South African Race-Culture & Sports: Dismantling Of Culture, Arts, Sports & Cultural Transmission Of Africans In Mzantsi

The Sculpture of the Master Artist and Sculpture of Dumile Feni

Dignified, Strong, Tall and Strong-looking African Man-Figure-Sculpture
Dignified, Strong, Tall and Strong-looking African Man-Figure-Sculpture

The Destruction Of Cultural Transmission Ways And Means Of Africans In South Africa(Mzantsi)

As an African people, all round the globe, for more than 2000 years, we have faced oppression, depression and repression, and these today have intensified immensely. So that, at this point, we begin to note that there has been broken, into many pieces, in many places, how we transmit our cultures from one generation to the next…

So, that, we should then take note that the mission and quality of an African controlled socialization process is more than a basic response to oppression. It is in fact, if one can imagine it and get to know about it, fundamentally a path to promoting a healthy individual and overall collective development, prosperity and well being-meanwhile it will aid in preventing cultural genocide. This the reader will come across in the part that deals with culture, music and dance below in this Hub.

It is now well-known and solidly established fact that Africa is the mother of all human civilization. Africa is also a land where the actual and very foundations in 'socialization practices' were founded and laid; and through this grounded format, it influenced all the cultures the world over. The whole world, every nation and all its peoples, if one were to consult the relevant historical data, travelled to Africa and they found African fully functioning cultures, who were in charge and control of their own destinies and Nations.

But it is the mission of the outsiders that was bent and intent on stealing the natural resources and/or people, took control of their hosts lands and went on to control and dominate its people: thus we witnesses the advent of slavery and colonization in a scale not know in human memory and history.

Even today, as of writing of this piece, it is still the mission of the descendants of these 'foreigners' whose intentions is to continue these relations of dominance and subservience we are now aware of. We should make note that Africa had things other people and nations need, and all of them were not prepared to pay for that.

It is also the mission and aim of these past and present colonizers to falsely justify these inhumane behavior foisted upon Africans, and they did this by launching a serious and very constant and slanderous propaganda campaigns. It is though such propaganda campaigns that they painted a picture of All Africans as 'culture-less,' 'ignorant, backward' and 'evil people'.

Through diverse International codes, these detractors of African people, utilized messages and signals/memes and zines, to produce the intended and same result they were propagating, from the past to the present. This move by the colonizers/imperialists, was to ensure the full and complete degradation total enslavement of Africans globally.

So that, when we look much closely at these shenanigans of the oppressors of Africans, their goal was and is still to encourage all Africans, to resist everything and anything Africa, and effort was made to dissuade Africans never to speak out about Imperialism of Europe, Europe and other parts Oppressive world, against Africans globally.

Discourse and active organization strategies intended to lead African people to command their own socialization process, must build and improved upon distinct African indigenous traditions. There's a lot of documentation and oral histories that outline the vast traditions which were and still a way of life of our African ancestors/ourselves and these they had passed down throughout various generations.

It is these traditions that African chroniclers have to critique, and if a need arises, work had on improving them so that they square up neatly with contemporary challenges that are facing African people globally, and south Africa in particular. Understanding our own indigenous socialization practices will enable and help us to have a clarity of purpose and a better vision to move forward into the future as a united African Family.

African people continue to consistently to face the wars against their cultures, and they ought not to surrender or ignore/neglect their vision of who they are as a people. This will help point out to and lead the African people onto to those markers and marked points and maps of the steps that lead to a reclamation of their African power and authenticity/autonomy and freedom as a people.

It is a well-known and documented fact that Africans were tortured,killed for practicing their traditional religion, speaking their traditional mother-tongues, using African names, playing their own original music, doing their long time traditional dances, and much,much more. The colonizers worked hard on separating Africans from their traditional spiritual values, family, culture and land; the detractors of Africans made sure that there is a disconnect for African people with a healthy African cultural and historical foundations.

By the time Africans gained some paltry form of freedom and were poised to reclaim their traditional practices and culture/history, the anti Africa propaganda went into full swing and was enforced with alarming brutality; this propaganda machines of the colonial imperialists had by then succeeded in enforcing a mental disengagement between Africans and anything Africa. The long term and lingering effects has created, today, what we see as mental and social confusion which has so far prevented Africans from being themselves. These after effects were designed and put in place making it impossible for African people to unite and achieve authentic and autonomous freedom. The Aim of this Hub is to re-orientate that schism and falsity.

African Queen..

Nkosinathi Khanyile’s “African Queen 1”, which combines the aesthetics of classical Greek sculpture with that of the ‘amasumpa’, the raised relief patterns used traditionally on Zulu pots and woodcarvings that carry social significance. "African Quee
Nkosinathi Khanyile’s “African Queen 1”, which combines the aesthetics of classical Greek sculpture with that of the ‘amasumpa’, the raised relief patterns used traditionally on Zulu pots and woodcarvings that carry social significance. "African Quee

Mzantsi: Let's Talk Sharp with One Another...

Why Have We Come To Hate Ourselves? Well, Let's talk

I usually post a lot of music, which I suppose are positive vibes, and at times write or post articles originally written of taken from some writers to upgrade our knowledge and consciousness. As a media enthusiast/Historical and Media writer and analyst, I have been viewing several Wall on FB that portend to carry out the struggle. What these are, critically looking them, are just bellicose knee-jerk reactions and rants on our part, pretending to be caring and talking about our problems and plights.

Well, in so far as the diatribes are concerned, it seems like a conscious people are engaged in a positive palaver, but that would be far from the truth. Our cream of the crop is rushing pell-mell into being accepted and seen as being European, and not African… This is a fact, and I can argue with anyone's contrary point of view on this matter... Wilson in the video below addresses why this is the case with us, in Mzantsi and in the US and Other parts of the African Diaspora…

In all earnestness, we have lost our bearings, moorings and geographical campus in life. We are under great and grand delusions of grandeur, that if one were to accumulate more money, and sacrifice ones soul and human beingness(Culture, Customs, etc), that does not matter, but money does. We have dug ourselves, we Africans of South Africa, into a hole that we cannot climb out of. We glorify, cherish, and work very hard to be a poor copies of other cultures and are strung-up on material wealth and technological gadgets and nothing more.

We have become adept at scoffing and dismissing our cultural, linguistic, musical and other heritages that make us Africans of South Africa, and have become lackeys of other peoples around the world. We are a confused, scared and dumbed-down peoples. We of Mzantsi, have no sense nor direction of what is happening. We are all filled with uncertainties, distrust, and have to live with an irresponsible petty bourgeoisie which is very opportunistic.

They have a tendency to enquire as to ones status in our meetings in any situation, what kind of car one drives, where does one live, or was edumacated, wear western contemporary fashion, smudge ourselves with foreign perfumes, jewelry(which we now put on our teeth, too), live in shameless opulence, and strive hard to maintain that type of status quo and wealth acquirement to our dissatisfaction-and desire to be accepted as Europeans, not African.

Today, because we have become very good at rejecting our culture, we have become an illiterate nation, with a miseducated youth and totally blank adult population. The matric results are one indicator of this charge. We are becoming sick nowadays, most of us suffering from flues, pneumonia, dysentery, diarrhea, in the middle and heat of the summer.

We do not control our water (by we, I mean the army of the poor consumers of this drinking water). We are inept in all what we do. We depend on nepotism, cronyism, which has been shepherded by a cabal of a motley crew of thugs posing as our government and leaders.

The people that are supposedly being put in position of national social responsibilities are ignorant, inept, dysfunctional, unknowing, arrogant, and pilfering upon the public coffers; corruption is rampant; rape and murder are chronic in our communities; Alcoholism is a pandemic disease; drug abuse and proliferation has becoming the new normal in our midst.

Churches are fleecing their parishioners; the much touted and oft abused concept of Ubuntu is no more existent in our divided and shattered African collectives; our children do not even know our part of African history, customs, cultures, traditions languages and other sacred rites and their practices; and we, the present elderly, are not even helping them, nor we ourselves are functionally capable of capturing our culture, customs, traditions and the whole bit.

People are scared of critiquing the ANC; the ANC has arrogantly abrogated to itself all powers and is distorting and making its own polity ignorant and uneducated so's to rule over us effectively. They, the present government, wants us to accept that all these social malaise are because we are now experiencing a new democracy, newly found freedoms, in the face of all that they, our present leaders are doing all that is wrong. No one wants to be told that we are a failure and are being wiped out of the face of our land in all aspects of our decrepit existential reality.

"The Black race will be exterminated if it does not build a Black(African) Superpower in Africa by the end of this Century."
Chinweidzu

Reading up on Wilson is an eye opener for us, if we will ever have the gall and guts to face our weakened state of being. Wilson writes:

"… The way we think, the way we behave, helps to create the kinds of victimization from which we suffer. The oppressive configuration the White man has assumed in relationship to the African man is in good part the result of the fact that we have permitted ourselves to remain in complementary subordinate configuration conducive to his oppressive designs. "The White man Cannot Be What He Is unless We Are What We Are As A People".

"And one way of transforming the White man is through 'self-transformation'. "He cannot be what he is if we are not what we are".

"Therefore, we must take responsibility for that part of our personality, that part of our community, and that part of ourselves over which we have control, and change that part. And if we change those parts of ourselves and our community, we shall change this man. Who gives a damn about changing him anyway? It does not matter!

"One of our major problems is that African leadership has been involved in converting Whites. That misleads us time and time again. Give it up! One of the major steps in the rehabilitation of the African man/Woman/Child, etc, is to give up the White man and forget about him!"

This is one helluva tough thing for the African elite in Mzantsi to wrap their heads and thin skins around. Why should they give up their stolen and ill-beggoten loot? Why should they give up their income, life-styles, power, importance, and standard of living for the sake of the good for all Africans. Why should they?

This is the conundrum that that stops any one of these 'latter-day' South african millionaires are faced with. Why should they not hobnob with the celebrities and people of power? Give up golfing? Have no 'helpers' in their house? Are they not providing job creation, they wonder? Why should they not imbibe the accoutrements of the world of wealth and modernity?

Why should they be bothered with paying obeisance and respect to an ancient and decrepit useless African culture, customs, etc, when the world is modern and moving along in the 21 century. Yes, these people who ask these questions and many more are part of us, they are us.

We have to learn how to critique ourselves and accept our shortcomings and over-inflated sense grandeur. We should get rid of our confusion as to who we are as African People. We neither American nor European, nor will we ever be. We shall never be accepted as those people, instead, they would respect us more if we were our selves, without trying to ape others/them.

Our culture should guide our thinking. Our custom condition our behavior; our tradition enable us to determine ourselves as a people and nation. We cannot afford to be hoodwinked by television, and other western cultural imperial artifacts and gadgets. We should know these, but use them to suit ourselves. We cannot think like we are of European origin in our psyche and other distorted cultural unrealities we so apt to adopt and pine for, at the expense of our own indigenous cultures, traditions, customs and so forth

'Madness(Mental Illness) And Rage'

The African community must examine itself and see to what degree it has contributed to his own madness, demise, oppression and powerlessness.

When one looks around our own communities, there's an exaggerated reality of madness and mental health. We learn from Wilson that"

"A part of the problem of mental illness in not what people do to each other, and not what mama, daddy, or somebody else does to a child. A part of it is also how what mama does is reacted to on the part of the child. It is not so much that the European were are inferior, and that we this and that, and that the European maligns our character, et cetera: It is the reaction of anger, as Cobbs and Price point out, 'The reaction of rage.'

"Yes, we are going to find rage in teenagers, and rage in people that destroy and prey on the community; and it is the this reaction that distorts reality, distorts the individual's creativity, distorts the necessary unity and distorts the very mechanism that can get the individual out of his/her behavior," writes Wilson.

"I was talking to one drug addict who was outlining the regular thing about mama; mama not loving her and mama mistreating her. And so she saw herself as having only two choices; either would become what mama said she would become, or she would become better than what mama said she would become-both being reactions to mama, both still tied to her mama, both making her a creation of mama.

"The African(Black) bourgeoisie is as much a creation as is the African(Black) criminal; they are both reactionary styles, and both a means by which people try to deal with their dilemma of White oppression. And quite often people think, (and she thought) that there are only two choices: Either I react to it that way or I react to it the other way; I react to it in terms of rage or I overachieve.

"But if reactions of rage, hatred, and vengeance are not permitted to capture the personality, to consume and concentrate consciousness and attention, perhaps then, another alternative, another approach will be discovered.

"This is the thing that we must recognize in ourselves as a people. Reactions in terms of depression, rage and anger, reactions in terms of compensatory mechanism, are reactions that help to deny the criminality on a certain segment of our people, and that obscures the behavior of many of our teenagers in our current situations — which help to maintain the situation in and of itself.

"Why can't our leadership deal with that issue? Why is it we say that African people are losing out in the so-called "alms" race. As they call it? Alms Race! Why aren't we questioning our leadership when since the 1950s (and 1960s), the situation of our people worsened? We have leadership, today, that refuses to confront forthrightly the issues and the circumstance in which we find ourselves.

"For not capturing economic and social control of our communities, and for not building up An African Orientated philosophy, and for not building our brains, and studying, and reading, and writing, and organizing, and developing, we must hold ourselves responsible, in part, for the madness. I therefore suggest that the issue then is not so much one of diagnosis for the patient, but a diagnosis of ourselves, a diagnosis os the system, and more so than that — getting on with the work of revolution. (Wilson)

I began by titling this piece as "Let's Talk Sharp With One Another". We can all wax revolutionary and political until we turn some other color either than our melanin, that will not alter the fact that we are in serious trouble here in Mzantsi. Our leadership is made up of quislings, sell-outs and turncoats. This is an undeniable fact. Some of us here in Mzantsi are averse to such talks for it threatens their present status and reality in our(the poor's) shredded present decrepit existential unreality. Well, talk, some of us will

Well, it's about time we started talking to each other and not at each.We have to talk and listen to one another and stop dictating our half-cooked dim-witted-mind-sets to those we deem to be lower than us, and yet we are in the same prison, the same devastated reality that we face as the Africans of Mzantsi. I am not going to be talking so much about White people in my posts, but will directly address ourselves(Africans) as to what is happening to us today.

We should not kid ourselves that this is a problem that is faced by Africans in South Africa or is unique to us, only. African Americans, those who are dumb enough and come here to South Africa and behave with some haughtiness and arrogance — displaying how "inga'nt" they are, are in the same boat with us. I need not say this because I might be dismissed as an African in Africa, but Wilson bears out my assertions, and this is what Africans, all over the world, are having to deal with, equally and in the same way, no matter what.

You are not better because you are an African American in America, nor am I better because I am an African in the Motherland… We are all in the same ship, prison and enclosed oppression, depression suppression and you name it, the same shit. It is at this juncture in this part of my first installments of the articles I will be doling out for this year that we listen and watch/learn what Wilson has to teach and make us aware of, which, by the way, we, Africans in Africa, and all those in the Diaspora, desperately need for own sanity and survival as a people...

Wilson says we cannot be slaves and be Africans at the same time, because if one is to become what we see ourselves as today, slaves, we have to discard of our those characteristics that make one African… This is profound, and it is important to listen very carefully to Wilson, all of his interview below with Gary Byrd on WLIB, in New York...

Self-Hate vs White-Supremacy: Dr Amos Wilson

A Short History Of African Art Under Apartheid

The Reflection of African Identity In The Art of African South African's Art..

As a theme in art ‘identity’ is a vital concern in a postmodern society such as ours. The interplay between the individual and society has become increasingly complex, leaving room for new theories, research and speculation about the future of humankind. Who am I? Who are we? Art, as a seismograph of change, can both reflect and be a harbinger of transformation in our personal and communal lives.

The artist, as a third presence, mediates between society and the individual through the art that he/she creates. How can we understand these three elements and the dynamic of their interplay?

The best way to do this is to consider the global and local context, to look at the work and words of a few selected artists who illustrate this interplay, and to refer to the critics who comment on their work.

South African art holds a unique position when addressing ‘identity,' as a result of its racially divided past, and international developments reflect on the way in which they affect our local situation.

Art is a mirror and at times forecaster. It tells us about our progress in terms of the South African ‘identity,' and where it could lead to.

Ii is important to project what is different about South African art. Diverse societies are a global phenomenon, and so is the unrest that comes with them. Such societies have pockets of ethnic groups that resist integration and pockets within the original population who oppose the inclusion of strangers.

South Africa is different, because the separation was dictated and is deeply ingrained in the unconscious. It is a fragmented society where integration feels ‘unnatural’ and the option to leave the familiar social context is rather new and takes place predominantly in the city.

However, instead of positively experimenting with a new South African identity, the city environment has unfortunately also become the main playground of crime, which enhances our fear of ‘the other’, and shoves us back into the safe and familiar.(Aparheidized reality, existence and mind-set)

This dynamic is reproduced in much of South African art and is reflected in exhibitions, where the majority of the art can still be divided along apartheid lines, almost as if looking at cultural diversity through a magnifying glass.

Artists who are exposed to and familiar with a more global context seem to have overcome these restrictions and can deal with these issues in a less literal and more playful manner.
The master of turbulent imagery was undoubtedly Dumile Feni, who was known as the Goya of the townships. His apocalyptic vision talks directly of personal experience, indicating the extent to which the political and the personal had become inextricably intertwined.

The violent imagery of Dumile was complemented in the 1960s and 1970s by a different kind of aesthetic: mart that celebrated the beautiful and the mystical. It was an art inspired by music, literature, poetry, and an affirmative view of the political struggle: as a site of hope rather than despair.

Fikile Magadlela, Thamsanqwa Mnyele, Dikobe Martins, Peter Clarke and others reacted against the prevailing township imagery of hopelessness. They were a generation of artists who showed the way out of the aesthetic of distortion, producing images of great beauty and mystery, evolving a symbolism that offered some relief from the degradation and squalor.

A more complex and subtle response to political repression began to manifest in the work of Ezrom Legae. Working with delicate and tense line, Legae used images of birds and eggs as a metaphor for a new awakening of consciousness. Inspired by the story of Steve Biko, he produced a series of graphics using the chicken and egg imagery.

Yet in spite of its explicitly political inspiration, he avoided any directly political reference either in the content or in the title of this series (which was chosen to represent South Africa at Chile's Valparaiso Exhibition of 1979).

Some of the art of this period was inspired by surrealist imagery. In an interview with Fikile he alluded to the surrealist influence as well as his desire to make an art that celebrated beauty.

But there's one thing I believe in; if you draw the black man, he must beautiful, handsome; the woman must be heavenly. Drape them with the most beautiful clothes — to wash away this whole shit of self-pity.

Fikile also alludes to the important political debates that were confronting artists at that time. How to address the role of the artist in terms of his or her social responsibility; questions of accountability; and the constant problem of how to overcome the alienation of the black artist from his or her own community.

Art And Resistance Under Apartheid

The Sharpeville Massacre was one of the most important turning points in the history of South Africa. It triggered a chain of events, from the banning of liberation organizations, the launch of the armed struggle, the internationalization of the South Africa’s Apartheid policies and the growing division between black and white South Africans.

The Liberation Struggle in South Africa from the 1960s till the 1990s gave rise to a number of schools of thought on the role of culture (art & literature) under a racially oppressive and authoritarian society. The debates ranged from the use of the arts as a weapon of the struggle to artists working towards the creation of a new people-centered non-racial culture.

On the other hand the dominant discourse amongst Whites was mainly dependent on their support or opposition to the Nationalist party led government. Whites seemed to either accept the status quo, i.e., buying into the racial theories about people developing their own separated cultural practices, or they seemed to reject this crude racial discourse and oppose the state policies arguing that art should have an independent existence, with its own intrinsic values, that went beyond political party policies and addressed universal truths and the human condition.

There were also those who argued that artists could not deny the realities of living in a repressive society and their art should reflect on the injustices of that society as artists should be obliged to expose state repression.

This group furthered their views in the 1980s and developed a radical critique of society, arguing that artists had an obligation to plan for the creation of a new “people or revolutionary culture”

Dumile Feni

Dumile Feni's 'African Guernica'
Dumile Feni's 'African Guernica'

Protest Or Resistant Art?

Much of the art produced during Apartheid that in some way was critical of the states racial, cultural and or political polices was labeled as either ‘Protest' or 'Resistance Art’. This term has been argued over by many commentators, historians and critics, but there is very little agreement on the definition of the term.

What is Resistance art? Were there artists who supported the status quo and produced work that reflected the government’s apartheid policy? There was a school of thought that argued that their work had no reference to any social message but followed the dictum art for arts sake.

The rewriting of our history and of art history in this case requires a critical understanding of the evolution and development of artistic movements. It also requires us to look at the subjective factors that serve as the key to the production of a particular or body of work and to understand in what circumstances the work was exhibited and circulated if at all.

One also needs to examine the State, its education and cultural policies, the relationship between the visual arts and other disciplines and last but not least trends and debates among artists within the liberation organizations and other groups opposed to the status quo.

By taking this approach we will notice, firstly that there was a range of ways in which artist responded to unfolding social and political events. Secondly that even at the height of repression there was intense debate amongst artists opposed to apartheid on ways of representing their reactions and oppositions to the system.

We will explore how some artists who were active in or supported ‘the struggle’ choose not to produce work that served an overtly party political cause, but who nevertheless produced work that had a significant impact on their audience, work that clearly reflected their concerns about the impact of the norms and values of a society subjected to unjust and oppressive laws. There were also artists who did not belong to any ‘struggle’ organization but they produced works that made powerful statements about the injustices of white minority rule.

Thami Mynele's art work

Art By Thami Mnyele
Art By Thami Mnyele
"Nize Nisikhonzelephela Bandla"(Please Pass On The Greetings For Us) By Bambo Sibiya
"Nize Nisikhonzelephela Bandla"(Please Pass On The Greetings For Us) By Bambo Sibiya

Artists and Mobilization of the African Populaton

On the other hand there were artists who openly sided with the opposition and produced works that were used to mobilize people. Some of these artists produced work that required a sophisticated understanding of the artists’ use of references to other works of art like Dumile Feni’s ‘African Guernica’ (Figure 1).

Other works were overtly political but were never exhibited because it would have led to prosecution. Then there was work produced by artists such as Thami Mynele (Figure 2), Omar Badsha and others whose art advocated that art should serve a social and political purpose yet they produced work that went beyond the overtly political.

In this feature we examine work by artists that cover the different schools of thought. By examining their contributions and writing their biographies we will try to prove that while the term resistance and protest art has relevance in describing a particular genre, the term implies a much more complex phenomenon.

Our list of artists’ biographies and resources is not complete and will grow as this project and the discourse around it grows. Please feel free suggest material by clicking the contribution tab.

Written by SAHO researchers Omar Badsha and Joni Light

The Sculpture Of Dumile Feni

Dumile Feni’s sculptures spotlight the difference between white and black in South Africa. Portraits displaying clear characteristics of native Africans remain untitled, and therefore given that name: Untitled. They are depicted as the archetype of t
Dumile Feni’s sculptures spotlight the difference between white and black in South Africa. Portraits displaying clear characteristics of native Africans remain untitled, and therefore given that name: Untitled. They are depicted as the archetype of t

"African Cultural, Education and Historical Retention And Transmission"

"African Cultural, Education and Historical Retention And Transmission"...

The state of the African South African nation is in dire straights. This is because of what we know and do not know as an African collective. We know that being in modernity and becoming technophiles is in keeping up with the times-its gizmos and metadata streams. In all endeavors of man's existence here on earth, the aim has been more or less to better one's lot.

