cheating, loving, slacking, hard-working, coveting, defiance, self-righteousness, greed, the passive, the aggressive, all have been around since day numero uno as well, but I think it's more the extent of each that can change. I don't think any of them will ever be non-existent. (unless the zombie apocalypse happens..) Everyone is self-preserving to some extent, but the rest of them can come and go in groups. For instance, compare the nature of the general public in the 30's vs 60's vs the 70's vs today. I think a lot of the time, human nature is dictated by our environment.
I would say, it's essentially permanent, as you put it. I'm not even sure this made sense, but I like this question. What's your opinion?