In our case here in South Africa, we do note(mistakingly so) that our culture is non-existence in its real form. We do talk a lot of politics, but we really do not put into perspective the nature and role of our African cultures here in Mzantsi. We know, in a remote sense, what our culture "Really" is about-but not really concretely. We sometimes do not see the need to, but I am going to make an attempt at resuscitating our culture in this piece and what that means or it will mean for us as African people of South Africa.

Wilson says that, "It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a 'historical' product. A culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions. A culture also manufactures social products. Some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its own constituent group and individual members. I will add below what Wilson has to say about culture, further.

So, how have African people become such a fragmented and disorganized group of people today? "Why can't we be like the Indians and the Japanese but in our own mode?", the question one of my 17-year-old nephews asked me some years ago. The answer is quite simple. We cannot be like them because we do not have the same historical, social and cultural experiences. We do ourselves a great disservice when we compare ourselves to other people since we can only compare that which is similar, not dissimilar. We are different because Africa was attacked by Arabs and Europeans, and our people were forcefully taken to another land and enslaved. Neither the Indians nor the Japanese have had that experience and therefore it is absolutely pointless to compare ourselves to them.

When slavery and later colonization took place the vision that our ancestors had of educating and raising African children(The African-centered way) was taken out of their control and a new way was imposed on African people-This destroyed our culture in deep and disastrous ways. Worse, this new system of education ran counter to the interests and needs of Africans. As a result, today, African people have never had so many talented and educated economists, educators, sociologists, doctors, lawyers, artists, etc, yet we suffer the worst health, housing, and education on the planet because our education was never designed to promote our interests but rather the goals and the interests of our oppressors.

The self destructive behavior and derogative lyrics of the Rap South African-styled Kwaito generation is a striking example of our children, today, who have not been taught to promote their positive cultural, historical, customary, traditional, and so forth, interests of their people and communities. The dysfunctional and 'out-of-wack children' we see in our midst, is partly due to us parents being ignorant and ignoring/or not knowing our culture, and being scornful of it-and being unable to transmit it from one generation to the next.

A Brief Look at corruption:

Corruption in Africa therefore is not the cause of poverty, only, but also a consequence of it. People in Africa are corrupt because they do not earn enough money to live decently and therefore must resort to illegal methods to make ends meet. In fact, where ever you see crime take a good look, you will usually find high unemployment and intolerable living conditions because it is a consequence and not the cause. Improve the living conditions and corruption and crime will quickly disappear. It's a very simple equation but of course no one is interested in this option because the capitalist system, which is really the old Roman slave system under a different name, cannot survive without access to a large number of poorly paid or unpaid army of workers or people who are barely paid.

Under globalization, its modern name, 80% of the world is still exploited by the 20% who still continue to own all the wealth. Changing the name periodically (feudalism, industrialization, capitalism, socialism, communism and now globalization) is simply a strategy that the West uses to make us, the ignorant masses, believe that there is genuine change taking place in society. Now you understand why every country you visit and in every area of activity the owners and those who make money are always White or are close to White, while those who work, serve and are exploited are always black or close to it. This is what African parents must begin to understand so that they can explain to their children why African people are consistently at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder. And tell these children why they should imbibe the cultural retentions and transmission of their own indigenous culture, customs, traditions, etc.

A Peek At African Education

This is relevant to the present state of Education in South Africa. I think many of the points that Asa makes are and will be lessons and affording South Africans some answers as to how to set up, reform and control the Education/Culture of Africans as advised by Asa below:

"Are you going to say "no" to calculus as a standard for the high school level? I think calculus is a reasonable standard. All children are brilliant enough to learn calculus, if you want to offer it to them. But if you want to teach calculus, you have to know calculus. And most teachers don't. So why blame the child for their inability to achieve when the deficiency is in the other place? Obviously, if you want the child to achieve in calculus and teachers don't know calculus, then now you've got to prepare the teachers. Now you're talking about staff development. See how it's all connected?

"If someone really wants to raise the achievement of children, you've got to recognize the reality in the classroom. Once you do so, you'll know that we'll have to do what we did in the 1960s, and soon. When the US thought that the Russians were ahead in the space race, when they put up Sputnik, the next thing that happened was that the US massively mobilized for science education. It was science, science everywhere. [Why cannot we do that for our children and ourselves today? This is still not answered and solved by us here in Mzantsi].

"We had a National Defense Education Act. Look at the language: education became a matter of national defense. When the rubber met the road, they knew they had to do something and they funded the process of doing it.
What's happening now? The budget is bankrupt on social welfare issues and nobody wants to do anything about it. So you manipulate the standards to make it look as if you're doing something. But you cannot fix the problems that are wrong in the public sector without providing resource.[precisely the conundrum we are faced with here in South Africa]

"We have got to learn to ask new questions and not simply give a Black version of the white question. So intelligence testing should go out the window, as far as I'm concerned. Now if you want to know how we know it's irrational, get the book edited by Helga Rowe, "Intelligence: Reconceptualization and Measurement", which are papers from a summit meeting of psychologists in mental measurement in Melbourne, Australia, in 1988.

"They were trying to figure out what was the state of the art in measurement, especially intelligence measurement, and they came away with three conclusions. Actually, there were probably more conclusions, but these are the three that interested me:

1. They couldn't agree on what intelligence was. That's what you might call a construct validity problem. It's a little hard to measure precisely when you don't have agreement on the construct.

2. There's no predictive validity to IQ tests unless you use low-level thinking as your achievement criteria. If you use high-level, complex, conceptually oriented problem solving, then there's no correlation between IQ scores and achievement outcomes. This is serious, because that's where the IQ test is supposed to be making its contribution, in predictive validity. But it's not there unless you measure something that somebody has already had time to process.

3. If they can ever agree on what intelligence is, and if they can ever measure it, they will have to take context into account. That's what the Black psychologists have been arguing for before I was born: that the context is what gives meaning to a response. You can't universalize a dialogue, linguistically or culturally. It's scientific idiocy to do so.

So you have to understand whose IQ is being tested -- those who make the irrational IQ tests. IQ testing doesn't do any good for anybody other than people who need work. It's a professional welfare program.

African cultural transmissions and retentions should be the modus operandi of how we begin to restore and practice our original and indigenous cultures, customs, traditions and so on. If we have lost the ways and means of how we are supposed to transmit inter-generationally, this culture, education and so on, we can read up on/or learn from other people how they did their own, and from there fashion our own out of those people's experience, but specifically designed for and culled from our own existing culture today

We Can Also Learn Something(From Others) About How And Why We should design our education the ways in which he suggests below

Jose Marti On Education:

"On Education" - Popular Education:

1. Instruction is not the same as education: the former refers to thought, the latter principally to feelings. Nevertheless, thee is no good education without instruction. Moral qualities rise in price when they are enhanced by qualities of intellect.

2. Popular Education does not mean education of the poorer classes exclusively, but rather that all classes in the nation, tantamount to saying the people-be well educated. Just as there is no reason why the rich are educated and not the poor, what reason is there for the poor to be educated and not the rich. They are all the same.

3.He who knows more is worth more. To know is to possess. Coins are minted, knowledge is not. Bonds or paper money are worth more, or less, or nothing; knowledge always has the same value, and it is always high. A rich man need money with which to live, but he can lose it and then he no longer has the means of living. An instructed man lives from his knowledge, and since he carries it with him, he never loses it and his existence is easy and secure.

4. The happiest nation is the one whose sons/daughters have the best education, both in instruction of thought and the direction of feelings. An instructed people loves work and knows how to derive profit from it. A virtuous people will live a happier and richer life than another that is filled with vices, and will better defend itself from all attacks.

5. Every man when he arrives upon this earth has a right to be educated, and then , in payment, the duty to contribute to the education of others.

6. An ignorant people can be deceived by superstition and become servile. An instructed people will always be strong and free. An ignorant man is on his way to becoming a beast, and a man instructed in knowledge and conscience is on his way to being a god. One must not hesitate to choose between a nation of gods and a nation of beasts.
The best way to "defend our rights is to know them well"; in so doing one has faith and strength; every nation will be unhappy in proportion to how poorly educated are its inhabitants. "A Nation Of Educated Men Will Always Be N Nation Of Free Men". Education is the only means of being saved from slavery. "A Nation Enslaved To Men Of Another Nation Is As repugnant As Being Enslaved To The Men Of One's Own".

Jose Marti, Guatemala (Mexico) 1878
José Julián Martí Pérez is the Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.

Education and culture are one and the same thing. We should tailor and design our education around our culture. What the meaning of culture is shall be dealt with below to some extend by Wilson below. We must not only 'say' we have a culture, but we must be able to talk about it, describe and live by its principles. We can also learn from those who have dealt with the same problems, as we are faced with in our educational system, in the same blueprint or vein as that suggested by Jose Marti above and then some.

We also have forgotten that our culture has been written about in books like "Mekgwa Le Maele A Sesotho". "Inqolobane Ye Sizwe," "Inhlalo Kwa Xhosa," and many other such books. Some of us ignore these masterpieces of our cultural literature because they are written in our own African languages, and by us, and are not considered to be worth anything. That is where were are making a critically and deadly mistake that will eventually lead to our genocide. How else are we going to learn and learn more about ourselves and culture? These are the other strategies we can use to re-route and re-set our cultural direction, growth, transmission and propagation

We have to learn how to critique ourselves and accept our shortcomings and over-inflated sense grandeur. We should get rid of our confusion as to who we are as African People. We are neither American nor European, or Asiatic, nor will we ever be. We shall never be accepted as those people, so long as we don'[t recognize and respect ourselves-so long as many of us are not comfortable in their own skins and cultures, instead, they would respect us more if we were our selves, without trying to ape others.

Our cultures should guide our thinking. Our customs condition our behavior; our tradition determine ourselves as a people and nation. We cannot afford to be hoodwinked by television, and other western cultural imperial artifacts and their emerging and merging technological gadgets. We should know these, but use them to suit ourselves-and develop our nation, culture and history.

We cannot think like we are of European origin in our psyche/spiritually and other distorted cultural unrealities we so apt to adopt, at the expense of our own indigenous cultures, traditions, customs and so forth. Our culture, that of the all the African people of South Africa(9 of them), should be our specialized field and know-how; and in that way, the world will listen to us when we tell or talk about Our Culture and live it.

On The Cusp Of An African Cultural Renaissance

When Fu-Liau visited Bahia Brazil, he was shocked to discover Congo descendants who still maintain their traditional ancestral cultural customs; far more authentic than what is practiced in the Congo today. He was startled after being invited to observe secret education systems which proved to be virtually identical to his own initiation in the Congo years ago; initiations long since destroyed by the colonials.

Traditionally, varied rituals address every occasion in African traditional life. The rituals provide individuals with an opportunity to stand before the community for naming ceremonies, enstoolment ceremonies, initiation rites, harvest festivals and other times to link and collectively give thanks to god, the ancestors, and nature. These rituals, customs and traditions, and the purposes for them, are common in Africa and the Diaspora. They provide an opportunity to promote community unity, to outline purpose and expectations, to reinforce the positive aspects of the culture, and to acknowledge the power of the Creator-as envisioned and conceived by the African people.

Most of these ceremonies give validation to the elders, the children, the leadership, and to any links that contribute to community health, development and transmission. Ceremonial practices help communities to affirm community ties and values, mores, traditions and so on.

Our culture is not useless and did not die-off. It is still alive, in whatever form, today. In rebuilding and recasting our cultures, we should also be cognizant of certain negative effects and affects of other 'foreign' cultures have on our culture.
Our communities can benefit greatly if we could collectively resist the meaningless holidays and ceremonies which are promoted in contemporary capitalistic societies. These holidays, and their aggressive promotion, are meant to encourage spending to enrich certain businesses and corporations.

These holidays have no positive transformative value for individuals and communities participating in them.
Regardless of years of separation from Africa and constant pressure to ignore all things African, Africans in the United States and Africa as a whole, have managed to maintain "African Cultural Retentions". One example of this is the strong community commitment was participation in child-care and socialization in rural areas and in strong urban communities that persisted for years. Even when there was little money, these African communities, like ours here in Mzantsi, were consciously and subconsciously committed to quality child development, cultural propagation and transmission.

A few of these practices include the use of folktales as a means of teaching about community mores, encouraging youth participation in all community activities, childbirth techniques, post childbirth rituals, natural healing practices, and more. These diverse retentions could be found in may rural communities, such as Bay City, Texas, but they could also be found in pockets of urban communities those within Harlem, New York." (Wilson)

For us here in Mzantsi they can be found in the rural areas, and urban centers. We still have material and people practicing our diverse, but not necessarily different cultures. As the Boers have tried to make us believe that we are tribes' and were never united.but fighting with each other, and our cultures were different, since, according to them we migrated from the north of Africa, and came into south Africa when they 'discovered the Cape-a lot of hogwash, balderdash, falsification and obfuscation of our history, culture and so on)

African socialization practices served to assist communities in da-to-day operations, collective survival, interpersonal relations, and basic quality of life issues. The content of an African education and socialization process contains many components which are modified according to the specific goals and aims of a community at a particular historical timeline and reality.

We, as Africans of South Africa are facing a gigantic task of trying to cope, exist and survive this decrepit social existed and genocidal social malaise. To do this, I am willing to be persecuted in whatever manner anyone deems possible, but that will not stop me from posting on other sites, till maybe some take me seriously about Cultural War issue facing South Africa, and ultimately Africa/Diapsora...

What does all this mean for and to Africans of South Africa today? It means everything-Where Everything Is Everything . We can describe these cultural practices from our cultures in Mzantsi. Use of folktales-I grew up listening to all sorts of folk tales and ghost stories, and from them I carry within me the mores and morals of our communities; As a member of my family, extended and otherwise, I have been involved in and taking part in the sacred rites and practices of our family members; In the community I live in, I have been at, involved in and participated int eh cultural and ceremonial events where the whole community participated.

I have worked, as a youth, in and with the community. I made it my business to talk and teach youth sports and help them understand their schooling; I have and am still talking to young girls about their social worth, and in the midst of the boom of Mbeki's children" as they are referred to in our community, there is a constant struggle to demystify and deconstruct the current notions about birth-giving and bearing many babies to be compensated by the government; rebutting false notion, on behalf of and amongst the Youth, about how they should really be growing up as African teenagers today in our dysfunctional communities and society.

We have incorporated into our teaching for the youth the precepts, ideas, and African concepts, precepts and principles of how an African society should function, work and relate to each other. We teach them about the role played by children and youth in the community. Teach them about the customs of the community in regard to treating women with respect, respecting their elders, teaching the younger children the values , morals and mores of the society.

This is an uphill battle, but we are in it, on it and at it. We have books that deal and describe our culture written as early as the 1800, from which we can cull whatever we need for the 21 century, and make them suit the aims and goals of our communities[I have cited a few above]. We are writing original articles such as this one to slowly bring to the forefront the importance and greatness of African cultures in South Africa.

We cannot afford the individualism that has been foisted upon us by the Apartheidizers and their allies. We have in our own cultures as our culture, wherein we can learn and know/understand about the Planting seasons, how to carry out a wedding, rules governing relations between to two merging families; laws for the bride and groom; how boys are initiated, along with girls; how deal with ailments and sicknesses; the ways of behaving and living with the elderly; kinds of diseases and solving of problems for those who do not bear children; aphorisms and other sayings-how to be a close and self-loving and self-sufficient and interdependent communities and people communities.

There are laws and rules, in our cultures for kings; there is a whole segment on the wealth of the community; drama, poetry, plays, games , dances, music, art, and games for children The bringing up of youth and the rules that are observed and practiced by the communities. We have a slew of activities that if we were to look at them as one culture unified in diversity, we can and will clearly discern our variegated but same unified culture much better.

What Am I saying? Well, we have a culture that is still there and alive, if we put our minds to it, respect and recognize it-it will serve our needs and interests. Identifying and making concrete assertions and presenting what we are talking about in our culture in clear terms is the goal. Yes, Math and science, geography are important as education. Culture is no less important and it is something that ought to be studied and practiced by Africans here in South Africa.

Hall writes:

"Culture is a word that has so many meanings already that one more can do it no harm. ...For Anthropologists culture has long stood for the way of life of a people, for the sum of their learned behavior patterns, attitudes and material things. ...Others, looking for a point of stability in the flux of society, often become preoccupied with identifying a common particle or element which can be found in every aspect of culture.

Wilson's discussion of culture is more precise:

The cultural identity of an individual or group is the social product of a socialization process in which new responses, values, perspectives ad orientations are acquired and existing behavioral repertoires of the individual or group are modified to some extent, as the result of his or its subjection to direct or indirect social conditioning experiences. Cultural identity also result from the patterning of its modal thoughts, feeling, or actions after other cultures or groups who serve as models."

We should link these definitions to the actual African culture that we have in 9(Nine) diverse cultural ways that is our culture, but not different from one another. There are no 'tribes' in the true sense of the intended meaning of that word. There are diverse, variegated, but one same diverse cultures of one nation of Nguni/Bakone(Africans Of Mzantsi)the Africans of South Africa.

This point needs to be paid attention to. We see a culture that is diverse and colorful, not a tribalized backward peoples. We have the same cultural or whatever practices, same language(Some of these were worked on some of my blogs now), the music, dances, traditional dresses and music is the same, even if it were to be categorized into several genres. It is one music, of one culture, and One nation of Africans of South Africa.

Yes, when we speak realpolitik, there will be some people who will be rubbed wrongly by my comments and observations. So too, there should be a second look at what I am talking about in regard to writing and projecting our culture to the world through the viral stream. We have to begin to talk about the various aspects of our cultures amongst ourselves, and compare notes and observations and commonalities of these 9(nine) cultures of Mzantsi. We will be more respected and acknowledged if we are able to present one cohesive and holistic culture of the Africans of South Africa. We should discuss it here on the FB and other outlets. Also, we should write specific original pieces on the various topics that make up our one but diversified cultures.

Politics is important, but without culture it is barren, fake and a fiction. We have seen, as we grew up what role culture has played in some of our lives. Although we are aghast with the present behaviors of our children, and the way our communities are under siege from many sides, we can also, and should, by the way, be able to talk, at least, about our culture, extol its virtues and vices, and at the same time design it to suit the present Africa-centered-way of they way we live, in a myriad places and in various ways. It is one culture made up of 9(nine) peoples of South Africa, and we should make that count for what it is worth.

As I have stated above that I will pick up on Wilson this further down to engage the discourse as to what culture is. Wilson writes:

"From their life experiences, a group develops a set of rules and procedures for meeting their needs. Or, it is the "historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational and non-irrational which may exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of man.
"Thus, culture, though a product of the actual lived experience of a people — the primal source of much of their daily personal and social activities, their forms of labor and its products, their celebratory and ceremonial traditions, modes of dress, art and music, language and articulatory style, appetites and desires — [it] is essentially ideological in nature based as it is on shared beliefs, customs, expectations, and values.

"Hence, culture does not exist outside and independent of its human subjects. Culture is represented symbolically and operationally in the minds and characteristically mental/behavioral orientations or styles of its members, and is incarnated in the customary ways they move and use their bodies.

Therefore, culture is represented "in" the minds and bodies of its members, and expresses itself through the systematic ways they attend, experience, categorize, classify, order, judge, evaluate, explain and interact with their world.

"Mentally, culture involves the socially shared and customary ways of thinking, a way of encoding, perceiving, experiencing, ordering, processing, communicating and of behaviorally expressing information which distinguishes one cultural group from another.

"All these activities are dedicated to the end of adapting culture to the consistent and changing demands of its physical and social environment and reciprocally adapting the environment to the demands of culture.

"To the degree that the shared beliefs and behavioral orientations of the members of a culture are consensually consistent, reasonably rational and realistic, are effectively and consistently socialized and reinforced, the culture is characterized by coherence, somewhat low levels of internal conflicts and contradictions, relatively smooth, automatic, coordinated operation, and thereby effectively functions in the interests of its members.

"Socially, culture patterns the ways its members perceive each other, relate to and interact with each other. It facilitates the ways they create, develop, organize, institutionalize and behaviorally apply their human potential in order to adapt to the conditions under which they live so as to satisfy they psychological, social and survival needs."(Wilson)

Knowing, living and understanding our cultures is one of the many ways we can begin to rehabilitate our people and communities. It is important that we do this as soon as we can because at present, we seem to be at a breaking point, and who knows what will happen beyond that. We need to begin to talk about our cultures, customs, traditions, history, languages, music, dances, sacred rites and practices, traditional dress, social mores, moral, respect and Ubuntu/Botho-Eruditely. We can all of us, Africans of South Africa do this, because we are better than this.

Master Painter/Artist - Dumile Feni

Untitled, i.e. circa 1985
Untitled, i.e. circa 1985
Dumile feni's Art: "Under Arrest"
Dumile feni's Art: "Under Arrest"
"Head"
"Head"

Dumile Feni - "An Artist Misunderstood"...

The following Article was written by D. Amitabh Mitra:

I had taken my friend Tembeka to see the collection exhibited at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, East London, South Africa. It was a warm sunny afternoon; East London is blessed with such lovely days. The gallery boasts one of the best collections in Arts in South Africa. This has been possible due to the avid interest in collecting the best of arts from early eighteenth century to the modern times by its late owner Ann Bryant.

Tembeka went around looking at each exhibit giving her comments. She came upon an oil on canvas depicting a Xhosa Woman in traditional dress. 'This is a beautiful painting, come and see this work' she remarked. Instead I asked her to come and see a charcoal drawing which is displayed at the entrance of the gallery. T

Tembeka came and saw it and immediately her hand flew over her face. 'I can't see this work, my son Alungile would cry if he has to see this picture'. Dumile Feni has been once again successful in creating such passions in the ordinary person that can burst out at such unguarded moments.

This was Dumile Feni's work titled 'Going' done by charcoal on paper. This work by Feni remains the most prestigious item that this small gallery and its curators are proud off. It is a piece of South African history.

The common man in present day South Africa is largely unaware of Dumile Feni's work and the Contemporary South African Art movement touts him as a 'Goya of Townships'. Dumile Feni represented much more than that.

Catastrophes, accidents and awful events litter the works of the painter, draughtsman and sculptor Dumile Feni. One of his best-known drawings is from the year 1966 and entitled 'Railway Accident'. Folk are screaming and fleeing, bodies crushed, and limbs disjointed and tossed all over the place. Life has been torn asunder. Among this debris, the steely perpetrator ' the derailed locomotive ' lies diagonally across the design, itself burst. Pure horror leaps out at the observer through a dark veil of hopelessness.

Dumile Feni was born in Worcester in Western Cape in South Africa at a time not known exactly. It is thought to have been between 1939 and 1944. South Africa was still marked by apartheid imposed by a white-minority government and maintained in the face of opposition by force and violence.

Dissidents were suppressed and jailed, and black townships on the fringe of cities like Cape Town and Johannesburg were often run-down and riddled with crime. These were the conditions which Dumile's works referred to. Since they recall Francisco Goya's etchings of war and violence in the late 18th and early 19 century, Dumile was dubbed the 'Goya of the Townships' ' an honor which he hardly enjoyed earning.

Dumile was first trained in the ceramics works in Jeppe in Johannesburg. While recovering from severe tuberculosis, he began drawing and finally decorated whole walls of the hospital. From 1965 on, he worked with the politically active Gallery 101 in Johannesburg and in 1967 exhibited at the celebrated S'o Paulo-Biennale. A year later he moved to Britain.

Stylistically Dumile inclined towards figurative realism, and his nervous but exact lines recall those of Egon Schiele. His artistic materials were often very simple, the drawings often done with a ballpoint pen, as much for economic as artistic reasons. He died in New York in 1991. The recognition which he deserved came to him posthumously, though he had exhibited during his lifetime in many galleries in South Africa and Britain.

On the initiative of several members of the African National Congress, especially Dumile's friend Isaac Witkin and the conservator and bronze-caster John Phillips, funds were set up with which to bring Dumile's works back from the USA to South Africa, to be shown in the National Gallery in Cape Town. A grand retrospective of his works is planned for 2003 by the Johannesburg Art Gallery.

This itself is a poem in prose by Dumile Feni -

One day I was in the Township with this driver and we went past a line of men who were all handcuffed. I don't know what for, maybe for having no pass or something. Anyway the driver said, 'Why don't you ever draw things like that?'

I didn't know what to say. Then just when I was still thinking, a funeral for a child came past. A funeral on a Monday morning. You know, all the people in black on a lorry. And as the funeral went past those men in handcuffs, those men watched it go past, and those with hats took off their hats.

I said to the guy I was with, 'That's what I want to draw!'

In his township phase, Feni's versions of expressionist township suffering and poverty went beyond depicting urchins and beggars; in the drawing The Stricken Household (1965) he does not stop short of littering the ground around the shack that he takes as his motive, with what look very much like corpses; when he does do a beggar, it is rendered as The Ogre (1965) all displaced limbs and frozen mask of accusation, more a product of anger than it is of suffering.
In short, Feni's art at this time tends to be more in your face, more driven in its expressionism than that of most of his contemporaries.

His township work contains, though he never claimed this for himself, one of the more credible struggle oeuvres to come out of this country in the 1960s and 1970s, if only because of the white-hot intensity of his expressionism and the unmediated honesty of its conception.

It is probably significant in this regard that, uncommonly for prominent black artists of the time, Feni, though he often used the facilities provided by these, never really took instruction at the white run art institutions. Instead his first, and probably crucial, training was as part of an informal group around the artist Ephraim Ngatane, later honed during a period in a sanatorium where he was suffering from tuberculosis.

Another significant observation here to come from Ainslie is one to the effect that, while Feni shared his studio for a time, and lived with the Ainslies, he was never part of the student body at the Johannesburg Art Foundation. So too, he at times used the facilities and interacted with students at the Polly Street Art Centre, but was never fully identified with that either.

The African National Congress Government made Dumile a hero, branded him the only township artist who exposed apartheid but Dumile was far beyond than being a township hero, his erotically charged work escaped a closer inspection, the mind of the greatest thinker who brought Africa on an international canvas.


The Master Sculpture And Artist - Dumile Feni

Feni Expressing The Burden that Africans Feel and being carried along with; He Carved this Stature artistically and spiritually expressing the sobering said reality that Africans themselves Are a best of Burn-Articstically/Sculpturally
Feni Expressing The Burden that Africans Feel and being carried along with; He Carved this Stature artistically and spiritually expressing the sobering said reality that Africans themselves Are a best of Burn-Articstically/Sculpturally

We have To Understand Better What Intergenerational Cultural Transmission Is All About

This is the early and first month of the 2014 A.D. and we in Mzantsi are nowhere near our Objective and autonomous Freedom, Nationhood and liberation that we have so coveted and fought for over the centuries. The most perplexing thing about our decrepit state of existence is that, we have now been made ignorant,destitute, mentally disturbed and forlorn.

We fight the same shit and are the most dejected, despondent, disconsolate, wretched, downcast, dispirited, downhearted, crestfallen, depressed, melancholy, gloomy, glum, mournful, despairing, doleful, oppressed, repressed and denied of basic human rights. our humanity, peoplehood and Are all in Africa and the Disapora- Same Hell. This is an indisputable Fact, and remains so in the dawn of 2014 A.D.

I used all the synonyms above because they clearly describe our miserable, decrepit and wretched condition, given that our country of Mzantsi is the richest in Africa, in so many ways, and we are at the bottom of any end and every development and progress that is taking place in our country, and we stand by the sidelines and watch other people, who are not of our land, become better, rich, educated, and successful.

I am not going to apologize to no one when it comes to talking about our country South Africa, which must first of all take care of South Africans "first", and anybody else last. This is what I am talking about when I say I do not apologize to no one when saying what I have said above.

Having said so, I will begin the New Year with an observation we need to learn from Asa Hilliard below, and take from it what we need to get on our feet/bootstraps and pull together as an African nation(with those who wish to sit under the African tree/shade, welcome, as Sobukwe noted.

The major problem facing us as poor and African people, locally, regional, continentally and in the Diaspora is the concerted effort that is being foisted upon us to keep us Dumbed Down, illiterate and totally ignorant about everything. They(The rulers) make the decision, we comply, obey and carry them out-no matter how unreal they are.

If we are going to talk about education, culture, history, tradition, dance, music , traditional dress and sacred rites and practices of the Nguni/Bakone, then we better know what we are talking about. If we are going to be talking and waxing political about the African-centeredness of our culture, custom, traditions, music, dances and the whole bit, we better know concretely write, very well what all the 11 people of South Africa are about and represent of and by themselves.

First of all, we need to put some issues into their proper perspective to even begin taking about the different types of music that are composed and made by Africans of South Africa. And there is nothing wrong in me selecting them as I do because our culture in Mzantsi is completely dominated by the Culture of the indigenous culture in all aspects and respects. Right now, most of us are not really helping to educate and lead from the people's perspective - the oppressed of Mzantsi. I think Asa Hilliard's excerpt below will help us clarify and edify this reality into the core of our consciousness.

"Our traditions have made a profound impact on world civilization. They still do. But today, we must reclaim these traditions, and where appropriate, utilize them to help us to address the many issues that plague our communities today.

"We continue to live in dangerous and treacherous times. The same propaganda and calculated manipulation of information about Africans that has existed since the start of Maafa is prevalent today. Mass media send messages to us and about us that are beyond our control. Schools have little or nothing to engage our students in African Cultural Traditions or in support of African communities. Our communities rarely acknowledges our traditions and they fail to create adequate structures to guarantee "Intergenerational Cultural Transmission".

" We are culturally lazy and our ancestors are not pleased. History will not be kind to those of us who forget. Shame, disintegration and dependency on others or worse, will be the outcome.

"While I am addressing a general audience, it is my highest hope that serious researchers will make a careful review of the references and selected bibliography. Special attention should be paid to those that point to documentation and descriptions informing us about our traditions. I am hopeful that these references will tease, enlighten, and heighten the interest of researchers so that they may be motivated to do the hard work of digging up greater details to illuminate traditional African aims, methods, contents, and outcomes.

"Time is of the essence as many of our living human sources are dying. Much of the information that we need is in "fugitive sources," like literature, film, tape recording,photographs. artifacts, architectural,structures, carvings, paintings, music, games, symbols and more. In other words, in order for us to develop and maintain a robust understanding of our cultural wealth, we have a great deal of "Study" to do. There is a virtual treasure trove to be uncovered. There is No Time to waste in tapping our African Power.

"Studying And Learning Is Our Key To Nationhood and Autonomous Freedom/Self Rule"

Asa then adds the following Advice and observations:

"There is no way around serious and disciplined study. We must study, and study more. Study, will reintroduce us to our tradition. Nothing in the general culture requires us to do this and so we must set our own standards. We must do this work for ourselves, on our own intitative. There is no chance, whatsoever, that we can launch an appropriate socialization effort without study, without structure, and without habit, tied to our own heritage.

"Nothing is more pitiful than to be led by those who have not done their homework. Around the world, some African and non-African lead panel discussions, public meetings, and more, are held to address the African agenda. While often well intentioned, the meetings feature disorganized sound bites, confusion, and a lack of synthesis and mission.

"Further, some of the valuable information revealed in these forums are sometimes repeating what Africans have said 20, 30, 50, 100, and 200 years ago. Because there was no study, Africans behave as though they re presenting new information.

"Had they studied and not been taught to avoid or resist their own history, they would not be reinventing the wheel. When you have not studied, you represent the accurate image of a disorganized, unfocused and controlled group. Unfortunately, too many individuals stand ready to enter the limelight with no clear vision.

"We must conduct study groups in every community for leaders and followers. This is our basic preparation for economic and political action. More important, this is our basic preparation for healing, renewal and for developing our vision of destiny.

"No public schools, anywhere in the African world, deal with the matters reflected in the references I recommended above. Sadly, very few of the organizations that are under the control of African people transmit our profound cultural heritage. This is the sorry condition.

"There is no way that we can survive as a people without study. There is no way that study can serve us unless we "CT" on what we Learn. Knowing is not enough. We must construct the world that we want. Nothing comes to those who wait.

"We have all that we need to do what is necessary. We can come to know what we need to know. We, however, must choose to do what is necessary and make the sacrifices that we need to make. today, we have more resources, books, computers, etc. Still, we waste time and far more resources than we need to take care of the socialization requireents. Now is the time to save us. The Struggle Continues," ["Aluta Kontinua" - my addition].
It is Important That We Construct Our World As we See Fit

What does Asa Hilliard and his sage comments above have to do with education? Everything. What Asa is saying above strike at the core and center of our present-day social miasma. When we ignored, dismissed, rejected and scorned our history, culture, traditions, languages, music, dances, sacred rites and practices and our recognizing that we are an African people we need to go back at the beginning,, back to cultural basics.

We stopped learning and studying, concretely knowing, practicing, developing and living cultural selves as the totality of all these things, we essentially have become European, here in Mzantsi. We think being European-likely sets us apart from our communities, African continent and the Diaspora. We think that makes us unique and different. We boast to one another about western cultural artifacts and wealth accumulation thinking that imbibing this makes us better than our poor and down-trodden lot in the townships and ramshackle dwellings that is their domiciles-and the rest of Africa.

We have no groundings in nor are neither embedded within our cultures, histories, traditions and whole bit, at all. We think that's how our masters have taught us to 'know' is enough, and we dare not construct our world outside the miseducated boxes we so comfortably dwell and think. We have no time to transmit in an Intergenerational consistent and structured way and manner of our whole cultural spiel.

We are presently engaged and engrossed in imbibing, aping and executing in both speech and action all that is European or American, that we really do not have time to look into our history, culture, traditions and so forth to begin to talk about nation-building, once we understood what we need to know, study and live from our own and selves and culture. It is either we do as we have been made up to be thus far-that we need to begin to recognize, study and concretely know our cultures, traditions, customs, music, dances, traditional dresses and so forth before we can even countenance the unknown and unclear freedom and autonomy that so many tout, and yet that is still has not been realized nor achieved by the majority of Africans in Mzantsi-to date.

The cultural and historical knowledge and tradition and music has been forgotten thus far, is what in the whole musical mosaic that one can find in Mzantsi, and even the music above, has but totally disappeared from the musical delivery media systems and concerts here in the country. I can see from postings on Youtube and reading the comments of those who have listened to these songs from South Africa, the amazement and enthusiasm these artists and their songs generate and engender, and yet, inside the country, this same music has been taken of the programming diet playlists along with TV, and we are left with either Kwaito or music from overseas, dominating the Air and,TV and Concerts waves and performances-and the music was given a name of the once famous gangsters in Orland East called amaKwaito. There's a whole story and history to what I have just mentioned..

Our educational system is in chaos and bankrupt. It does not serve our interests and our people. Our children are lost like the times when we were colonized and missionary schools took over our children, brainwashed them, and made them reject their cultures, disrespect their elders and reject their customs, histories and traditions. The same is true now during the rule of our own and supposedly democratically elected ANC government. Many White South Africans are working assiduously hard to colonize information about Africans and their own history and information. Well, now is the time we take over, not colonize, our information and we fashion it to our needs as we see fit.If our education will be relegated to the Web's viral stream, so be it.

We have to at least learn something from Asa above, which is "Studying" our Music, and other aspects of culture for our own benefit and betterment. In the Hub above, I have attempted to capture the essence of the culture that can still be made better, and also can learn what we have been through and how we still have to go-also, come to grips and concrete stories of our history in sports arts and culture. The other issue not touched up fully in this Hub are the affects and effects that the recording and publishing industry has had on the music and artists in South Africa. I have not really elaborated as I would like about the state of education/reading and studying that is not taking place as it used to be in our communities, today.

I will write and talk about the publishing and recording industries and companies in South Africa and what role they are playing in sowing ignorance, confusion, and not really interested in palavers like the one I published above. There are many facets of our being under attack and these will be dealt within other forthcoming Hubs. In this Hub, above, theArts, sports and Cultural Traditions are explored and their history given by the athletes, artists and our one culture, through its photographic images, cultural traditional musical video

This will be forthcoming in due time. For now, studying music in the away I that's relevant to us and our compositions-this includes education, reading and studying, which will enable us to move the this decrepit and downtrodden reality, so that we can construct our African world as we see fit; we must choose what to do if we want to go viral and how we are going to own that and affect everything about the product(music, culture, dances, art and sports history) in this case), that we want the world to know us by and begin to understand us as African people of South Africa as presented and projected by us-from an African-centered perspective, much better, truthfully and realistically-Again: From our own African-Centered perspective.

We therefore must Recognize that the Struggle going forward, is the highest form of education/studying we can do for ourselves. Dr. John Hendrik Clarke deals with this aspect of Us Studying and making sure that our education works/functions and serves or purposes and we shall see the reasons why if we work hard at improving our studying habits and reading/writing and uplifting our people through Revolutionary Education-an education that we have trained and studied for our own benefit and success-We can change and shift the present paradigmatic zeitgeist-to what we want it to be.. We have to begin thinking seriously about what Asa and Clarke are teaching us above and (in the article) and below,(in the Video)

Dr John Henrik Clarke, Dr Yosef Ben Jochannan - What will We Tell Our Children

South African African Indigenous Socialization: Race Matters

We really have a problem in having a clear pan of action and long term vision as to how to empower and make our people consciously know that they are a nation-and we are still unable to help our people to unite. Our culture here in south Africa helped us to efficiently manage our traditional spiritual values, family, culture and land. Our enslavers forced a serious disconnect on our cultural/historical/traditional foundation.

This has disabled our ability to unite, and work towards the achievement of our full freedom. Our inability to unite is a direct a result of our rejection of the Indigenous African Principles which promote a strong sense of community. This brings us to the fact and point that we need to need to ask and know who are people are.(Amilcar Cabral addresses this part of "Who Our People Are". So that we need to be clear as to who chooses to be in The ""African Family", and those who prefer to be "individuals", or just happens to have melanins like the rest of, some are not necessarily interest nor for what I am proposing above. That is not the issue I am concerned with in this Hub.

Once we understand and become clear about this distinction, it will help clarify the kinds of expectations or changes which might be posed by certain people. It will also help us by affording us the much needed knowledge as to who will be an advocate of and for the liberation of Africa, against those who are only opportunistic instead of helping our people.

According to Asa Hilliard:

"Restricting one's identity to physical characteristics is equal to acquiescing to the European domination strategy of ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide. People often confuse "race" with ethnic and cultural idetnity. When we see people who look like us, we assume that they all regard themselves as embers of the African Ethnic family; in addition to being Black. Many Africans believe that our only real struggle is to join the mythical "mainstream" as individuals. While, We as Africans, may have individual distinctions connected to religion, class nationality, etc., we must be careful not to allow these distinction to divide us in the name of service to oppressors.

Africans Of south Africa And themselves

Biko in one of his chapters he titled, "We Blacks":

"Black people under Smuts government were oppressed, but they were still men. They failed to change the system for many reasons which e shall not consider here. But he type of Black man we have today has lost his manhood. Reduced to an obliging shell, he looks with awe at the White power structure and accepts what he regards as the "inevitable position". Deep inside his anger mouths at the accumulating insult, but he vents in the wrong direction - on his fellow man in the Township, on the property of Black people.

"No longer does he trust leadership, for the 1963 mass arrests were blamable on bungling by the leadership, nor is there any to trust [Same as today under the leadership of the ANC-led government] In the privacy of is toilet, his face twists in silent condemnation of White society but brightens up in sheepish obedience as he comes out hurrying in response to his master's patient call.

"It is still said even today , although in a much more sophisticated language-[that one finds the use of racist language that is still prevalent inside South Africa and the evil and degrading comments made by White people in the Internet, as if some of us will not see this and even if we do, we will keep quite] To a large extent, the evil-doers have succeeded in producing at the output end of their machine, a kind of Black man who is man only in form. this is the extent to which the process of dehumanization has advanced."

I should point out that this is not working, and it is exacerbating the reality we see today that is lived by the Africans under the ANC, and of course, the murders of White Farmers, which I think should be stopped and a unification of South Africa should by now on its way towards becoming a reality. But at the moment, before we can deal or talk about other people or ethnic groups, we need to put our case and house tightly together.

"In the home-bound bus or train he joins the chorus that roundly condemns the White man, but is first to praise the government in the presence of the police his employers. His heart yearns for the comfort of White society and make him blame himself for not having been "educated" enough to warrant such luxury. Celebrated achievements by Whites in the field of science - which he understands only hazily - serve to make him rather convinced of the futility of resistance and to those away any hopes that change may ever come. All in all, the Black man has become a shell, a shadow of man, completely defeated, drowning in his own misery, a slave, an ox bearing the yolk of oppression with sheepish timidity."Biko)

Cultural And Educational Decapitation Of Africans In South Africa

What is really different now on what Bantu is talking about, about us, is that we have become a poor copy of what we aspire to be: White. The youth sees this as a way out of Black(African) poverty and powerlessness. They think if they speak English very well, with our quaint accents, and use new technologies, and be miseducated in our pedagogy; and yet, with this belief and misperception,they find out that they are not accepted as White people, and yet see their African people-they, the youth, recognize their own people as being backward, unsophisticated, as they have learnt from their education in the Model C School, and other such institutions of Higher Learning.

"This is the first truth, bitter it may seem, that we have to acknowledge before we can start on any program we designed to change the status quo. It becomes more necessary to see the truth as it is if you realize that the only vehicle for change are these people who have lost their personality. The first step therefore, is to make the Black man come to himself; to pump back life into his empty shell; to infuse him with pride and dignity; to remind him of his complicity in the crime of allowing himself to be misused and therefore, letting evil reign supreme in the country of his birth. This is the definition of "Black ("African") Consciousness".

"One writer makes the point that in an effort to destroy completely the structure that had been built up in the African society and to impose their imperialism with an unnerving totality to colonialists were to satisfied merely with holding a people in their grip and emptying the "Native's" brain of all form and content,they turned to the past of the oppressed peopled and distorted, disfigured and destroyed it. No longer was reference made to African culture, it became barbarism. Africa was the "dark continent".. Religious practices and customs were referred to as superstition. The history of African society was reduced to 'tribal' battles and internecine wars.

"There was no conscious migration by the people from one place of abode to another. No, it was always flight from one tyrant who wanted to defeat the "tribe", not for any positive reason, but merely to wipe them out of the face of the earth.

"No wonder the African child learns to hate his heritage in his days at school(Model C Schools, and Township Schools). So negative is the image presented to him that he tends to find solace only in close identification with White society."

Reading Biko's musings above is very important for South Africans(Africans) and other ethnic groups to begin to understand what is going on here. Before I cited Bantu, I talked about our youth who are not even reading books such as the one written by Biko, they are caught up in the technological world and its gizmos-and are arrogantly ignorant.

No doubt, therefore, part of the approach envisaged in bringing about "Black Consciousness" has to be directed to the past, to seek to rewrite the history of the Black(African) man and produce in it the heroes who come form the core of the African [Historical/cultural] background.

Biko Takes A Swipe At Technology

"Then, too, one can extract from our indigenous cultures a lot of positive attributes which should teach Westerners a lesson or two. The oneness of community for instance, is at the heart of our culture(Read my Hub on the Mpondo(Xhosa) people of the eastern Cape-already published here on HubPages). the easiness with which Africans communicate with each other is not forced by authority but is inherent in the make-up of African people.

"Thus, whereas the White family can stay in an area without knowing its neighbors, Africans develop a sense of belonging to the community within a short time of coming together. Many-a-hospital official has been confounded by the practice of Indians who bring gifts and presents to patients whose names they can hardly recall. Again, this is a manifestation of the interrelationship between man and man in the Black(African) world, as opposed to the highly impersonal world in which Whitey lives.

"These are characteristics we much not allow ourselves to lose. Their value can only be appreciated by those of us who have not as yet been made slaves to technology and the machine."

It is at this juncture that one pauses and reflects on what Biko wrote in 1972, and how this is relevant to us today. We waste time trying to outshine each other about ideologies and schools of thought and lame organizations, we have forgotten that we need to read Biko. Inasmuch as Biko is sounding terse in his criticism of us, he resuscitates our culture by pointing out to some of its pillars and highlights our culture's ability to hold its own in the word; also, Biko offers an ominous and real warning that he and his generation were not enslaved by technology and machines. ... Black Consciousness therefore seeks to give positivity in the outlook of the Black people to their problems-and elevates, and more so, raise our people, through our culture and history to a much more respectable commentary, this history of Africans, onto world human history and historiography.

Biko: "It works on the knowledge that "White hatred" is negative, though understandable, and leads to precipitate and shot-gun methods which may be disastrous for Black and White alike. ItBlack(African) Consciousness) seeks to channel the pent-up forces of the angry BlackAfrican) masses to meaningful and directional opposition basing its entire struggle on realities of the situation. It was to ensure a "singularity of purpose in the minds of Black(African) people, and to make possible total involvement of the masses in a struggle essentially theirs"."

Some have taken the 'struggle' away from the masses and into a myriad organization which are ineffective and bickering a lot. Inaction with the poor masses is one reason why this is so. Everyone who is so inclined becomes a 'fly-by-night' political talking head based on what they see and learn from Facebook, Twitter and the like(You can check out my Hub I wrote on the Twitter, published here on HubPages). Yet, when we read Bantu's writings, we begin to see for ourselves, without depending on some imagined leader or informer as to what Black Consciousness is about, straight from the mind and words of Bantu Biko above.

We are today , 41 years later, listing and seeing what Biko was saying. I have pointed out to the affects and effects of technological gizmos and the streaming ability that has handcuffed out youth in South Africa. They do not understand that these new ways of communication, were spoken by their seers: Biko, one of the many we have here in Mzantsi.

I reiterate, many of us just regurgitate palliatives and somnolent jabberwocky from the two sides of their mouths(presented as contemporary 'real-politik'), that they really hardly read Biko and what he has to say about Black Consciousness And What That Means or should Mean for Us African People. We claim leadership by shouting at the top of the Internet media roofs, and yet, very few hardly read what Biko meant and clearly elaborated the Black Consciousness philosophy, also, what it was intended to achieve and affect/effect the large collectives of African people. Few of us, although we will not admit it, do not have time to read him, at all.

It is also instructive for us to look at the same affects of colonization in the United States, as narrated by Akbar:

"It is important, however, for African Americans to know that many of our attitudes toward work are as a result of our slavery experiences These negative experiences associated with work continue to function as unconscious influences on us that make us respond in ways which may be contrary to our conscious intention. Awareness of these influences and their source begins to free us from their effects. Our slang, our songs, our jokes, our attitudes, transmitted from one generation to the next, preserve these retains as if they were acquired yesterday.

"The slave was permitted to own nothing or very little. Certainly, property and the finer material objects such as clothes, jewelry, etc., were reserved for the slave master. Douglas(1970) again observes:

"The yearly allowance of clothing for the slaves on this plantation consisted of two tow-linen shirts - such linen as the coarsest crash towels are made of; one pair of trousers and a jacket of woolen, most sleazily put together, for winter; one pair of yarn stockings, and one pair of shoes of the coarsest description. The slave's entire apparel could not have cost more than eight dollars per year. The allowance of food and clothing for the little children, was committed to their mothers, or to the older slave woman having care of them. Children who were unable to work in the field had neither shoes, stockings, jackets nor trousers given them,. Their clothing consisted of two coarse tow-linen shirts - - per year' and when these failed them, as they often did, they went naked until the next allowance day."

Akbar continues:

The slave master's fine house, beautiful landscaping, exquisite clothes and objects were associated with his power and status. In the same way that the slave looked upon his master with hatred and resentment, he also resented and envied the master's possessions because those possessions were associated with freedom and the power to direct one's life, family, and community.

"African Americans have the slavery influence of mixed attitudes toward material objects and property. On one hand, those objects are still associated with the master and his powers. Therefore, there is a tendency to resent property and to take a secret (unconscious) delight in attacking it. Certainly, some of pour tendencies toward vandalism and abuse of property have their origin in these experiences with property. Property is still viewed as belonging to the 'master' and not the 'slave'"

The second part of Akbar is another important observation he makes about why and how we are as we are: more specifically-why is it that we do not trust our natural leaders" We learn from Akbar that:

"Probably one of the most destructive influences which has grown out of slavery is the disrespect of African American leadership. The allegory is seen throughout nature that the most certain way to destroy life is to cut off the head.(a la Biko)

"One of the things that was systematically done during slavery was the elimination of control of any emerging "head" or leader. Slave narratives and historical accounts are full of descriptions of atrocities brought against anyone who exemplified real leadership capability. The slave holders realized that their power and control over the slaves was dependent upon the absence of any indigenous leadership among the slaves(We, also in Mzantsi can relate to what Akbar is taking about: Bantu Biko, for instance).

"The slaves were taught to view with suspicion natural leaders who emerged from among themselves. Such heads were identified as "uppity" or "arrogant" and were branded as the kind of trouble-makers who sere destined to bring trouble to the entire slave community(Biko talks about such attitudes in NUSAS, and the "overseer' role adopted by the Liberals).

"Any slave who began to emerge as a natural head, that is, one orientated toward survival of the whole body, was identified early and was either eliminated, isolated, killed, or ridiculed. In his or her place was put a leader who hd been carefully picked, trained, and tested to stand only for the master's welfare. In other words, unnatural leaders/heads were attached to the slave communities. They furthered the cause of the master and frustrated the cause of the slaves." (See the male house- slave [Played by Samuel Jackson], in the movie "Django Unchained".

We have the same situation here in South Africa. The real leaders were taken care off long before we came to this fictitious self-rule. We have quislings and turn-coats running the government lining-up their pockets with stolen loot. There is no excuse and or anything that they can justify what is happening in the country right now. The, the ANC-are perfect servants for imperial and local interest of their former detractors, and new bosses. These and Aparheid colonization and rule cannot be separated nor not talked about. Both are detrimental to the well-being and development of the Africans of south Africa, and for South Africa as a whole.

Django Unchained - The Movie

Samuel Jackson played a very convincing role of a house Negro in the Movie Django Unchained
Samuel Jackson played a very convincing role of a house Negro in the Movie Django Unchained

As can be seen in the presentation about African South African Art above, the same goes for sports. During Apartheid Africans were involved in their own sports and participated actively, and gave of their talents, freely, and to the entertainment of the oppressed masses. Unlike today, mass participation in ports is limited to certain sorting codes and plus one need to take into consideration the corruption that iis presently taking place in our country. Sports is dead amongst Africans as it used to exist. Boxing, Cricket, Tennis, , Chess clubs, well jaz clubs have evolved today; children were involved in all facets of sports; adults were taking care to promote junior leagues, in soccer, tennis tournaments; there were famous boxing stables; YMCA's full of youth and activities; and so on, and soon. A bit below in the Hub I will be dealing with soccer and soccer players during Apartheid.

If then many things are gone from our mist, then As Asa Hilliard advices:

African socialization practices served to assist communities in day-to-day operations,collective survival, interpersonal relations, and basic quality of life issues. The content of an African education and socialization process contains many components which are modified according to the specific goals and aims of a community. It includes the following parts:

1. Study of the whole heritage of the community

2. Study of the spiritual significance of everything

3. Study of the whole life of the community

4. Study of the whole environment and ecology

5. Study of how to maintain health

6. Building and understanding of MAAT(Balance) and a commitment to do MAAT(Balance)

7. Building Strong Community values

8. Building fundamental and advanced skills

9. Building strong social bonds

10. Building a strong ethnic family identity

11. Study of geopolitical and economic forces

12. Building repeat for elders

12. Building and maintaining effective maintaing systems for children

Asa adds: "Our methodology for socialization follows from the above. Bonded relationships among teachers and students are the foundation for method. Collective efforts of students, teachers, families and communities are essential. Rituals, rhythms and performances are essential. Meditation and reflection is essential. Conducting socialization in specially prepared 'sacred spaces' is essential. With all of this, critical reflection is a must.. True, Apartheid destabilized us. Also true, the ANC has bungled its opportunities for over 20 years, but we to, as an African people, should be held liable for letting ourselves be accomplices in the oppression of ourselves and our people(a la Biko)

"There is also arrogance from those patronizing Europeans who covet and embrace the ideas of European cultural nationalists, and weak African intellectuals and leaders. Well, this Hub is designed to negate and push-back on these stereotypes and set up leaders.

Art Imitating Life; Life Imitating Art- Gerard Sekoto

Song Of The Pick: An exhibition of Gerard Sekoto’s work, entitled Song for Sekoto 1913 – 2013, his life and times will be presented in celebration of the centenary of the artist’s birth. Gerard Sekoto is considered by many to be the ‘Father of South
Song Of The Pick: An exhibition of Gerard Sekoto’s work, entitled Song for Sekoto 1913 – 2013, his life and times will be presented in celebration of the centenary of the artist’s birth. Gerard Sekoto is considered by many to be the ‘Father of South

Gerard Sekoto

Song Of The Pick: An exhibition of Gerard Sekoto’s work, entitled Song for Sekoto 1913 – 2013, his life and times will be presented in celebration of the centenary of the artist’s birth. Gerard Sekoto is considered by many to be the ‘Father of South African Art’. His work has fetched extremely high values on the international art market yet in his birthplace of South Africa, he is still relatively ‘unknown’ amongst the general public. In recent years Sekoto’s local profile has been raised by the extensive efforts of author Barbara Lindop – both through the research and publication of her books on the topic, and her work in establishing and running the Gerard Sekoto Foundation. It is under these auspices that this exhibition was initiated, in order to facilitate further discovery of the excellence and depths of Sekoto’s important multi-disciplinary works. Supplemented by a personal history, documents and photographs, this showcase will allow Sekoto’s work to be considered for the first time within the tangible context of his life and the extraordinary circumstances in which he lived. Wits Arts Museum
Source/Artist: Gerard Sekoto

Artist: Dumile Feni

The geometrical lines,
The geometrical lines,

Cultural Dependency, Educational And Cultural Terrorism: A Case For Intergenerational Cultural Transmission

The cultural dependency of African people and many other ethnic groups is due to years of miseducation and the gradual loss of control of intergenerational cultural transmision. Most Africans are in deep debt. Culturally dependent people will believe, internalize and utilize anything that they are socialized to believe is correct. For this reason, Africans around the globe copy European standards of beauty. In certainAfrican countries, (Korea and some Asiatic countries), there is a crises in the number of people who bleach their skin in an effort to lighten it and look more European.

"Instead of growing food or practicing natural medical practices, that were passed on to us eons ago, we are totally dependent on others. It is ironic that those who make money on the medicine and other medical remedies today, studied and copied the practices of indigenous people around the world; the very people that they called backward. Now, instead of benefiting from the legacy of their ancestors, the descendants are dependent for medicine, food, and other things needed to survive.

"Africans have begun to internalize the views that exploiters have of us and our traditions. Many of us have become eager seekers to be educated in alien traditions, without criticism of them. For the past few centuries, the mass education that we receive in Africa and the Diaspora is rooted largely in Western European education orientation and practice.

"This condition has led to financial and political dependence. We no longer create the things that we need to survive; not food, clothing, or shelter. Even those things that we do create such as our music are under the control of others who have turned these very creativities against us. Destructive images are carried back into African communities, where the messages of uplift should be found."

In short then, dependency and lack of national autonomy has made Africans slaves to other foreign people who hold autonomy and their own brand of independence(Imperialism,etc.) over Africans. It is attempting to unshackle and free themselves fro such servitude that African writers and activists are needed to right the wrongs being perpetrated upon the billions of Africans globally.

Asa Hilliard informs us thusly:

"I was invited to present a paper at the Interdenominational Theological Seminary in Atlanta on the topic, “The Spiritual State of Black American.” I identified “12 Challenges for African People” in my response to this theme. The big picture for Africans is the same everywhere in the world, because hegemonic structures are global.

Even now, enormous power is being consolidated everywhere, with no priority on African development, e.g., The European Community (EC), North Atlantic Free Trade Association (NAFTA) and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) (GATT). Equally important is globalization in the business arena.

1. We are unconscious, with no global view of African people and no global view of successful ethnic groups. We experience ourselves as local people in a global world. Some of us experience ourselves only as individuals without any connection even to a local African community.

2. We have acute amnesia, with no valid memories or awareness of ourselves as a historical people evolving through time and spreading throughout the world. We are episodic in our experience of ourselves.

3. We are disintegrating as a people and disorganized. We have lost our solidarity. Many of us feel no bond of identity with our people.

4. We are not raising our own children. We have no systematic socialization structures for the masses of our children. They are raising themselves or they are being raised by others. We have forfeited one of the most vital functions of a people, the responsibility for intergenerational cultural transmission.

5. We have a growing loss of independent faith communities, becoming more subordinate in institutions that we do not control.

6. We have no long-range strategic goals, plans and mobilization. Without these things nothing positive will happen for us.

7. We do not have an adequate comprehension of wealth production and accumulation. Many of us make money. Few of us make wealth. Our consumption appetites make us prime sources for exploitation by others.

8. We do not have an adequate comprehension of how to nurture health and prevent illness. We do not have healthy diets. We do not monitor and control our environment. We do not have a critical orientation about these things.

9. We have no major independent, self-funded think tanks to help us to define and to resolve our problems. We do not see how successful group fund and rely upon ideas based upon research and reflection (Edwards, 1998).

10. We do not have an adequate African Centered Higher Education. Definitions, assumptions, priorities and above all our worldviews must reflect us.

11. We do not have sufficient cultural centers, movements, monuments, and celebrations to highlight important experiences and to shape directions. These things offer us the opportunity to be reflective and to develop a more firm vision of the future.

12. We have no regular independent communication capabilities, such as serious national and international periodicals to address our serious and continuing problems. This is shameful. It is not really a matter of resources. It is a matter of consciousness. Appropriate socialization will produce an appetite among the masses of our people for appropriate information.

I cannot amplify these points in the time available here. However, it should be clear that if we begin with these challenges while reflecting on our geo-political status as a people, they call for very special approaches to education/socialization, approaches that can only come from us. It should also be evident that something far beyond the common school experience is required for our children, even though most of our children will continue to attend common schools. Moreover, we must insure that this common school experience taps the genius of our children and stops disabling them through structured miseducation. Many of us rely totally on the common school experience. That will not meet our complete needs. The socialization of the masses of our children can only be done through structures that we develop and control.

Most of the 12 Challenges mentioned above are tied directly to our task of education and socialization, affecting directly the aim, methods and content of education/socialization. However, out of all of these high priority challenges, the first, becoming conscious, and the fourth, the matter of control over the education/socialization of our children are critical. Hegemonic structures were created to mis-educate enslaved and colonized people, and people who were victims of white supremacy influenced structures of domination. Indigenous and independent systems were destroyed.

Colonial and slave structures as well as apartheid and general white supremacy structures, were created, including boarding schools, to separate children from parents and communities and cultures, and especially mission schools to destroy the worldviews and to stigmatize colonized and enslaved people as savages, primitives, and pagans. The recent “culture wars” over the school curriculum is a continuation in a newer form of ideological structures of hegemony that follow the old path of separating children and communities from their traditions." (Schlesinger, 1998) (Bloom, 1987) (Ravitch, 1996) (Hirsch, 1987).

Science and Space Technology Knowledge

I am very much deeply involved in research about space technology and the Universe as a whole. Some of us think that this is a frivolous exercise for African people blah-blah/rah-rah.. Yes, this is our forte were we to learn more about its research, inform ourselves about it and add it to our educational curriculum in conscientizing Africans about the existence here on earth and in Space/universal, and so forth. Below, this perspective, is being put forth by Wilson, which helps us wake up to this knowledge, and debunk the narrow minded amongst our midst who are not interested in such information. Well, I am, and I recognize that that I live on top of the crust of the earth which is floating with other entities in the universe, and that I am affected by the universal laws and principles. I cannot pretend as if I am not affected and effected by space, time and the ever expanding universe. I have blogged a great deal about this topic and perspective, and have injected into my writing an African centered perspective.

I think Amos Wilson give us a better sense of what our education and ourselves are to be and are all about... We shall have to begin to see ourselves in this present reality and make use of this time to project and launch ourselves into the 21st century and beyond...

Dr Amos Wilson - Afrikan Education in the 21st Century

Artist: Dumisani Sibisi

Trumpet Player...
Trumpet Player...

King Kong - "The Musical" the "Song Sad Times, Bad" Times was Composed by Todd Matshikiza)

The history of South Africa's musical theater was inaugurated when the musical, An African Jazz Opera - King Kong, based on the tragic life of Black African boxer Ezekiel "King Kong" Dlamani, was premiered at the Great Hall of Witwatersrand University on February 2, 1959. Featuring the music of Todd Matshikiza and the lyrics of Pat Williams, the musical was a phenomenal success. With the members of the Manhattan Brothers and Miriam Makeba starring in the lead roles, the show toured for two-and-a-half years, including a nine-month run in London. King Kong was subsequently revived in 1979 and 1999. Much of the musical's success was due to the power of Matshikiza's compositions. The score reflected a personal statement. As a former journalist for the black magazine Drum and news editor for The Golden City Post, Matshikiza had covered Dlamani's trial for treason in the mid-'50s. His music incorporated his experiences during the trial and his views of apartheid. According to The Daily Mail & Guardian, "Matshikiza understood his central character, and, more importantly, understood the whole world that surrounded 'King Kong'. He understood the whole black world of the townships that fed Johannesburg and the histories of the people who filled those townships."

Todd Matshikiza - "Sad Time, Bad Times"

King Kong - "The Musical" the "Song Sad Times, Bad" Times

Sculpture Of Dumile Feni

The African South African-ness Of Dumile Feni's Sculpture Untitiled
The African South African-ness Of Dumile Feni's Sculpture Untitiled

African Cultural Motivation...

CULTURE ROCKS!!

This takes us back to the question Amos asked above, "What is Culture?"

"What Is Culture?" ..Horton and Hunt Provide a workable answer to this question. .."From their life experiences, a group develops a set of rules and procedures for meeting their needs, and these set of rules and procedures, together with a supporting set of ideas and values, is called culture." Clyde Kluckhon has defined culture as all the "historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational and non-rational which may exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of man."

"Dominant groups, in seeking to achieve or maintain their power over subordinate groups, are for this reason compelled in some ways to constrain, restrict, reduce, destabilize, misdirect, or destroy the family systems, and with those, the communal and cultural systems of the group they subordinate[I have touched on this issue above]. The oppression, distortion and destabilization of the African Family by the Domineering Whites which goes along with the enslavement of Africans and continues to this day.

"The cultural identity of an individual or group is the social product of a socialization process, a process in which new responses, values, perspectives and orientations are acquired and existing behavioral 'repertoires' of the individual or group are modified to some extent, as the result of his or its subjection to direct or indirect social conditioning experiences. Cultural identity also results from patterning of its modal thoughts, feelings, actions after other cultures or group who serve as models.

"... Thus, culture, though a product of the actual lived experience of a people - the primal source of much of their daily personal and social activities, their forms of labor and its products, their celebratory and ceremonial traditions, modes of dress, art and music, language and articulatory style, appetites and desires - is essentially ideological in nature based as it is on shared beliefs, customs, expectations, and values, cultural constructs, definitions, meanings and purposes. These cultural constructs are used to proactively and reactively mold the mind, body, spirit and behavior of the constituent members of the a particular culture.[This can be observed in the cultural videos above and below].

"Hence culture is does not exist outside and independent of its human subjects. Culture is represented symbolically and operationally in the mind and characteristically mental/behavioral orientations or styles of its members, and its incarnate in the customary ways they move and use their bodies[This part of the definition of culture dovetails well with the presentation of the short histories and traditional and customary practices posted in this Hub] . The culture is represented "in" the minds and bodies of tis members, and expresses itself through the systematic ways they attend, experience, categorize, classify, order, judge, evaluate, explain and interact with their world.

"Mentally, culture involves the socially shared and customary ways of thinking, a way of encoding, perceiving, experiencing, ordering, processing, communicating and behaviorally expressing information which distinguishes one cultural group from another. All these activities are dedicated to the end of adapting the culture to the consistent and changing demands of its physical and social environment and changing demands of its physical and social environment and reciprocally adapting the environment to the demands of the culture.

"Socially, culture patterns the ways its members perceive each other, relate to and interact with each other. It facilitates the ways they create, develop, organize, institutionalize and behaviorally apply their human potential in order to adapt to the conditions under which they live so as to satisfy their psychological, social and survival needs. To the degree that the shared beliefs and behavioral orientations of the members of a culture are consensually consistent, reasonable rational and realistic, are effectively and consistently socialized and reinforced, the culture is characterized by coherence, somewhat low levels of internal conflicts and contradictions, relatively smooth, automatic, coordinated operation, and thereby effectively functions in the interest of its members." If one were to watch, and read the histories of the eleven(11) people, this will give the reader/viewer a sense of how the culture of South African Africans works and manifests itself.

"It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a historical product, a social product. A culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions. A culture also manufactures social products. Some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its constituent group and individual members."(wilson)

Culture is a way of life that has been created by Man throughout history, and it is ways created people to be able to deal with the natural and real lived world with each other. South Africans like to communicate with one another, not only in language conveying ideas, thoughts and plans, but talking to each other for the sake of talking to each other, and enjoying that about their communications(Part of Ubuntu). This can be clearly seen in the videos throughout this Hub. The videos and the short histories give the reader/viewer how the Africans in South Africa project and put on display their culture for all to see.

Many people around the world, and if one were to read the comments on the YouTube Videos posted, are very much in-love with African traditional culture, and this can be discerned from their comments on these YouTube videos. It is a culture that has its own identity, style, energy and uniqueness, and is distinctly African South African. It really presents a human face to dance and music.

I will be showcasing African cultural dress and traditions below. But for now, I would like up to touch up on African soccer in South Africa, I will jot deal too much with the state of soccer today, but will provide a historical soccer timeline below.

Showcasing the Artwork Of Fikile Magadlela And Dumile Feni

The Artwork Of Fikile Magadlela
The Artwork Of Fikile Magadlela

James 'Sofasonke' Mpanza

The Father Of Soweto..
The Father Of Soweto..

James “Sofasonke” Sofasonke Mpanza, a community leader and advocate for better housing for African people living in Johannesburg’.

n March 1944 Mpanza had become disillusioned with peaceful appeals for more houses and called for a more daring approach to force the JMC to heed the subtenants’ demand for houses. Perched on a horse Mpanza led hundreds of subtenant families across t
n March 1944 Mpanza had become disillusioned with peaceful appeals for more houses and called for a more daring approach to force the JMC to heed the subtenants’ demand for houses. Perched on a horse Mpanza led hundreds of subtenant families across t

The Father Of Soweto and The Stalwart Of Orlando Pirates

This is a very difficult topic to write on about sports, culture, and race in South Africa. It is difficult because there is some serious scarcity and lack of data and information. But I think this is another topic that needs to be dealt with thoroughly, and I will try my utmost best to present my case about what I have seen transpire/or my impressions about African sport in South Africa today. When I say today, this means that to be where we are, we need to look back, and I will do so, with the hope that many African South Africans can read about the history and story of their sports, and why it is in shambles today.

The Natives Urban Areas Act of 1923 declared that blacks were temporary sojourners in urban areas and would only be permitted to reside there when employed. At the end of their working life they were to return to their homelands. The Act, intended to cover urban centres across South Africa, was rigorously applied by the Johannesburg Municipal Council JMC). It provided the JMC with a legal basis to clear the inner city of what it considered insanitary areas. Between 1924 and 1931 the JMC issued eviction orders to blacks (individuals and families) residing in inner city slum yards to vacate these areas. These were contested in the courts, who ruled the eviction orders illegal if the JMC did not provide alternative accommodation to those affected.

Early in the 1930s, with the Great Depression lifting and the mining industry revitalized, the JMC was able to raise revenue to undertake a housing programme. This resulted in the establishment of Orlando Township in 1932. Slum clearance in the inner city of Johannesburg began in earnest in 1932 and was completed in 1937, when residents of Prospect Township were relocated to Orlando.

It soon became apparent that the number of houses provided by the JMC in Orlando was inadequate to cover all slum residents forced out of the inner city. Some sought accommodation in the freehold townships of the Western Areas. These included Sophiatown, Newclare and Martindale. Others opted to sublet in Orlando, becoming subtenants. The number of subtenants grew steadily in the second half of the 1930s, increasingly sharply during World War II.

Historically, one way governments responded to a surge in the number of people migrating to the urban centres was to tighten influx control regulations. Restricting the number of people entering a township was achieved through the application of location regulations promulgated under the Native Urban Areas Act of 1923. The outbreak of World War II and the conscription whites into the army created a demand for labour that could only be met by blacks migrating to the urban areas. With influx control regulations in place, the number of blacks allowed to enter Johannesburg was restricted.

In order to attract a large pool of labour, influx control measures needed to be removed. In 1942 General Smuts' United Party UP) government passed the War Measures Act, which included the lifting of influx control regulations to meet increasing demand for labour. This allowed tens of thousands, mainly families, to migrate to the cities, and to Johannesburg in particular. Consequently, Orlando’s subtenant population grew exponentially during this period. And yet, the UP government was reluctant to build more houses to accommodate the growing number of subtenants. By the end of the war in 1945, overcrowding in Orlando had reached crisis proportions.

Typically, subtenants were relatives of resident families in Orlando, living in hastily constructed backyard shacks. The Sisulu family home in Phomolong Orlando West was one of those where relatives moved in. As Walter Sisulu recalled, his two roomed house had relatives staying with him. In this two roomed house Sisulu accommodated his uncle’s family, including his cousins. And probably in these instances tensions were rare and where they surfaced could be amicably resolved. In other cases families accommodated complete strangers, increasing the possibility of tensions and conflicts between hosts and subtenants. This gradually led to animosity between Orlando’s legitimate and legal tenants and their subtenants.

It was into this potentially explosive environment that the self styled messiah, James "Sofasonke" Mpanza made his impact. Originally from Natal, and with a history of murder, Mpanza converted while in prison. When released he became a lay preacher and leader of thousands of disgruntled subtenants in Orlando. Mpanza established the Sofasonke Party which took part in elections to the Native Advisory Board. Mpanza added his voice to the appeal for more houses to be built. When the JMC ignored these appeals, Mpanza decided to take drastic steps.

In March 1944 Mpanza had become disillusioned with peaceful appeals for more houses and called for a more daring approach to force the JMC to heed the subtenants’ demand for houses. Perched on a horse Mpanza led hundreds of subtenant families across the railway line to vacant land in what is today Orlando West. Mpanza and his followers, members of the Sofasonke Party forcibly occupied the piece of land and erected fragile structures made of sacking material. Because of the sack material used to erect the structures, the camp became known as “Masakeng”. The group, appearing belligerent and menacing, adopted the slogan “si ya o ghuba si ya o ghebula umhlaba ka maspala”. (This translates to “we are digging and we are seizing municipal land. The slogan was later adopted as a war song by Orlando Pirates, a soccer team formed in the township in 1937).

Mpanza’s action was directed at the JMC. He had hoped that the forcible occupation of land would force the JMC to undertake a housing programme and provide his supporters with accommodation. The JMC remained steadfast in its refusal to expand the township’s housing programme. However, it was the CPSA and the ANC that condemned Mpanza as an opportunist using his supporters for his own nefarious ends. Mpanza became a tyrannical administrator of the camp, collecting rent and presiding over cases to prosecute those accused of criminal offenses. The ANC and CPSA continued their condemnation of Mpanza in successive Advisory Board meetings. Mpanza responded to this criticism by threatening ANC and CPSA members with violence and at one stage locked them out of the Orlando Communal Hall, the venue for Advisory Board meetings.

Masakeng/Maplateng(Shack-shanty sprawl) was condemned as a health hazard. During winter and rainy seasons the hessian sacks used to erect the structures exposed residents to the elements. Considering that many of the families had children and infants, the mortality rate at Masakeng became unbearable. This and Mpanza’s excesses in administering justice and possible embezzlement of funds flowing from exorbitant rentals he charged residents became the hub of ANC and CPSA criticism of Soweto’s messiah.

The JMC responded more creatively to Mpanza threat. It established a site and service scheme in Moroka, attracting hundreds of home seekers. The site and service scheme was provided with water and other amenities and was laid out more neatly than Masakeng’s hastily constructed structures. And as the Moroka site and service scheme grew in popularity, hundreds left Masakeng and headed there.

Alongside Mpanza’s squatter movement others emerged in other parts of Johannesburg. In Pimville, Abel Ntoi led a group of followers who also occupied municipal land following the JMC’s reluctance to build more houses. In Newclare west of Johannesburg, yet another squatter movement emerged, demanding houses for tenants and subtenants of the freehold township. Many of those in Ntoi’s squatter movement opted for the JMC’s site and service scheme in Moroka.

The emergence and growth of sites and service schemes marked the end of squatter movements. By 1947 squatter movements had run their course and the country’s attention was drawn to the upcoming general elections in 1948. The election was contested on a number of issues, including the most desirable measures to be adopted to stem the tide of urban migration by black people. The Nationalist Party (NP) under D. F. Malan promised to bring back influx control regulations, and to tighten them and restrict the number of black people entering the urban areas. The NP emerged victorious in the elections and formed a government based on the principle of apartheid.

The apartheid government passed a number of laws, institutionalizing racial segregation. These included the Group Areas Act of 1950, which provided for the removal of “black spots” in areas adjacent to cities. It is under this piece of legislation that Sophiatown was destroyed and residents resettled in Meadowlands. In 1952 the NP government passed the Native Laws Amendment Act which prohibited rural migrants from moving to urban areas.

In the meantime, the site and service schemes proved to be more enduring than Mpanza’s Masakeng. Living conditions in the site and service schemes remained appalling. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was commissioned to draw up a plan of the type of houses that could be provided for Soweto’s population. The CSIR produced a standard design for a four-roomed house of 40 sq m, known as the 51/6 plan. The plan was implemented in Soweto from 1955, providing a serviced site and allowing occupants to erect shacks until the formal house was built. It is from these initiatives that, by the end of 1956, the townships of Tladi, Zondi, Dhlamini, Chiawelo and Senoane had been laid out. These were followed in 1957 by the establishment of new townships of Jabulani, Phiri and Naledi. Many of the temporary shelters in Moroka and Orlando were now cleared.

It is significant that the JMC (renamed the Johannesburg City Council or JCC) was dominated by the UP. The UP was reluctant to implement policies of the NP in Johannesburg, and always sought alternative ways of housing the black population under its jurisdiction. One of its strategies was to approach business to help with the provision of housing for black people in Johannesburg. It was against this backdrop that JCC’s manager for Native Affairs, W. J. P. Carr invited Sir Ernest Oppenheimer to Soweto to see the appalling conditions. He was so moved that he arranged for the mining sector to provide a £3 million loan from the mining houses for the construction of houses and as a result a massive construction programme was launched.

The Minister of Native Affairs, Dr. H. F. Verwoerd reacted angrily to these developments. Verwoerd accused Carr of failing to report that the conditions attached to a £3 million loan granted by the mining companies were not being met. But the JCC continued to administer black townships in Johannesburg independently of the central government, to the NP’s annoyance. It was only when the NP established the Native Resettlement Board (NRB) that it managed to bring some of Soweto’s townships under the jurisdiction of the central government. And for the first time in 1972, all of Soweto’s locations were brought under central government control, establishing the NP’s hegemony over the entire group of townships. Within 4 years of this development, the Soweto Revolt broke out in June 1976.

Conclusion

Squatter movements in Johannesburg’s black townships in the mid 1940s have played a key role in the development of the geographical and political landscape of the area. Yet their role has been largely overlooked. It is apparent from these developments that the impulse to seize municipal land to provide housing by residents has a historical precedent. In recent years the emergence of squatter camps or informal settlements has been widely documented. Yet, the historical origins of squatter movements remain largely unaccounted for.

Also, the burgeoning of the Township of Soweto set up what came to be known as South African soccer by various teams. Below is the Historical Timeline of soccer in south Africa.

Soccer In The Dusty Dusk - Soweto

Barefooted and Dribbling-In The Dust and At Dusk.. Soccer Is A Way Of Life Of The Poor In South Africa
Barefooted and Dribbling-In The Dust and At Dusk.. Soccer Is A Way Of Life Of The Poor In South Africa | Source

South African Soccer' s Historical Timeline

This whole Historical Timeline was taken from the South African History Online:

1862 The first documented football matches in South Africa are played in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth (between White civil servants and soldiers).

1879 Pietermaritzburg County Football Club (Whites-only) is established.1880African and Indian soccer clubs are active in Durban and Johannesburg

1882 Natal Football Association (Whites-only) is founded.

182 The Whites-only South African Football Association (later known as FASA) is formed.

1895 SAFA affiliates to the English Football Association

1896Indian football clubs come together to form the Transvaal Indian Football Association.

1897 The famous English amateur soccer team ‘Corinthians' tours South Africa (and again in 1903 and 1906).

1898 The Orange Free State Bantu Football Club tours England, becoming the first South African team to play in Europe.

1899 The team is called the ‘Kaffir Football Team’. They play 50 games in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and France. They are captained by Joseph Twayi who becomes the Treasurer of the South African Native National Congress in 1915. They are the first South African football side to tour abroad and for most opposition the first black team they played against.

1902 Durban ‘Bush Bucks' soccer club is established on an American Board mission station.The South African Indian Football Association (SAIFA) is founded in Kimberley, where a national competition for Indians — the Sam China Cup — is held.

1903 The famous English amateur soccer team ‘Corinthians' tours South Africa for a second time (first in 1897 and later in 1906).The South African Indian Football Association is formed in Kimberley.

1906 The All-White South African soccer team tours South America.Soccer case back in Court. State to appeal over group areas case at Curries.African clerks from Natal form ‘Old Natalians' at Simmer and Jack Mine, Johannesburg.

1907 The famous English amateur soccer team ‘Corinthians' tours South Africa for a third time (first in 1897, and then in 1903).

1910 The South African Football Association joins FIFA, the first association from outside of Europe to do so.The English Football Association sends an amateur representative side to tour South Africa and they only play against white sides.

1916 The Durban & District Native Football Association is established.

1920 The English Football Association sends an amateur representative side to tour South Africa and they only play against white sides.

1924 Whites only South Africa side tours Britain.

1929 The English Football Association sends an amateur representative side to tour South Africa and they only play against white sides.

1929 The Johannesburg Bantu Football Association is founded.

1931 Motherwell, a Scottish professional side, tours South Africa (and again in 1934).

1932 The South African African Football Association (SAAFA) is formed and it launches the Bakers Cup national tournament.

1933 The South African Bantu Football Association (SABFA) and the South African Coloured Football Association (SACFA) are formed.

1934 Motherwell, a Scottish professional side, tours South Africa for a second time, after an earlier visit in 1931.

1935 The Transvaal Inter-Race Soccer Board is formed by Africans, Indians, and Coloureds.The Suzman Cup, the first official inter-racial tournament between Africans, Coloureds, and Indians, is established.

1936 The Godfrey South African Challenge Cup is established

1937 Orlando Pirates football club is founded.The SAAFA's (South African African Football Association) Bakers Cup is renamed the Moroka-Baloyi Cup.

1939 The English Football Association sends an amateur representative side to tour South Africa and they only play against white sides.

1940 The Inter Race Soccer Board organizes a few games between the various racially divided soccer associations.A referee is killed by spectators at the Bantu Sports Club, Johannesburg.

1944 The African National Concress(ANC) sponsors the first soccer match at the Bantu Sports Club.

1946 The Natal Inter-Race Soccer Board is established with the help of Albert Luthuli., 1947, The soccer team Moroka Swallows is founded.

1947 White Springbok team tours Australia and New Zealand

1950 In Elisabethville, Belgian Congo, Katanga defeats the Johannesburg Bantu Football Association (8-0) in an unofficial African football championship.

1951 SAAFA (South African African Football Association), SAIFA (South African Indian Football Association) and SACFA (South African Coloured Football Association) form the anti-apartheid South African Soccer Federation (SASF).

1952 The South African Football Association (SAFA) (representing Whites) is re-admitted to Federaton of International Footbal Associations (FIFA).

1953 The Durban & District African Football Association wins the Rhodes Centenary tournament in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).Big Inter-Race soccer match to be played on Sunday (SA Police vs Tongaat

)1955 Topper Brown, a British coach, leads Natal Africans to victory in both the Moroka-Baloyi Cup and the Natal Inter-Race Singh Cup.

1955 White Springbok team tours Australia

1956 The English Football Association sends an amateur representative side to tour South Africa.

1956 Minister of the Interior, T. E. Donges, articulates the first apartheid sport policy.The South African Football Association (SAFA) changes its name to the Football Association of Southern Africa (FASA) and, due to pressure from FIFA, deletes the racist exclusionary clause from its constitution. **Stephen “Kalamazoo” Mokone** and David Julius become the first Black South Africans to sign professional contracts in Europe, with Cardiff City and Sporting Lisbon respectively.

1958 The South African Bantu Football Association (SABFA) affiliates with the Football Association of Southern Africa (FASA).Darius Dhlomo joins Stephen Mokone at Heracles in the Dutch professional league.The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) officially recognizes the Football Association of South Africa (FASA) as the sole governing body of soccer in South Africa.

1959 The National Football League (NFL) is launched as the country's first entirely professional club league. It is reserved for Whites.May, Orlando Stadium opens.

1960 The Confederation of African Football (CAF) expels South Africa.South African Women's football starts.

1961 FIFA suspends the Football Association of South Africa (FASA).FASA includes some Black players within its structure. African, Indian, and Coloured officials in the anti-apartheid South African Soccer Federation (SASF) form the anti-racist professional South African Soccer League (SASL). SABFA (the South African Bantu Football Association) launches a National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), which shuts down the following year.

1962 Eleven fans die at Jeppe Station, Johannesburg, following a Moroka Swallows — Orlando Pirates derby at Natalspruit.10,000 spectators in Maseru (Lesotho, then Basotholand) watch the Whites-only Germiston Callies defeat the Black Pirates (3-1).Orlando Pirates Women's Football Club and Mother City Girls are among the first (short-lived) Black women's football teams.

1963 The FIFA executive lifts the Football Association of South Africa's (FASA) suspension. FASA announces it will send an all-White team to the 1966 World Cup, and an all-Black team to the 1970 World Cup. FIFA president Stanley Rous gets FASA temporarily reinstated in 1963, but FASA is again suspended in 1964. It is expelled from FIFA in 1976.

1964 FASA's (Football Association of South Africa) suspension is re-imposed by the FIFA Congress.The Federation leadership is persecuted, arrested, or banned.Avalon Athletic win the SASL (South African Soccer League) double (League and Cup titles).Eric “Scara” Sono, Jomo Sono’s father, dies in a car crash at the age of 27.The Pretoria Sundowns soccer team is revived.

1965 Moroka Swallows win their first national championship (SASL - South African Soccer League).Leeds United winger Albert “Hurry-Hurry” Johanneson becomes the first Black South African (indeed the first Black ever) to play in an English FA Cup final (against Liverpool).

1966 The anti-racist SASL (South African Soccer League) folds due to lack of playing grounds.

1969 The Apartheid regime cancels a match between White champions Highlands Park and Orlando Pirates in Mbabane, Swaziland. The racist Football Association of South Africa's (FASA) reputation and international standing is seriously damaged as FIFA had sanctioned the match.The South African Soccer Federation forms a six-team professional league.

1969/70 African clubs are instructed to deregister Coloured and Indian players. Orlando Pirates, with 4 Coloureds and 1 Indian, defied the ruling. The team was expelled from National Professional Soccer League (NPSL). They, along with Witbank Black Aces, opted to join the Amateur League, the Johannesburg Bantu Football Association (JBFA). South Africa is expelled from the Olympic Movement.

1971The National Professional Soccer League (NPSL) launches the Keg League (later renamed Castle League), sponsored by South African Breweries. Pirates returns to the NPSL. Coloured and Indian players are not allowed to take part in the NPSA still. Bernard “Dancing Shoes” Hartze, one of the Coloured affected by the ruling joins Cape Spurs.Kaizer Motaung's All-Star XI is renamed Kaizer Chiefs.

1972 Bernard “Dancing Shoes” Hartze (Cape Town Spurs, Federation Professional league) sets a South African record for a single season goal-scoring average: 35 goals in 16 matches.” July, The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) informs the non-racial South African Soccer Federation (SASF), led by Mr. Norman Middleton, that its application for membership arrived too late to be placed before the next congress of FIFA in August. FIFA also clarifies that the White Football Association of South Africa had not been suspended for contravening its rules but because of South African Government policy. Acceptance of FIFA would have meant expulsion of FASA (Football Association of South Africa).August, The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) executive gives special permission to the Football Association of South Africa to have overseas teams participate in the South African Games in Pretoria in 1973, asking for assurance that Blacks would be allowed to watch the games. (South Africa has friends in the FIFA executive; its position in the FIFA Congress is weak. Congress approval was not necessary for the above special permission and the matter was not mentioned at the FIFA Congress in Paris.)

1973 26 January, The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) announced, after a postal ballot of the executive committee, to allow foreign teams to go to South Africa to participate in the South African Games in March.11 February, The Federation of International Football Associations (FIFA) withdraws the special permission it had given to amateur football teams to take part in the South African Games to be held in Pretoria in March-April 1973, when it becomes clear that FASA is planning separate teams for different ethnic groups. FIFA had temporarily lifted suspension on the Football Association of South Africa (FASA) on the understanding that the Games would be multi-racial.25 May, The Minister of Sport and Recreation, Dr. P.G.J. Koornhof, announces in the House of Assembly that the Government had given approval “for the staging in 1974 of an open national soccer tournament in which the different South African nations can participate on a multinational basis. This is that a South African representative white team, a South African representative Coloured team, a South African representative Indian team and a South African representative Zulu, Xhosa or any other Bantu (sic) national team can compete in the tournament.”A Whites-only team beats a Blacks-only team twice in the “multi-national” South African Games (4-0; 3-1) at the Rand Stadium, Johannesburg.

1974 A Whites-only team defeats a Blacks-only team (2-0) in the Embassy Multinational Series at the Rand Stadium.3 June, Mr. Norman Middleton, president of the South African Soccer Federation, is refused a passport to attend a meeting of the International Football Federation (FINA) in Frankfurt on 11 June. He had refused to give an undertaking to the Minister of the Interior that he would do nothing to harm South African sport at the Frankfurt meeting. He said he considered the issue of a conditional passport to be “blackmail.”14 October, The Minister of Sport, Dr. Piet Koornhof, says in the House of Assembly that the Government's aim is to move away from discrimination in sport, disclosing that a “champion of champions” soccer tournament would be held, probably in February: “White and non-White clubs could take part”. Further, he invites the major cricketing bodies for round table talks on their problems. He confirms that a Black boxer would meet a White boxer for the South African championship. Under specific questioning, he replied that the Coloured Proteas could play against the Rugby Springboks any time.6 November, The executive committee of the International Football Federation (FIFA) rejects an Ethiopian proposal to expel South Africa. It decides that the matter can be dealt with only at the next congress, during the Olympic Games in Montreal,in 1976. South Africa remains suspended, meaning that foreign players, not teams, can still be imported to South Africa. FIFA decides to send a delegation to South Africa early in 1975 to investigate conditions.

1975 Cape Town-based Hellenic (White) claim the Chevrolet Champion of Champions by defeating Kaizer Chiefs (5-2 on aggregate). The final was played obver two legs. Hellenic won the first leg 4-0 in Cape Town. Chiefs won the return leg 2-1 at the Rand Stadium in Johannesburg. It was considered the first win of an African soccer team over a white team.

1976 South Africa is formally expelled from FIFA.The Football Council of South Africa is formed, chaired by George Thabe.Keith Broad joins Orlando Pirates and becomes the first white player to sign for a black team.

1977 The National Football League (NFL) folds.SABC-TV makes its first broadcast of a South African football match.1978 Wits University stuns Kaizer Chiefs (3-2) in the first Mainstay Cup final.

1978 July, A Uruguayan universities soccer team arrives in South Africa for a five match tour.

1979 Keith Broad joins Orlando Pirates and becomes the first white player to sign for a black teamKaizer Chiefs sign a major sponsorship deal with Premier Milling Company.

1981 SABC-TV makes its first live broadcast of a South African football match.1983For the first time, commercial sponsorships of soccer exceed R1 million.Jomo Sono buys Highlands Park, an historically White club in Pretoria and renames it Jomo Cosmos. This move by Sono signals growing Black power in South African soccer.

1985Unity talks between the Federation and Football Council break down. The Breakaway National Soccer League (NSL) is launched in accordance with anti-apartheid principles.A split within Orlando Pirates turns violent a “rebel” official is stabbed on the pitch at Ellis Park in front of a national TV audience.

1988ANC representatives meet with National Soccer League (NSL) and Federation officials in Lusaka to discuss “unity” and the role of soccer in the struggle against apartheid.

1989The First National Bank stadium, capacity 76 000, opens at Soccer City (NASREC), between Johannesburg and Soweto.

1991January, 41 fans die in a melee during a Pirates — Chiefs friendly at Oppenheimer Stadium, Orkney. 8 December, Four historically divided and entirely separate bodies unite and found the non-racial South African Football Association (SAFA) in Durban.Mluleki George serves as the interim Chairman for the first year of the existence of the Association.

1992 Professor Lesole Gadinabokao becomes the first president of SAFA, serving from 1992 to 1994.3 July, The South African Football Association (SAFA) is accepted back into FIFA. Domestic soccer is reorganized along non-racial, democratic principles.SAFA receives a standing ovation at the Confederation of African Football's congress of 1992 in Dakar.

1992 7 July, South Africa re-enters international football by hosting its first fully representative international soccer match at King's Park Stadium. The South African national team, later known as Bafana Bafana (the Boys), defeats Cameroon 1-0.

1994 10 May, Hours after his presidential inauguration, Nelson Mandela attends, with 80,000 spectators at Ellis Park, Johannesburg, the South Africa — Zambia soccer match (2-1).Solomon 'Sticks' Morewa becomes the second president of SAFA since its formation.1995Orlando Pirates win African Champions' Cup.

1996 South Africa hosts the African Cup of Nations. They go on to become champions of Africa after beating Tunisia (2-0) at First National Bank stadium.The Premier Soccer League (PSL) is established.The Pickard Commission of inquiry highlights corruption and mismanagement of top-flight soccer.

1997mBafana Bafana qualifies for the World Cup finals for the first time with a 1-0 victory over Congo at First National Bank stadium. Manning Rangers crowned the first PSL champions.Dr. Oliphant becomes the third president of SAFA since its formation.May, South African Football Players Union (SAFPU) is founded.

1998 Bafana Bafana appears in their second African Nations Cup, making it through to the final where they lost 2-0 to Egypt.Bafana Bafana participates for the first time in the FIFA World Cup in France. Mamelodi Sundowns crowned PSL champions for the first time.

1999 Ajax Amsterdam and Seven Stars launch Ajax Cape Town joint venture.Bafana Bafana record its first win over European opposition by beating Sweden 1 - 0.Mamelodi Sundowns crowned PSL champions for the second time.

2000 February, The game between the Bafana Bafana and Algeria ends in a 1-all tie.Bafana Bafana reach the semi-finals of the African Nations Cup, where they were beaten by NigeriaMamelodi Sundowns crowned PSL champions for the third time.

2001 43 fans die in a crush at Ellis Park during an Orlando Pirates — Kaizer Chiefs derby.Orlando Pirates crowned PSL champions for the first time.

2002 Bafana Bafana participates for the second time in the FIFA World Cup in Korea and Japan.Cape Town-based team, Santos crowned PSL champions for the first time.

2003 Orlando Pirates crowned PSL champions for the second time.

2004 15 May, South Africa is awarded the right to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Kaizer Chiefs crowned PSL champions for the first time.

2005 Kaizer Chiefs crowned PSL champions for the second time.

2006 Mamelodi Sundowns crowned PSL champions for the fourth time.

2007 Mamelodi Sundowns crowned PSL champions for the fifth timeJune, PSL becomes the richest league in Africa after signing a R1.6-billion broadcast deal with SuperSport International.

2008 SuperSport United crowned PSL champions for the first time.

2009 14 - 28 June, Fifa Confederations Cup takes place in South Africa.

2010South Africa hosts the 2010 FIFA World Cup. It is the first time in the tournament’s history that it was hosted by a country on the African continent. South Africa was knocked out in the group stages of the competition.

2011 South Africa’s men’s soccer teams fail to qualify for major competitions in 2010. The Under 23 soccer team failed to qualify for the 2012 Olympics to be held in London. The men’s soccer team failed to qualify for the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations.Banyana Banyana, South Africa Women’s Soccer Team, qualifies for the 2012 London Olympics

2012 Orlando Pirates, founded in 1937, celebrates its 75th anniversary; Moroka Swallows, founded in 1937 and Pirates’ traditional rivals, celebrates its 65th anniversary,

Aparthied Under Siege: FIFA Bans South Africa From World Dup

Pressure On Apartheid In The International Level And Also this was in recent protest against Occupation Of the West Bank
Pressure On Apartheid In The International Level And Also this was in recent protest against Occupation Of the West Bank | Source

How soccer Defeated Apartheid

We learn the following from South African History Online:

On 15 May 2004 in Zurich, Switzerland, Joseph (Sepp) Blatter, president of FIFA, world soccer's governing body, made an historic announcement: South Africa would host the 2010 World Cup. Nelson Mandela wept tears of joy: “I feel like a young man of 15,” he told the audience in Zurich. In South Africa, people of all races erupted in simultaneous, raucous celebration of the much-anticipated announcement.

The socio-historical significance of the game in South Africa is not a recent phenomenon, as the impressive growth of football over time clearly demonstrates. The first documented matches took place in 1862 between White civil servants and soldiers in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. Organised football among Whites originated in Natal, but eventually British ideas about race, class, gender, and empire led to the appropriation of rugby and cricket by Whites, and football and boxing by Blacks. Between the 1880s and 1910s, African, Indian, and Coloured football associations and leagues developed in Kimberley, Durban, Johannesburg, and Cape Town, as well as in the elite mission schools. The game was fun, cheap, and relatively simple. It offered excitement, unpredictability, and new adventures; sport created popular discourse and generated emotional attachment. The ‘intrinsic value' of football provided valuable entertainment and granted temporary relief from police harassment and grinding poverty. The inter-war years signaled the dawn of a new era in South African football.

The Bakers Cup (established in 1932), the Suzman Cup (1935), and the Godfrey South African Challenge Cup (1936) were new national competitions that electrified crowds of 5 000 to 10 000 people in Johannesburg and Durban. Tours by professional clubs from Britain added to the enormous excitement, an atmosphere sustained by popular discourse and improving sports coverage in the Black press. Matches between Indians, Africans, and Coloureds also became more frequent and popular. During this time, the inherited institution of British football was increasingly transformed to suit local customs and traditions, a process of Africanisation that embraced religious specialists and magic, various rituals of spectatorship as well as indigenous playing styles.

The formation of popular teams such as Orlando Pirates (1937) and Moroka Swallows (1947) and rising attendance at Black soccer matches in Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town in the late 1930s and 1940s stemmed primarily from the dramatic increase in the number of Africans migrating to cities to find work in the war-driven manufacturing expansion. Football became an enjoyable part of the daily lives of youth residing in the burgeoning squatter camps. It gave meaning to people's lives. It fostered friendships and camaraderie among team members and fans.

The principle of ‘advancement by merit' that underlies sport, helped transform football into a field of action where Black South Africans could seek greater social visibility, status, and prestige than was afforded in the segregated South African society. Male-dominated football teams, contests, and organisations enabled those who were denied basic human rights to adapt to industrial conditions, to cope with urban migration, and to build alternative institutions and networks on a local, regional, and national scale. The game could both reinforce and omit divisions based on race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, and gender, and thus served as a mobilising force for neighborhood, township, and political organisations. Football humanized the lives of South Africans and brought joy to people with little else to cheer about.

After the Second World War and the rise of apartheid, football's mass popularity brought it into close contact with formal resistance politics. In the 1950s and 1960s, the daunting obstacles faced by African footballers in securing playing fields from hostile White authorities created a new space for contesting, negotiating, and shaping capitalist and colonial attempts to impose strict controls over workers' lives. In 1951 Africans, Coloureds, and Indians came together to form the South African Soccer Federation, which opposed apartheid in sport. From 1961 to 1966 the anti-racist South African Soccer League demonstrated that racially integrated professional soccer was hugely popular. Avalon Athletic, Cape Ramblers, Pirates, and Swallows were among the most successful sides, while players such as Dharam Mohan, Conrad Stuurman, Scara Sono, and Difference Mbanya became township heroes. Supporters' Clubs formed around the country, with women playing an active role. (Women's football started in the early 1960s, but gained acceptance only after the end of apartheid.) Politically, the sport boycott movement that played an important role in the fall of apartheid relied heavily on the support of football players, fans, and organizations. It is important to note that football sanctions were among the very first international indictments of the apartheid regime.

Isolated from world football from 1961 to 1992 (with a one-year reprieve in 1963), South Africa maintained tenuous links with the major changes that revolutionised world football in the 1970s and 80s. Inside South Africa, television sparked soccer's commercial boom. Sponsorships increased substantially and top players began to earn a living wage. Cracks in the edifice of apartheid emerged in the mid-1980s. Leading soccer officials Kaizer Motaung (founder in 1971 of Kaizer Chiefs, the country's most popular team), Abdul Bhamjee, and Cyril Kobus formed the National Soccer League (NSL).

Breaking ties with its predecessor, the National Professional Soccer League (controlled by George Thabe), the NSL adopted nonracial principles and backed the sport boycott movement. Beginning in the late 1980s, as the ANC and the National Party laid the foundations for a negotiated end to apartheid, antagonistic football associations discussed the formation of a single, nonracial controlling body. This ‘unity' process accelerated in the late 1980s and led to the creation, in December 1991, of an integrated South African Football Association (SAFA). With this development, FIFA welcomed South Africa back into world soccer on 3 July 1992.

On 7 July 1992, at Durban's King's Park stadium, South Africa played its first official international contest in three decades. An integrated national team, nicknamed Bafana Bafana (Zulu for ‘The Boys'), defeated Cameroon 1-0, thanks to a Doctor Khumalo penalty kick. Nelson Mandela acknowledged the magnetic power of the game when he attended a match between South Africa and Zambia at a sold-out Ellis Park stadium in Johannesburg just hours after his presidential inauguration on 10 May 1994. On 3 February 1996, South Africa won the African Nations' Cup by defeating Tunisia (2-0) before a delirious home crowd of 90,000 people at FNB Stadium, Soccer City.

In 1998 Bafana Bafana participated in the World Cup finals for the first time. By 2003-04 there were 1,8 million registered players and corporate sponsorships reached more than R640 million. Without question, football in the ‘new' South Africa is a powerful economic, cultural, and political force.

Nichola Griffin wrote the following article:

"Imagine an alternate reality of the United States in the 1960s, where the collective experience of the political elite had been formed in all-black baseball leagues. The country is led by President Jackie Robinson, Vice President Satchel Paige, and Secretary of State Willie Mays. Sounds crazy? Replace baseball with soccer, and you've got South Africa, a country that has given new meaning to "political football."

Much attention has been paid to President Nelson Mandela's role in South Africa's 1995 Rugby World Cup triumph, captured in the film Invictus. But Sean Jacobs, a Cape Town native, historian, and author, describes that tournament as "a blip" in South Africa's history of racial conflict. "The real story," he says, "is soccer."

And the real story begins several miles from the site of Cape Town's swanky new stadium -- on Robben Island, which will be clearly visible to billions of TV viewers as they tune in to this month's World Cup. The island prison colony was home to thousands of South Africa's political prisoners during the apartheid era. Of the men who played in the prison's soccer league, an astonishing number would go on to become important figures in shaping post-apartheid South Africa.

Their ranks include current President Jacob Zuma, opposition leader and former Defense Minister "Terror" Lekota, Minister of Human Settlements "Tokyo" Sexwale, and Kgalema Motlanthe, who completed former President Thabo Mbeki's second term. Mandela never participated; he watched the early games from an isolation block until the authorities built a wall to obstruct his view. Zuma had the distinction of doubling as a referee. Leave it to a future president to play one weekend and arbitrate the next.

More Than Just A Game, written by Chuck Korr and Marvin Close, revealed that Robben Island's inmates had two favorite books from the shelves of the prison library: Karl Marx's Das Kapital, and Denis Howell's Soccer Refereeing. After years of steadfast petitioning, prison authorities finally agreed in 1967 to let the inmates establish their own soccer league, the Makana Football Association. The prisoners spent their weekdays breaking rocks in the quarry, but two hours of every Saturday were reserved for soccer matches. Sunday evening was for talking about the game, Monday to Wednesday for dealing with breaches of rules, and Thursday and Friday for choosing squads and strategizing. The thought process among the players, according to Jacobs, was: "If we can run a league in these extreme conditions, then maybe we can run a country."

The Afrikaner officials of the apartheid regime never embraced soccer. They loved rugby and cricket and funded those sports generously, but saw soccer as a game for Africans. At first, they ignored the sport -- then they began to ban some matches. In April 1963, at the Natalspruit Sports Ground in Johannesburg, authorities locked the gates and left a note saying the day's games had been canceled. Fifteen thousand supporters scaled the gates, carrying an extra pair of goal posts to replace a set that had been removed. The matches went ahead.

The government would later try a new tack, organizing an annual match between black and white players. The plan, however, backfired: It merely emphasized the inequitable and racist nature of the country's political system. The matches did, however, succeed in undermining the apartheid regime in crucial ways. In 1976, the government allowed a mixed-race team to play against a visiting Argentine squad in Johannesburg. Black and white South Africans lined up together on the pitch, though the stands were still segregated. The home team won 5-0, including a hat trick for a then unknown black player named Jomo Sono. When he scored against Argentina, his teammates, black and white, did what teammates have always done: hugged and shook hands. This feel-good victory was overshadowed only a few weeks later, however, when approximately 500 black South Africans were killed in the Soweto uprising -- including Ariel Kgongoane, a prominent player for the Kaizer Chiefs.

Apartheid's opponents quickly seized on the potential of using soccer to rally support and raise funds. The African National Congress (ANC), then a banned underground movement, quickly realized that wherever there was soccer, there was a crowd. Political meetings suffered a blanket ban from 1976 onward, but it was far harder to prevent several members of a political party from sitting together in the stands, amid thousands. Zuma, for instance, would emerge from hiding to attend the matches of the Zulu Royals and confer with other politicians. And it's no coincidence that when Zuma returned from exile in Zambia in 1993, his first residence was at the home of the owner of the Orlando Pirates, one of the largest soccer teams in South Africa.

By the 1980s, activists commonly organized themselves into soccer squads to confound the regime. They could travel easily across international borders, and matches represented a valuable source of money for underground anti-apartheid organizations. Peter Alegi, a historian and author of African Soccerscapes, told me that as early as 1944, the revenue from soccer matches was being handed over to the ANC. Patson Banda, a former player for the Orlando Pirates, remembers one game that was played across the border in Zimbabwe in front of more than 100,000 paying fans. Again, the ANC received the proceeds collected at the gate.

Soccer kept countering apartheid -- white teams knew that to test themselves they had to play against the black teams, and unofficial games became more and more common. The truth became obvious: The white league was second class. Few were surprised at its collapse in 1977. Sono, when he returned from his lucrative stint alongside Pelé in the New York Cosmos, made a very political statement in 1982 apartheid South Africa -- he bought the white soccer powerhouse, Highlands Park.

By the late 1980s, soccer matches were at center stage of the country's rapidly evolving politics. ANC flags, which were still banned, were seen openly in soccer stadiums, a sign of the regime's weakening grip on power. In 1991, South Africa's current soccer federation was founded. During its inaugural meeting, it made the astonishing assertion that its formation was "only natural ... as the sport of soccer had long led the way into breaking the tight grip of racial oppression." It was an audacious statement, even dangerous, as the fall of apartheid was still a more than two years away.

While the national squad arrived with a bang on the international scene, winning the Africa Cup of Nations in 1996 and qualifying for two World Cups, 2010 finds them with a much weaker squad. Their best players have followed the money to Europe and back at home, the national soccer federation has only been able to organize friendly matches against second-tier countries in the run-up to their day in the sun. The general feeling, according to Mninawa Ntloko, the sports editor of South Africa's Business Day, is that while blacks supported the rugby victory in 1995, the favor has not yet been returned.

Despite South Africa's progress, much work remains to be done before soccer is truly a sport that bridges the country's pernicious racial divide. The national team, Bafana Bafana, or "the Boys" in Zulu, has only one white player. While the Cape Town stadium was built in a white part of town, its heart is still four miles offshore, on Robben Island. The World Cup stands will likely be a portrait of racial diversity, as fans come from far and wide to watch the games, but most matches in South Africa's local leagues are still black-only affairs.

However, with the World Cup, some think the tide might finally be turning. "I'm beginning to see it now. Just in this last month," says Ntloko. "You see white children in Bafana Bafana shirts."

As the 2010 World Cup kicks off, there has been a great deal of speculation about whether the tournament will make South Africa rich. In monetary terms, the answer is resoundingly no. The hosts build the infrastructure, but it is FIFA, soccer's international governing body, that reaps the profits from television and sponsorship rights. Still, the tournament will be invaluable for other, less tangible, reasons. It will provide South Africans with an opportunity to reflect on how far their country has come from the days of apartheid, and the work that remains to be done. Even with apartheid dead and gone, the story of soccer still lies at the heart of South African politics."

I would also like to add an article written by Peter Wonacott about:

Apartheid-Era Players Reflect on South Africa's Game (Ntando Ncube contributed to this article)

JOHANNESBURG—Jomo Sono, known as the Black Prince of South African soccer, was part of a generation of stars whose skin color barred them from playing for their national team. In 1977, he left his apartheid-riven country to play with the likes of Pelé of Brazil and Germany's Franz Beckenbauer on the New York Cosmos.

Mr. Sono bristled then over South Africa's racist policies, but today he is convinced that the pressure cooker of poverty, oppression and competition that apartheid created forced him to lift his game. "It made us stronger," the 55-year-old said in an interview.

The result was a trove of multiracial talent that South Africa probably hasn't seen since, say former players and current soccer administrators. "They played like people possessed," says Morio Sanyane, spokesman for the South African Football Association. "It was an exceptional era."

In the soul-searching that has followed South Africa's first-round elimination from the 2010 World Cup, the first host nation to suffer such a fate, several retired soccer players are hearkening back to the days of apartheid, when the sport was played widely by people of all colors, separately at first and then increasingly together as barriers fell, uniting them on the field even as the nation's race-based laws kept them apart off it.

During apartheid, soccer was popular across racial groups, but South Africa was banned from international competition because of its racially segregated government policies. Today, with the country hosting the World Cup, soccer's popularity is on the wane, largely confined to black townships, while elite and mostly white schools remain the preserve of rugby and cricket.

Debate now centers on how to revive the same broad participation in a new era. That elite soccer is now largely confined to black townships needs to change, says Ephraim "Shakes" Mashaba, who is South Africa's newly appointed "Under 23" head coach and also a former apartheid-era soccer star. "What we have to deal with is a question of attitudes. It's time to open the doors," he says.

Some believe the recent surge in support of the World Cup, and the mixed results of the national team, could force a turning point. Despite bowing out of the World Cup with a win over France, South Africa's national team has slipped far down the global rankings. Before the tournament, it was ranked 83rd in the world, compared with 19th in 1996, the year it won the African Cup of Nations.

This year, it wouldn't have qualified for the World Cup if it hadn't been the host. The team is looking for a new coach after Carlos Alberto Parreira, from Brazil, stepped down, but several former apartheid-era players say change needs to begin at the bottom.

"Many people don't want to accept that the standard of play has declined, but it has declined, tremendously," says Essop "Smiley" Moosa, who now coaches disadvantaged kids.

The 58-year-old Mr. Moosa is a rarity these days—someone of Indian descent involved in South African soccer. When he broke onto the scene in the early 1970s, Mr. Moosa played in a separate league for "coloreds" and Indians. Because of his ball-handling skills and light complexion, he was recruited to join a white team. After his first game, though, league administrators took a closer look at the person playing under the name Arthur Williams. They expelled him.

Through much of the 1960s, black and white soccer spectators were forced to sit apart in stadiums. In the rare events that teams of different color played each other, fights among fans often broke out after games, former players say.

Then in 1976, South Africa tried something different. Soccer authorities formed one team of black and white all-stars who trounced an Argentine team 5-0. Mr. Sono, the Black Prince, scored four of the goals.

To those on the South African team, the match was an affirmation of how competitive play had become. "When they put us together, we could beat any side," says Rodney Kitchin, the team's captain.

Others saw the game as a political stunt aimed at lifting suspension by FIFA, soccer's global governing body. "They were trying to hoodwink the rest of the world," says Joe Latakgomo, author of "Mzansi Magic" a history of South African soccer.

In any case, the multiracial soccer experiment was short-lived. A few months later, in June 1976, young people in the black township of Soweto took to the streets to protest apartheid. A police crackdown left more than 20 dead. FIFA expelled South Africa, and the flow of international players to the country slowed to a trickle.

The only teams that stayed financially afloat were those in the black league who were supported by a raucous fan base. The best nonblack players joined up with these teams, while many others left the sport.

Today, white players face obstacles if they want to stick with soccer, according to Matthew Booth, the lone white member of South Africa's national soccer team. The black-owned professional teams haven't effectively reached out beyond their support base, he says, while mostly white schools pressure students into playing rugby and cricket.

"A lot of schools don't want to offer soccer," he says. "It's very wrong. It's robbing the country of talent."

A spokesman for South Africa's Department of Basic Education says the choice of sports is left to the school's governing board. "The government has no say over this," he said.

The euphoria around South Africa's hosting the World Cup has provided momentum for a revamp, stoking interest in the game among a young generation and rekindling support among those who have long since left the sport. Apartheid-era star Zachariah Lamola—such a quick thinker on the field that he was called "the Computer"—says he is ready to help out where he can. "If you look at where we are today, it shows how the sport can bring us together," he says, "despite politicians pulling us apart."


Moroka Swallows - (The Birds)

Source
Moroka Swallows today
Moroka Swallows today

The Story And History Of Moroka Swallows

Don't follow me. Follow the Birds!

Part 1: The First decade (1947 - 1957)

With 60 years of greatness being celebrated this year, but no official history book detailing the epic journey, the management of Moroka Swallows together with Volkswagen, the official sponsor of the club, have decided that it is time to document the history and, in so doing, honour the pioneers of this great club, Moroka Swallows.

For 60 years, the story of Moroka Swallows FC has lived in the hearts and minds of its founding fathers and loyal supporters. Tales shared among old friends over dinner, fond memories revisited over a couple of drinks and warm laughter have ensured that the roots of this club have remained strong.

While there can be no better place for this marvellous history to live than in the souls of its custodians, it is now time for the next generation of Moroka Swallows supporters to learn about their proud heritage. For the first time, the oral history of this famous club will become a written history.

Moroka Swallows has entrusted Soccer-Laduma to tell the story and we will make every effort to do right by everyone who has made Moroka Swallows what it is today. However, as we piece together the Moroka Swallows story, we encourage Swallows supporters and Soccer-Laduma readers to let us know of their own stories and experiences that have helped shape the history of the Beautiful Birds.

The Originators

When we came across one of the founding fathers of Moroka Swallows, Strike Makgatho, seated on a tiny bench in his backyard in Naledi, Soweto, he seemed tired and ready for an afternoon nap. However, his eyes lit up when we sounded him out on a subject close to his heart, Moroka Swallows FC.

Born in 1922, in Bolobedu, Pietersburg, Makgatho moved to Alexandra Township, where he played football for Alexandra Rangers, before relocating to Masakeng, Moroka in 1946.

"Football was my life. I've been in love with the game from the tender age of eight. I wanted to unearth talent and watch the youngsters displaying their skills, and I was ready to spend every last cent I owned on that vision," says the proud looking 85-year-old Makgatho.

"Ja, those were the days, but things have not been all smooth sailing for Moroka Swallows. Like real birds, we weathered many a storm."

Makgatho, a taxi business man by then, used his own money to finance the team.

"We didn't buy our kit from the sport shops, our kit was tailor-made, and the first ball that we used belonged to the late Jerimiah, Ntsimbi Gumede," Makgatho remembers.

But before there was any kit, before the supporters came to love Moroka Swallows, before a name for the team was even picked, there was just a vision.

How the dream was born

The sight of a group of boys kicking a tennis ball around is very common in the townships of South Africa. This was what the late Johnny 'Walker' Kubeka, Ishmael Lesolang and Strike Makgatho would always see when passing by the shacks of the shantytown known as Moroka Jabavu in Soweto.

Makgatho concurs, "Everywhere we looked, we saw a barefoot boy juggling with a tennis ball or playing in a game on the streets."

This is why and how Moroka Swallows was born in 1947. Yes, 60 years ago, because of the passion that flowed through the veins of every young boy ever to kick a ball, and the joy it gave to those boys during a period in South Africa's history where there was not too much to be happy about, a decision was taken to form a team to harness this passion and give it a stage. Those behind its formation, Strike Makgatho and company, could not have predicted that they were about to give birth to what would become one of the country’s foremost teams.

How Swallows got its name

The trio began the process of handpicking the young boys who would mature into fine young players and put the side on the map. One of those young boys was Carlton Moloi, whom they first spotted displaying some fancy footwork in a pair of knickerbockers! Once there were enough boys to make up a full team, they left it to the boys to find a name for the team they were forming. Though some claim the name of the team was decided by the toss of a coin, the very same Carlton Moloi tells Soccer-Laduma otherwise, “Someone came up with the name "Sweepers" and it was almost accepted but then somebody came up with "Swallows".

He argued Swallows that fly higher and conquer further than homely Sweepers. The argument was so convincing that the name "Moroka Swallows" came to stay.

Getting a game:<

With the name decided and the boys raring to go, game time was needed. Not being registered for any league in those early days meant that the first games played by Moroka Swallows were in the alleys and side streets of Moroka. They would turn out against any team that wanted a game, even though at that stage many of them had to play barefoot.

"We just went to the Moroka Jabavu Township Ground and took every chance of a game that was offered. We got most of our game time substituting for clubs that failed to turn up for their league matches," says Carlton Moloi.

The first league campaign

In 1947, this group of unknown young boys who called themselves Moroka Swallows began their first league campaign in the Moroka Jabavu League. Soccer administrators at the time dismissed the team as one-game wonders and didn't think the team would last the season.

Many fans who had heard about the exciting style of the team and some who had seen the team play exhibition games believed that what they were seeing was too good to last. But Swallows were soon to show all their detractors that they were for real and swiftly became the most feared team in the league. Having dispatched local opposition such as Rockville Hungry Lions, Mighty Greens, Rangers and Moroka Naughty Boys, the young Moroka Swallows team joined the Orlando Football Association to meet stiffer opposition.

Soccer Amongst The Poor African South Africans

Schildren keeping soccer alive in the dusty streets of the Townships
Schildren keeping soccer alive in the dusty streets of the Townships | Source

Orlando Pirates

The 1997/98 - It was the second season of the newly formed Premier Soccer League (PSL). Mamelodi Sundowns finished on top with 68 points scoring 48 goals and conceding 25 while runners up Kaizer Chiefs had 63 points scoring 52 goals and conceding 35
The 1997/98 - It was the second season of the newly formed Premier Soccer League (PSL). Mamelodi Sundowns finished on top with 68 points scoring 48 goals and conceding 25 while runners up Kaizer Chiefs had 63 points scoring 52 goals and conceding 35 | Source

Kaizer Chiefs 1970(The caption below was translated from German by google)

A name that sounds like a good riff. Young Leeds does no mistake in his puiquant peudo. An Indian head emblem (it looks like a t-shirt Happy Drivers actually). Too many chiefs not enough indians (see Burning Heads). Orange and black colors for the Du
A name that sounds like a good riff. Young Leeds does no mistake in his puiquant peudo. An Indian head emblem (it looks like a t-shirt Happy Drivers actually). Too many chiefs not enough indians (see Burning Heads). Orange and black colors for the Du
Kaizer Chiefs today
Kaizer Chiefs today

How Soccer Defeated Apartheid

Imagine an alternate reality of the United States in the 1960s, where the collective experience of the political elite had been formed in all-black baseball leagues. The country is led by President Jackie Robinson, Vice President Satchel Paige, and Secretary of State Willie Mays. Sounds crazy? Replace baseball with soccer, and you've got South Africa, a country that has given new meaning to "political football."

Much attention has been paid to President Nelson Mandela's role in South Africa's 1995 Rugby World Cup triumph, captured in the film 'Invictus'. But Sean Jacobs, a Cape Town native, historian, and author, describes that tournament as "a blip" in South Africa's history of racial conflict. "The real story," he says, "is soccer."

And the real story begins several miles from the site of Cape Town's swanky new stadium -- on Robben Island, which will be clearly visible to billions of TV viewers as they tune in to this month's World Cup. The island prison colony was home to thousands of South Africa's political prisoners during the apartheid era. Of the men who played in the prison's soccer league, an astonishing number would go on to become important figures in shaping post-apartheid South Africa.

Their ranks include current President Jacob Zuma, opposition leader and former Defense Minister "Terror" Lekota, Minister of Human Settlements "Tokyo" Sexwale, and Kgalema Motlanthe, who completed former President Thabo Mbeki's second term. Mandela never participated; he watched the early games from an isolation block until the authorities built a wall to obstruct his view. Zuma had the distinction of doubling as a referee. Leave it to a future president to play one weekend and arbitrate the next.

'More Than Just A Game', written by Chuck Korr and Marvin Close, revealed that Robben Island's inmates had two favorite books from the shelves of the prison library: Karl Marx's Das Kapital, and Denis Howell'sSoccer Refereeing. After years of steadfast petitioning, prison authorities finally agreed in 1967 to let the inmates establish their own soccer league, the Makana Football Association. The prisoners spent their weekdays breaking rocks in the quarry, but two hours of every Saturday were reserved for soccer matches. Sunday evening was for talking about the game, Monday to Wednesday for dealing with breaches of rules, and Thursday and Friday for choosing squads and strategizing. The thought process among the players, according to Jacobs, was: "If we can run a league in these extreme conditions, then maybe we can run a country."

The Afrikaner officials of the apartheid regime never embraced soccer. They loved rugby and cricket and funded those sports generously, but saw soccer as a game for Africans. At first, they ignored the sport -- then they began to ban some matches. In April 1963, at the Natalspruit Sports Ground in Johannesburg, authorities locked the gates and left a note saying the day's games had been canceled. Fifteen thousand supporters scaled the gates, carrying an extra pair of goal posts to replace a set that had been removed. The matches went ahead.

The government would later try a new tack, organizing an annual match between black and white players. The plan, however, backfired: It merely emphasized the inequitable and racist nature of the country's political system. The matches did, however, succeed in undermining the apartheid regime in crucial ways. In 1976, the government allowed a mixed-race team to play against a visiting Argentine squad in Johannesburg. Black and white South Africans lined up together on the pitch, though the stands were still segregated. The home team won 5-0, including a hat trick for a then unknown black player named Jomo Sono. When he scored against Argentina, his teammates, black and white, did what teammates have always done: hugged and shook hands. This feel-good victory was overshadowed only a few weeks later, however, when approximately 500 black South Africans were killed in the Soweto uprising -- including Ariel Kgongoane, a prominent player for the Kaizer Chiefs.

Apartheid's opponents quickly seized on the potential of using soccer to rally support and raise funds. The African National Congress (ANC), then a banned underground movement, quickly realized that wherever there was soccer, there was a crowd. Political meetings suffered a blanket ban from 1976 onward, but it was far harder to prevent several members of a political party from sitting together in the stands, amid thousands. Zuma, for instance, would emerge from hiding to attend the matches of the Zulu Royals and confer with other politicians. And it's no coincidence that when Zuma returned from exile in Zambia in 1993, his first residence was at the home of the owner of the Orlando Pirates, one of the largest soccer teams in South Africa.

By the 1980s, activists commonly organized themselves into soccer squads to confound the regime. They could travel easily across international borders, and matches represented a valuable source of money for underground anti-apartheid organizations. Peter Alegi, a historian and author of African Soccerscapes, told me that as early as 1944, the revenue from soccer matches was being handed over to the ANC. Patson Banda, a former player for the Orlando Pirates, remembers one game that was played across the border in Zimbabwe in front of more than 100,000 paying fans. Again, the ANC received the proceeds collected at the gate.

Soccer kept countering apartheid -- white teams knew that to test themselves they had to play against the black teams, and unofficial games became more and more common. The truth became obvious: The white league was second class. Few were surprised at its collapse in 1977. Sono, when he returned from his lucrative stint alongside Pelé in the New York Cosmos, made a very political statement in 1982 apartheid South Africa -- he bought the white soccer powerhouse, Highlands Park.

By the late 1980s, soccer matches were at center stage of the country's rapidly evolving politics. ANC flags, which were still banned, were seen openly in soccer stadiums, a sign of the regime's weakening grip on power. In 1991, South Africa's current soccer federation was founded. During its inaugural meeting, it made the astonishing assertion that its formation was "only natural ... as the sport of soccer had long led the way into breaking the tight grip of racial oppression." It was an audacious statement, even dangerous, as the fall of apartheid was still a more than two years away.

While the national squad arrived with a bang on the international scene, winning the Africa Cup of Nations in 1996 and qualifying for two World Cups, 2010 finds them with a much weaker squad. Their best players have followed the money to Europe and back at home, the national soccer federation has only been able to organize friendly matches against second-tier countries in the run-up to their day in the sun. The general feeling, according to Mninawa Ntloko, the sports editor of South Africa's Business Day, is that while blacks supported the rugby victory in 1995, the favor has not yet been returned.

Despite South Africa's progress, much work remains to be done before soccer is truly a sport that bridges the country's pernicious racial divide. The national team, Bafana Bafana, or "the Boys" in Zulu, has only one white player. While the Cape Town stadium was built in a white part of town, its heart is still four miles offshore, on Robben Island. The World Cup stands will likely be a portrait of racial diversity, as fans come from far and wide to watch the games, but most matches in South Africa's local leagues are still black-only affairs.

However, with the World Cup, some think the tide might finally be turning. "I'm beginning to see it now. Just in this last month," says Ntloko. "You see white children in Bafana Bafana shirts."

As the 2010 World Cup kicks off, there has been a great deal of speculation about whether the tournament will make South Africa rich. In monetary terms, the answer is resoundingly no. The hosts build the infrastructure, but it is FIFA, soccer's international governing body, that reaps the profits from television and sponsorship rights. Still, the tournament will be invaluable for other, less tangible, reasons. It will provide South Africans with an opportunity to reflect on how far their country has come from the days of apartheid, and the work that remains to be done. Even with apartheid dead and gone, the story of soccer still lies at the heart of South African politics.

Orland Pirates F.C.: Amabhakabhaka~ Sea Robbers

Celebrating the all conquering Orlando Pirates side that lifted the Mainstay Cup, the Benson and Hedges, Sales House Champ of Champs and BP Top Eight trophies back in the eighties. Can you pick out any of the following big names: Eric Chippa Chauke,
Celebrating the all conquering Orlando Pirates side that lifted the Mainstay Cup, the Benson and Hedges, Sales House Champ of Champs and BP Top Eight trophies back in the eighties. Can you pick out any of the following big names: Eric Chippa Chauke,
Orlando Pirates Today
Orlando Pirates Today

Building the House of Pirates (1937-59)

The young boys who came together to form a soccer team 70 years ago at the Orlando Boys Club, could not have foreseen the impact their actions would have on South Africa for years to come.

The boys barely in their teens came from families that had been uprooted from Johannesburg and relocated to Orlando Township. Learning the rudiments of football at school, they found a supporter in the boxing instructor at the Boys Club.

Andries ‘Pele Pele’ Mkhwanazi, was a man who could recognise soccer talent when he saw it so as a result encouraged the formation of the team in 1937.

A year later, the youthful team was already competing in a minor division of Johannesburg Bantu Football Association (JBFA). They played most of their games at the Waterval grounds in Sophia town, where they turned up wearing a variety of shirts and kit.

In1939, the young team broke away from the Boys Club, alleging that Phillip Mashego had stolen the money they had collected to purchase a set of playing shirts, a social worker that ran the Orlando Boys Club.

The youth reconvened at House No. 4503, in Orlando, the home of ‘Pele Pele’ Mkhwanazi. A strong authoritarian, he commanded he youth boys’ respect, and they relied especially when they went solo. One of these boys, Isaac ‘Rock of London’ Mothei, recalled years later that ‘Pele Pele’ dubbed them ‘amapirates’ after they left the Boys Club. Inspired By the Popular pirates’ movies of the time, they settled on the name ‘Pirates’. Armed with their fears name, but still without colours, the young club made rapid progress in the Saturday League Division Two of the JBFA, playing at the Wemmer Parking Grounds in the city.

It was here, in 1940, while the world was at war, that another influential figure entered the lives of the young Pirates players. This is where Bethuel Mokgosinyana, a so-called ‘social worker’ who was widely respected in Orlando for his philanthropy, discovered them. It was he who presented the boys with their first kit.

Mokgosinyana was an enthusiastic footballer and had played for a team called Phiri Phiri earlier in his days. When he took the boys under his control he gave them Phiri’s old jersey, which had a big ’P’ inscribed in front. (Pirates’ skull and crossbones logo only appeared 10 years later, and then only as a badge for black blazers. An eager supporter first produced it for general consumption; Rankus Mapgisa began a silkscreen printing business in his backyard in1959).

Mokgosinyana was not considered to be educated nor wealthy, but his roots were deeply entrenched in the Africa culture and uBantu. He had worked his way up to what was called a position of ‘Induna’ at the factory, and later acquired his own butchery. He was also a skilled carpenter and built a room in his backyard in Orlando, that later became the Pirates’ clubhouse. A place were the boys gathered to play cards, kick a ball around, gym and hang out. On Wednesday nights they held formal team talks at the clubhouse and on Fridays, before matches, they ‘camped’ there, and slept on the floor.

The team won promotion to Division One of the JBFA at the end of 1944. To gain promotion, Pirates, as winners of the Saturday League, had to beat their opposite number in the Sunday League- the champions of the elite division. This team was African Morning Stars, a strong, predominantly coloured side from Sophia town. Morning Stars included in their team member of the notorious ‘American’ gang. The match played at Wemmer, is remembered as a brutal goalless draw. Pirates won the replay 2-1. After the game the young players were attacked and beaten. Pirates lodged a complaint with the League but nothing came of it. JBFA officials lived in New Clare and Sophia town at the time and Pirates suspected that their rivals were favoured. This was the beginning of a violent rivalry between the two sides. The result, however, meant Pirates arrived in the ‘big time’ in 1945. The JBFA’s Sunday League was the elite division and attracted the most spectators, as it was a free day for workers.

Besides Morning Stars, other big rivals of Pirates at the time were Pimville Champions. This intense rivalry related to the two clubs’ positions as the leading side of the two oldest townships in the South West. Pirates’ arrivals in the Sunday League added an edge to this rivalry. But Morning Stars remained the big enemy and the dilemma between the two sides continued. After another ‘battle’- and another unheeded complaint- Pirates quit the JBFA.

Pirates then helped to establish the Orlando African Football Association, hoping that the Youth Field today known as Orlando Stadium. But, finding the opposition weak, they returned to the JBFA, leaving behind their second team, the Sea Robbers, to represent their interests in Orlando. They stay in the JBFA was again very short and it was followed by a few years of ‘freelancing’ as an unaffiliated club. They competed with a wide range of clubs on a friendly basis and they shared the gate takings 50/50.Pirates also ‘flirted; with the JBFA’s rivals, the Johannesburg African Football Association (JBFA), which was run by Dan Twala also known as Mr. Soccer.

JBFA was an independent association, whereas the JBFA was controlled by the city council. JBFA’s principles stand against white officialdom meant they always had to struggle for access to grounds, but their stand won the favour of the most players and clubs.

In 1950, Pirates won the country’s top cup competition, the SA Robertson Cup, a JBFA-run tournament that was staged in the opening months of each year. They beat their old rivals Morning Stars in the 1950 Final, winning 3-2 in front of 10 000 spectators in a replay at the Bantu Sports Ground, after a hard-fought goalless draw.

Scara Sono - 1962

The Man Who Helped Build Pirates and The Legendary Scara Sono in BUCS uniform-He was Also the Father of Jomo Sono
The Man Who Helped Build Pirates and The Legendary Scara Sono in BUCS uniform-He was Also the Father of Jomo Sono

Jomo Sono....

The Greatest Soccer Player ever...
The Greatest Soccer Player ever...

A Short History On Jomo Sono..

He is affectionately known as Jomo, but his teammates and opponents used to call him “The Troublemaker” during his playing days at Orlando Pirates.

Sono used his dribbling skills and pace to torment defenders, and earned himself the nickname “Jomo” which simply means “burning spear”.

Playing for Orlando Pirates at a young age, Sono’s ability to take on defenders made him one of the most fearful players in South African football, and indeed a match winner.

Was Jomo really that good? Would he have made the list of Goal’s 50 best players in the whole world?

Goal speaks to two of the most respected defenders in South African football in Shakes Mashaba and Neil Tovey about how great Jomo was as a player.

Tovey was still at Durban City when he faced Jomo Sono playing for the Buccaneers, and this is what he had to say about “The Troublemaker”:

“He had the ability to control the tempo of the game. He was a dribbling wizard with pace and ability to score goals. Jomo was very accurate with his passes.

“You wouldn’t mark Jomo alone as a defender. He would make a fool out of you, even two defenders found it hard to contain him. I would give him 10 out of a possible 10, because he deserved it,” said Tovey.

He won every trophy with the Buccaneers and every fan would undoubtedly agree that Jomo was the man responsible for Pirates’ success until he left the club in 1977.

Jomo made the number 10 jersey famous in Mzansi’s football, and a lot of players wished to play like him and even more, play in the same team with him.

Former Moroka Swallows hard-tackling defender Ephraim “Shakes” Mashaba shares his views on the kind of player Jomo Sono was.

“He was a fantastic player all-round. He could dribble past all defenders and score. He would have probably made it in Europe. I rated him very highly as a player, and for that I would give him 10/10,” said Mashaba.

This is where he earned himself the nickname “The Black Prince” by his fellow teammates for his magical touches and outstanding performance.

Unfortunately, Sono’s scintillating performance was not recognized at national team level due to apartheid activities in South Africa, but he had a chance to move to North America where he played in the same team with Pele in 1977.

South Africa was blessed with talented players such as Nelson “Teenage” Dladla, Computer Lamola and Ace Ntsoelengoe back in the days, but these players would certainly agree that Jomo Sono was the best.

Although he wasn’t a regular starter in his first season in the USA, Jomo never disappointed whenever given a chance.

His failure to move to Europe, and prove himself against the best in the world is a disadvantage, because the majority of the best players are judged by their performances in Europe, as well as in the national team.

However, a lot of former players and fans who witnessed Jomo play, believe that he would have probably been at a world class level if he was exposed to a variety of opportunities, and the fact that he proved himself outside the country speaks volumes.

Percy "Chippa" Moloi

Percy Chippa Moloi on the Left...
Percy Chippa Moloi on the Left...

The following year, 1951, Pirates formally joined JBFA. For many years, the JBFA was considered stronger in terms of the football on show, but during the 1950s the balance swung in favour of JBFA, which was supposedly better organised, hosted the most prestigious tournaments and pulled the biggest crowds. One of Pirates founder and member, centre forward Sam ‘Baboon Shepherd’ Shabangu recalled, “At first there was no enjoyment playing in JBFA. They were too weak and brought our standard down. We taught them to play…”

Shabangu was one of many survivors from the core of youths that had founded the team in the late 1930s. Others were: Willard’Ndoda’ Msomi, Pat Nxumalo, Jerry Sibiya, M. Modisane, Elliot ‘Buick’ Buthelezi, Steve Mpshe, Z. Ramela, Jimmy ‘Hitler’ Sobi, Isaac ‘Rocks of London’ Mothei, Alex ‘Mr. Motto’ Tshabalala, Lucas ‘Ace’ Buthelezi and lastly the goalkeeper Andrew ‘Hassie’ Bassie.

In 1915, Pirates retained the prestigious SA Robertson Cup, beating CV Rangers 3-0 in a replay after a 2-2 draw. They continued their domination of the Cup, winning it again in 1952, a year in which they completed a clean sweep of all competitions they entered, including JBFA’s League and the Transvaal Challenge Cup. The 1952 final were against Moonlight Darkies from Alexandra, a team comprised of some of the best players of various clubs that had not entered the SA Robertson. With no cup- tie rules in place, Pirates themselves were able to field a guest player in the Final- none other than the legendary Difference Mbanya of Moroka Swallows. Mbanya played in place of the stalwart Jimmy ‘Hitler’ Sobi and set up the winner by back-heeling the ball for young Sidney ‘Ladies Man’ Mabuza to score the winner.

In 1953, Darkies and Pirates again met in the final, which Pirates won in extra-time. After that, the competition was never staged again- it was as if everyone else had given up. Pirates were so powerful, that they beat the top team in the JBFA, Naughty Boys, 7-0 with a hat trick from Shabangu.

By 1954, the original Pirates line-up was growing old and newer players were now the stars, like the abovementioned Mabuza and forward Jerry Mazibuko. The team’s stalwart was now Willard ‘Ndoda’ Msomi, a strong halfback who frequently represented the JBFA and other representative sides. Shabangu, ‘Buick’ Buthelezi and Steve Mpshe also survived from the original group.

Moroka Swallows, also known as Corrugated Rovers in those days, were now rising as a force. By 1955, they were good enough to trounce Pirates 5-0 in the Transvaal Challenge Cup Final, a match marred by crowd violence. Pirates were JAFA League champions in 1955 and 1956, while Swallows reversed the order in 1957 and 1958, before Pirates again finished top in 1959, completing a double when they won the Transvaal Challenge Cup.

The evolved star of the Buccaneers, a young talented young boy well known as Eric ‘Scara’ Sono. Not only was the face of Pirates changing, but football as well was in transition to ‘professional league, the South African Soccer League. Though they were certainly the country’s most popular club, Pirates never won this League, always being beaten by powerful Durban teams like Avalon Athletic or their rivals, Moroka Swallows.

B) 1961- THE PHANTOM SPLIT

In 1961, largely through Eric ‘Scara’ Sono’s introduced a coloured personality descended on the Orlando Pirates scene: David ‘Oom Day’ Motsamai, a successful bootlegger, who provided kit and transport for them. Through his arrival, the house of Pirates was to be transformed radically.

Pirates continued to operate under the benevolent rule of the ‘presser’, Bethuel Mokgosinyana, with senior players holding office on the club’s executive committee and even representing Pirates at association level. However, to make space for Motsamai, the position of ‘patron’ was created.

In Motsamai’s mind and in the minds of many around him, this position was all-powerful and its authority exceeded all other. By standards of that time, Motsamai was a wealthy man and was known to have sponsored the fees of the players who attended high school. He had a strong personality and often would radiate robust self-assertiveness, he was forever telling the story of his life without being shy about it. It was not easy to build a judicious relationship with him and he was very likeable.

‘Oom Day’, as those in his camp popularly knew him, had been a newspaper vendor for the ANC as a young man, selling the New Age. He had been an amateur cycle racing champion and soccer player in his hometown of Brandfort in the Free State. He was also a tailor and when he arrived in Sophiatown in the 1940’s, he started a business as a pavement tailor. He later began selling soft goods and clothing, pedalling his bicycle to the affluent Northen Surburbs of Johannesburg where his customers were employed as domestic workers.

Motsamai later got married to a pretty shebeen queen known as Elizabeth ‘Babes’ Shub. The devastating forced removals by the apartheid government in Sophiatown, causes his family to relocate to Dube Village in Soweto, where they built themselves a big and beautiful house.

The success of Motsamai attractive Pirates so much, also taking in to account that he was a boxing promoter trading as The Passing Show Promotion. The club’s name extended far and wide as it played against other high profile clubs all over the Transvaal, other provinces and even in neighbouring states. These boys experienced victory after victory.

The perceived split that was consideration to have resulted in the birth of Black Pirates was fiction. There never was a split, although the question of whether or not to affiliate to National Professional Soccer League was a hot topic at the time. This was never the reason for the collision course that Dave Motsamai and Orlando Pirates Football Club found themselves on.

During 1961-Motsamai’s tenure as a patron – Pirates campaigned in friendly games. Towards the end of that year, there was a strong rumour that he intended forming his own club. Although, unconfirmed, it was also rumoured that he had lost all hope that he would ever gain control of Orlando Pirates.

The extent of his leadership had stretched no further than the 1961 programme of friendlies and there were no prospects in sight the Mokgosinyana’s authority would be withdrawn by the ‘electorate’, the players. The respect of the players for Mokgosiyana showed no sign of disappearing. Motsamai then resorted, it is said, to negotiate to purchase Spes Bona and its status in SA Bantu Football Association owned League and in this regard, he targeted Pirates’ fourth division which had in its ranks schoolboys players Dingaan Phakati, Kaizer Motaung and the Khoza twins.

On one momentous Saturday, it was decided at a meeting of the club’s first division that they suspend and proceed to residence of Motsamai, not for an explanation but to demand from him any club property and funds which were in his possession and to sever al connections with him.

Piled into three cars they drove to the Motsamai house. He was at home at that time when they raided his house and demanded from him the club’s property .The transaction completed, the players departed and left for good. A few weeks later, Motsamai formed his own club and named it Black Pirates. The players who remained with him-some briefly-were Ishmael ‘Shakes’ Moloi, Willard ‘Ndoda’ Msomi,’Buick Buthelezi, Timothy Mahlaba, Leslie Damons and Allfred ‘Sugar’ Motale.

Back at Mokgosinyana’s house, the rest of the players addressed the issue of their next affiliation. Generally, it was decided to apply for membership of the SA Soccer League. The assistance of David Nkosi,president of the Orlando African FA and a member of the Transvaal working committee with Dan Twala, Freddie Feldman, Rashid Garda, Lucas ‘Look around’ Khoza and Roger ‘Dinga’ Shishi was enlisted.

Jerry Modibedi was elected club chairman, Reggie Nkosi, secretary and Reggiie Segwai assistant secretary. Mokgosinyana remained as president, in an honorary capacity. Before this, he had presided over all meetings, while Isaac Mothei was secretary (in addition to being one of the secretaries of JAFA) and Peter Lempe had been treasurer.

C) 1968/69 - HOW KAIZER MOTAUNG LEFT PIRATES

In 1961, largely through Eric ‘Scara’ Sono’s introduced a coloured personality descended on the Orlando Pirates scene: David ‘Oom Day’ Motsamai, a successful bootlegger, who provided kit and transport for them. Through his arrival, the house of Pirates was to be transformed radically.

Pirates continued to operate under the benevolent rule of the ‘presser’, Bethuel Mokgosinyana, with senior players holding office on the club’s executive committee and even representing Pirates at association level. However, to make space for Motsamai, the position of ‘patron’ was created.

In Motsamai’s mind and in the minds of many around him, this position was all-powerful and its authority exceeded all other. By standards of that time, Motsamai was a wealthy man and was known to have sponsored the fees of the players who attended high school. He had a strong personality and often would radiate robust self-assertiveness, he was forever telling the story of his life without being shy about it. It was not easy to build a judicious relationship with him and he was very likeable.

‘Oom Day’, as those in his camp popularly knew him, had been a newspaper vendor for the ANC as a young man, selling the New Age. He had been an amateur cycle racing champion and soccer player in his hometown of Brandfort in the Free State. He was also a tailor and when he arrived in Sophiatown in the 1940’s, he started a business as a pavement tailor. He later began selling soft goods and clothing, pedalling his bicycle to the affluent Northen Surburbs of Johannesburg where his customers were employed as domestic workers.

Motsamai later got married to a pretty shebeen queen known as Elizabeth ‘Babes’ Shub. The devastating forced removals by the apartheid government in Sophiatown, causes his family to relocate to Dube Village in Soweto, where they built themselves a big and beautiful house.

The success of Motsamai attractive Pirates so much, also taking in to account that he was a boxing promoter trading as The Passing Show Promotion. The club’s name extended far and wide as it played against other high profile clubs all over the Transvaal, other provinces and even in neighbouring states. These boys experienced victory after victory.

The perceived split that was consideration to have resulted in the birth of Black Pirates was fiction. There never was a split, although the question of whether or not to affiliate to National Professional Soccer League was a hot topic at the time. This was never the reason for the collision course that Dave Motsamai and Orlando Pirates Football Club found themselves on.

During 1961-Motsamai’s tenure as a patron – Pirates campaigned in friendly games. Towards the end of that year, there was a strong rumour that he intended forming his own club. Although, unconfirmed, it was also rumoured that he had lost all hope that he would ever gain control of Orlando Pirates.

The extent of his leadership had stretched no further than the 1961 programme of friendlies and there were no prospects in sight the Mokgosinyana’s authority would be withdrawn by the ‘electorate’, the players. The respect of the players for Mokgosiyana showed no sign of disappearing. Motsamai then resorted, it is said, to negotiate to purchase Spes Bona and its status in SA Bantu Football Association owned League and in this regard, he targeted Pirates’ fourth division which had in its ranks schoolboys players Dingaan Phakati, Kaizer Motaung and the Khoza twins.

On one momentous Saturday, it was decided at a meeting of the club’s first division that they suspend and proceed to residence of Motsamai, not for an explanation but to demand from him any club property and funds which were in his possession and to sever al connections with him.

Piled into three cars they drove to the Motsamai house. He was at home at that time when they raided his house and demanded from him the club’s property .The transaction completed, the players departed and left for good. A few weeks later, Motsamai formed his own club and named it Black Pirates. The players who remained with him-some briefly-were Ishmael ‘Shakes’ Moloi, Willard ‘Ndoda’ Msomi,’Buick Buthelezi, Timothy Mahlaba, Leslie Damons and Allfred ‘Sugar’ Motale.

Back at Mokgosinyana’s house, the rest of the players addressed the issue of their next affiliation. Generally, it was decided to apply for membership of the SA Soccer League. The assistance of David Nkosi,president of the Orlando African FA and a member of the Transvaal working committee with Dan Twala, Freddie Feldman, Rashid Garda, Lucas ‘Look around’ Khoza and Roger ‘Dinga’ Shishi was enlisted.

Jerry Modibedi was elected club chairman, Reggie Nkosi, secretary and Reggiie Segwai assistant secretary. Mokgosinyana remained as president, in an honorary capacity. Before this, he had presided over all meetings, while Isaac Mothei was secretary (in addition to being one of the secretaries of JAFA) and Peter Lempe had been treasurer.

Kaizer "Chincha Guluva" Motaung

Kaizer "Chincha Guluva" Motaung - Adorning his early Chiefs Skipper after he left Orlando Pirates, and formed Chiefs, along with Ewert Nene, who was subsequently killed for recruiting Teenage Dladla, and in the end Teenage became Chief's Mega-super S
Kaizer "Chincha Guluva" Motaung - Adorning his early Chiefs Skipper after he left Orlando Pirates, and formed Chiefs, along with Ewert Nene, who was subsequently killed for recruiting Teenage Dladla, and in the end Teenage became Chief's Mega-super S

In the late 1960s, the two most powerful clubs in the country were Orlando Pirates and Highlands Park, the latter then campaigning as Highlands Power in the all-white National Football League. Ezim'nyana were wreaking havoc during this period, although frequently forced to ‘freelance’ this was due to the lack of league activity. Fans continued to thrill to the combination of Percy ‘Chippa Chippa’ Moloi, Alfred’ From Russia with love’ Jacobs, the Khoza twins, Bernard ‘Dancing Shoes’ Hartze, Rashid Khan, Ralph ‘Ndabazabantu’ Hendricks, Hans Moses and Gerard van der Haar.

Across the Atlantic, one of Pirates’ favourite sons, Kaizer Motaung, was setting the North American Soccer League alight. Playing in the ranks of the Atalnta Chiefs in the USA, Motaung had acquitted himself well in his first season, 1968. He was leading goal scorer for his club and he was adjudged as The Rookie of the Year.

Meanwhile, the kingdom of Swaziland had just completed building its new Somhlolo National Stadium. The official opening was set for 30 August 1968, as the kingdom was to celebrate its independence from Britain.

It had been debated whether the game between Orlando Pirates and Highlanders Park be staged as part of the celebrations and as the occasion at which the stadium was to be officially opened and handed over to the nation. The prime mover behind the idea was Prince Mfanfili Dlamini, a staunch supporter of the Buccaneers. When approached the two clubs officially were fascinated and the interest of the fans of this game in southern Africa was captured. There was no known objection to the proposal from the football-inclined section of white society. The white English Press was as impressive as the black Press.

Agreement was reached among the negotiating parties in terms of which club was to receive a handsome appearance fee, plus basic costs and they were to be accommodated in one of Swziland’s foremost hotels. Football fans had arranged to travel to that country for the game in thousands, the kingdom being a favoured tourist destination for South Africans.

Although their club’s first team was not affiliated to the NPSL the Buccaneers were a member of the JBFA and even on the latter account it needed the prior approval of the South African Bantu Football Association, which had not been sought yet.

SABFA and its president Bethuel Morolo no doubt felt snubbed and undermined and consequently adopted a standpoint that Pirates should not be permitted to play against Highlands Park as planned. In addition, it was their contention that if white teams were not allowed to take on black teams in South Africa in any pretext because it was against the law to do so, it would make a mockery of that operative law if they were allowed in and the big match was decisively threatened.

To say thousands of soccer followers were disappointed would be an understatement; Pirates and Highlands Park were resentful. After all, they’d been deprived of substantial income. Soccer had been kicked in the teeth.

By this time, SABFA had exhibited an attitude against Orlando Pirates this thus raised suspicions campaign against the club. They now began to bring pressure on Pirates to abandon its non-black African players on grounds that had nothing to do with sports.

The government and the city Council’s Sports and Recreation section colluded to put pressure on the club and the players concerned. The first steps were to enforce certain provisions of the apartheid laws. Under threat of disciplinary action, the players and club had no choice but to succumb. Thus the multi-racial Bhakabhaka squad of 1966-68 was brought to grief. Around this time, in Meadowlands and Diepkloof, had first priority for the use of the stadium.

In the soccer context, that policy placed the Resettlement FA- a combination of the Meadowlands and Diepkloof FAs-in a position of strength. The Executive committee of the JBFA, particularly its general secretary, Ephraim ‘Shakes’ Tshabalala, were vigorously trying to persuade the board to rule that control over the Meadowlands Stadium and the rest of the sport grounds in Meadowlands and Diepkloof vested in the association. While the board empathised with their views, it preferred that the two associations negotiate to co-operation and unification. In the interim, the status quo was to remain.

Again, the first division of Orlando Pirates had wanted to resume its so-called membership of JBFA and continued freelancing. The SABFA and JBFA had rebuffed the idea, mainly because they were taking steps to resuscitate the NPSL and were hoping to force Pirates into the professional fold.

The club had just emerged from a sensational internal development. During the course of the short Christmas recess in 1968, Percy Moloi received an invitation from one of Mbabane’s leading clubs to feature in their team as a guest player-coach. Alan ‘Chain Puller’ Chiyi, Thomas ‘Zero my Hero’ Johnson, Ratha ‘Jimmy Greaves’ Maokgoatlheng and Edward ‘Msomi’ Khoza had accepted a similar invitation from Zero’s close friend Pete Sebone, at Gaborone United of Botswana. But while the Percy Moloi episode had come and gone without repercussion; the other four players faced a different consequence. In both cases the players had undertaken their missions without the prior approval of the club- in the Gaborone case, team manager Ewert Nene, who was riding the crest of a wave of popular supportive of the players. Some quarters in the club saw red. The matter was brought before midweek ‘general meeting’ at the DOCC YMCA. The Ladies Committee attended in full force, as did the players, except Ewart Nene excused himself. Long after the meeting was supposed to started, chairmen Mike Tseka and the general supposed to secretary, Jimmy Sojane, had still not arrived. Inside the hall, tension was rising. A supporter rose and exclaimed that the assistant secretary, Salthiel Choechoe, was present and that he should take the chair. The entire house roared in one voice “Black Power!” which was one of Choechoe’s nicknames and enthusiastically he was grateful. Treasure of the supporters, Clarence Mlokoti, served as a minute secretary of the meeting.

Esther Mtshali, a veteran campaigner, led the attack against Nene and allegations of dereliction of the duty were levelled at him. Tikkie Khoza stated the four players had acted in a manner, which disrespect the club. He enthused that Nene be expelled and the players suspended. The suspensions were later converted to exclusion and the motions were passed unopposed. At the end of the meeting, Tseka and Sojane were nowhere to be seen. Ewert Nene and the expelled players called on The World newspaper the following morning. The players were concerned about their dilemma in football. The question put to them by Leslie Sehume, a sports editor, was whether they were prepared to take a chance and they answered positively. He proceeded to assure them that a team would be formed and that players would be secured.

Kaizer Motaung was contacted in the USA from the office of The World and informed of what had happened. He said he would listen to both sides of the story as soon as he was back home on holiday. Sehume published a story in The World that Kaizer Motaung was to return from Atlanta Chiefs on vacation and during his stay, would impart knowledge to any soccer player willing to learn the intricacies of professional football overseas. The result was phenomenal and many players came forward. The nucleus of a team was then on the drawing board. The team would be called the Kaizer Motaung Invitational XI. The idea was to launch the team in a four-team knock-out competition, with Witbank Black Aces, Manguage United and Spa Sporting Club of Atteridgeville making them available.

A similar competition, underwritten by SA Breweries, had taken place earlier at the Meadowlands Stadium. Centering on Pirates as a drawcard, it had been named the Rogue Beer Tournament. Leslie Sehume and Cyril MacAravey, a sub-editor on The World, were instrumental in campaigning SAB for their support for the new tournament involving the Kaizer Motaung Invitational XI. They also approached the JBFA for the use of Orlando Stadium but Shakes Tshabalala, its general secretary refused. He insisted that clubs earmarked to participate should first be affiliated to the JBFA or its sister association, the Resettlement FA, who controlled Meadowlands and Diepkloof. The road then led to Meadowlands but the Resettlement FA was sympathetic to Jimmy Sojane, who said the Kaizer Motaung XI would play at Meadowlands ‘over my dead body’. But, despite such moves to block the Kaizer Motaung Invitational XI, it was not long before they played the Orlando Stadium and at venues throughout the country.

Motaung’s reputation grew rapidly on the back of the Invitational side and the temptation to relent to the calls that the team be turned into a permanent club were too strong to resist for all who were associated with it. Apart from Kaizer who believed that it would be too much of a betrayal if he did.

Despite this, the Invitational XI was eventually declared a permanent formation. It was arranged that it be affiliated to the Nigel FA through the ‘good offices’ of Matthew ‘Small’ Mpahane of Nigel Buccaneers and vice president of the Transvaal Bantu FA and a member of the management committee of the NPSL.

Membership of the JBFA was not a reasonable proposition, as it was believed that such membership would entail that the club renamed Kaizer Chiefs FC should graduate to the NPSL through the JBFA ranks. By moving to Nigel, Chiefs was able to avoid the red tape- as soon as they had become a member of the Nigel Amateur Association, they then joined the NPSL First Division.

The pressure brought on Motaung had become unbearable during 1969. When he returned at the end of his contract with Atlanta Chiefs, he severed relations with Orlando Pirates. Motaung, Gilbert Sekhabi, Clarence Mlokoti and China Ngema, all former Buccaneers, became owners of the new club. Ironically, Tikkie Khoza had not gone through any traumatic experience in his move to Kaizer Chiefs. Mainline, his Kaizer’s brother, followed suit but his career was in its twilight.

D) 1973 THE CLEAN SWEEP

Jomo Sono..

Jomo In His BUCS Uniform
Jomo In His BUCS Uniform
Jomo Playing Overseas for New York Cosmos
Jomo Playing Overseas for New York Cosmos
ACe Ntsoelengoe and Jomo sono Play Internally for Toronto soccer Club
ACe Ntsoelengoe and Jomo sono Play Internally for Toronto soccer Club

The Orlando Pirates side of 1973 included many greats like Ephraim ‘Shakes’ Mashaba and Jomo Cosmos owner, Jomo Sono made a clean sweep of titles on offer: the League, The Life Cup, the BP Top Eight Cup and The Champion of Champions.

Other stars in that team were the late Percy ‘Chippa’ Moloiand goalkeeper Patson Banda.Moloihad left the squad to join Moroka Swallows Big XV, so his return to the Bucs camp in February was a big triumph. Having finished fourth the season before, six points behind champions Zulu Royals presently known as AmaZulu and also below Swallows Big XV and finally Kaizer Chiefs. Pirates decided on a clean out before the next season- and the first victim was manager Willie Sithole, who was sacked on January 15 and Jimmy Sojane then replaced him.

The commence of the 1973 season was overshadowed by the much-hyped SA Games, which pitted a ‘SA Black XI’ against their ‘White’, ‘Coloured’ and ‘Indian’ counterparts. In the final, on March 31, the White XI beat the Black XI 3-1 at The Rand Stadium and the following day, the League season kicked off.

Pirates’ campaign started on April 4 with a 3-1 home win over Pretoria Bantu Callies, who had finished one place behind them the previous season. Roman ‘Big Boy’ Kholoane and Moloi were the two goal scorers (Kholoane scored two goals). On the 15 April they crushed Real Katlehong City 6-0 with Kholoane getting another brace and Moloi, Sono and Blessing Mgidi was also among the scorers. A week later, Manguang United were downed 2-1.

The next victims were the newly promoted Moroka Swallows (not to be confused with Big XV, as there were now two Swallows’ camps following a split). The first real test came at the end of April for Pirates going down 1-0 to Zulu Royals in Durban. Pirates were fortunate to have one of the worst teams in the League next, Kimberly Dalton Brothers. They hammered them 8-1 with Richard Ngcobo getting a hot trick and Elias ‘Shuffles’ Mokopane and McDonald ‘Rhee’ Skhosana getting two respectively. This set Pirates up for a seven-match victory streak.

In June, they won a crunch game against local rivals Pimville United Brothers, beating the ‘Skomboys’ 2-1, thanks to goals by Moloi and Mgidi. Next, Pirates crushed Swallows Big XV and Buthelezi lost his job! Influential supporters had engineered the appointment of unknown Englishman, Tony Sanderson, who claimed to have played for Wolverhampton Wanders and said he had tree England Under-23 caps. However the record books showed there was no such player. Sanderson went on to become a radio deejay and TV talk show host. His first game in charge was a 2-1 victory over Bloemfontein Celtic and this was followed by a disappointing goalless draw at home in the Real Katlehong City. This was disturbing; with the big match against Kaizer Chiefs a couple of weeks away. However Pirates were soon back on track with a 4-0 victory away to Lamontville Golden Arrows, Sono netting two.

Perhaps it did not really matter who was coach, be it Buthelezi or the mysterious Mr Sanderson. The team did not care they were so hot that they coached themselves. They were hot, but the derby against Chiefs on July was a rather serious affair. With 10 minutes to go, the match was still goalless. Then Blessing Mgidi struck twice to seal a 2-0 win that ensured Pirates remained at the top of the table, just in time to welcome a UK Stars XI to Orlando Stadium. The tourists beat the SA Black XI 3-2 but the UK Stars’ coach Malcolm Allison admired Percy Moloi’s great talent. Moloi scored the next weekend too, from the penalty spot- but Pirates lost 2-1 to Pretoria Bantu Callies. Another defeat, at the end of July 3-1 away to Manguang United, threatened to derail Pirates’ season.

Sanderson must have been feeling the pressure because in the next match, at home to the reigning champions Zulu Royals, the longhaired Englishman attempted a one-man pitch invasion. A policeman had to restrain him from attacking Dan Twala of Zulu Royals, who had just committed a foul on Shakes Mashaba. The match unfortunately ended without any goals. Pirates needed to get back to winning ways to see off the challenge of Swallows Big XV, Chiefs and PUBS. A narrow 3-2 win at Kimberley Dalton Brother did not instil much confidence but the following week another away win by 3-1 at Witbank Black Aces kept Pirates on top and set up a thriller against Moroka Swallows Big XV. This is the match that set the Buccaneers up for the title, as they had a 3-0 victory with two goals from Simon Mothwa and one Sono. Inspired by the effortlessness with which they butchered the Birds, Pirates started playing with the confidence and incredible display they had shown earlier in the season.

Vaal Professionals were thumped 5-1 away and Celtic beaten 2-1 two days later before PUBS lost 3-1. Now on a roll, Pirates turned their attentions to late stages of The Life Cup. Having already beaten Spa Sporting 2-1 in the first round and African Wanderers by the same score in the second round. They beat Pretoria Bantu Callies 3-1(helped by a Mgidi strut) in the last eight minutes.

The League title was now looking certain and when they hammered African Wanderers 5-0, they needed just one point from their remaining four games. These runaways win kick started by Simon Mothoa who scored after 30 seconds and Blessing Mgidi got another two. Two days later, on October 15, tragedy struck when chairman Aggrey Mbathini, at 40 years of age was killed in a car crash on the way back from a friendly in Parys.

Pirates clinched the title on October 20,with a 2-1 win over Golden Arrows at Orlando. Mzamo Mbathani, father of the late chairman, who had travelled from Fort Beaufort for his son’s funeral, watched the game.

Pirates then lost 3-1 to Moroka Swallows but their minds were on The Life Cup semi-final against Swallows Big XV on November 17. Bucs were unstoppable on the day, running in three second-half goals for a 3-0 win. Back in League action, they thrashed Benoni 7-3, with Simon Mothwa netting four. This was good preparation for the big day, clinching the double with a 5- 2 win over Zulu Royals. Chiefs, who had lost to Royals in the Cup semi-final, could do no more than hold Bucs 1-1 in the last League game of the season. Sono scored first but Ace Ntsoenlengoe equalised with a second half penalty. At this stage Pirates had greater ambitions than a ‘mere’ derby win, they were chasing a clean sweep pf all the trophies.

Their first target was the BP Top Eight Cup, which was played early the following year and pitted the top eight teams from the recently completed League season against each other in a knock out. The quarterfinal was played on January 5 and once again Pirates were up against Bantu Callies. It was very close, a Patson Banda own goal not helping the cause but a Sono strut and one goal from Mgidi ensured a 3-2 win. Five days later, a semi-final against Kaizer Chiefs in Meadowlands was to take place.

The League matches had been serious events but this was different, this was The Cup of Football and Kaizer Motaung was in a dreadful mood. The son of Orlando struck after seven minutes. Known as Jacob Motaung who levelled for Bucs but unfortunately ‘Chincha Galuva’ struck again putting Chiefs ahead a minute before half time. Blessing Mgidi drew Bucs level again; there was no telling what could happen. Suddenly all hell broke loose-Chiefs thought they had scored, the referee thought otherwise and ruled it out. Chiefs protested so vigorously that the match was called off with 12 minutes to go.

The rematch in Port Elizabeth was another humdinger, with Jomo Sono putting Bucs ahead after 11 minutes, Motaung equalising on the half hour and Sono restoring Bucs’ lead in the 72 minute. Then with four minutes left on the clock, the referee awarded Pirates a penalty and Chiefs lost control again. Once more, the referee ended the game. Pirates were awarded the game and Chiefs were fined R1000 and the next day Bucs played the first leg of the final at the same venue. Their opponents were reunited Swallows, so called Moroka Swallows Limited. Worn out, Pirates lost 3-1 with a late Mgidi striking hope for the second leg, six days later- thankfully on home soil. What a match Orlando thought! By half-time Pirates had cancelled out Swallows’ lead. At full-time the teams were still level and Pirates won in extra-time with an overhead goal. The score6-3, the scorer ‘Rhee’ Skhosana who scored two goals, Jomo Sono, Blessing Mgidi, Simon Mothoa and Percy Moloi. Pirates had won 7-6 on altogether. They were tree time’s champions and there was one more trophy to go. The Castle Champions was played against the amateur champions and the league champions.

Manchester City of Mamelodi held Pirates 2-2 in the first leg on February 2; the two goals were scored by Sono. Maybe the rest of the Pirates team were exhausted after their exertion against The Birds but they made emends at the Orlando Stadium in the return, thrashing the minnows 9-1 with Mgidi getting a hat trick. Orlando Pirates had achieved a clean sweep of all competitions.

F) THE 1980 MAINSTAY CUP TRUIMPH

MCDonald "Rhee" Skhosana

One Of The Most Devastating Striker In The golden Era Of African South African Soccer
One Of The Most Devastating Striker In The golden Era Of African South African Soccer

The 1980 Mainstay Cup Final between Orlando Pirates and traditional rivals Moroka Swallows is one club that will live long. Going into the big match there was no favourites, as both teams were evenly matched. Bucs still boasted some of their stars from the all- conquering team of 1973 including goal-poacher Johannes ‘Big Boy’ Kholoane, midfielder maestro Webster ‘City Late’ Lichaba, goalkeeper Patson ‘Sparks’ Banda and the legendary Matsilele ‘Jomo’ Sono. They were held together at the back by defensive lynchpins Oscar ‘Jazzman’ Dlamini and Johannes ‘Yester’ Khomane.

Swallows were not to be defeated; they had the talented Joel ‘Ase’ Mnini, Vader Moposho, Andries ‘Six Mabone’ Maseko, Tornado Ntibande and the former Bucs skipper Ephrium ‘Shakes’ Mashaba in their arsenal.

The game started like wild fire and it was Swallows who were on fire, gaining the upper hand with Moposho and Maseko playing very well. They’re afford were rewarded when Maseko scored midway through the first back and this was definite sign for Bucs to fight back. Sono was tightly marked but when Swallows gave away a free kick on the edge of the area, he stepped up. With the goalkeeper and his wall expecting him to go for glory, Sono chipped the ball to Kholoane who was attentive at the far end and swooped to equalise. Then Sono made it 2-1 with a beautiful scissor a kick, Kholoane this time the provider. Swallows came back and won the game with a penalty. Maseko took the penalty and Banda saved it but the referee ordered a retake. Banda was not pleased but his teammates begged him to come down and eventually he turned to face Maseko for a second time. This time he scored and the teams went in at half time with the score being 2-2. It remained deadlock until the last five minutes, with the game heading for extra-time. Lichaba broke free on the right and Phil Venter attacked desperately and only succeeded in bringing him down, to concede a penalty.

It was The Birds’ keeper Moses Khanyeza’s chance to face Sono. ‘The Troublemaker’ made no mistake, planting his kick beyond the keeper to complete his brace and achieved a 3-2 win. Pirates were Mainstay champions for the first and only time in their history.

Buccaneers Remake

Amos Mkhari
Amos Mkhari
Jerry Skhosana
Jerry Skhosana

THE 1994-95- THE REWAKENING

Two months before South Africa won the African Nations Cup on that momentous day of 3 February 1996, Orlando Pirates had trumpeted a warning that South Africa Football, so long kept in darkness by apartheid-induced isolation, was stepping into the light. What Bafana Bafana achieved on home soil, in distant Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. On 16 December 1995, Orlando Pirates were crowned champions of Africa after recording an entirely unexpected 1-0 win away to the might ASEC Mimosas. So unexpected was the victory that at full-time, grown men in the Stade Houphuet Boigny wept and beat their heads against the ground. All omens had pointed to an ASEC victory and common sense suggested the same outcome.

Pirates had been held 2-2 at Soccer City two weeks before. After all they had lost their captain to suspension and they had sacked their coach in the period between the first and second legs of the final. In fact demoralised were some sections of the Pirates camp, so certain of defeat that they’re normally clever team manager. Lawrence Ngubane had not even bothered to pack the team’s ‘Umuti’ for the trip to Abidjan.

Pirates, their supporters and the nation at large had every reason to expect the worst against an ASEC side that virtually never lost on home soil, to anyone. After all Pirates had contrived to blow home advantage in the most self-destructive manner.

After taking a fifth minute lead through a brilliant individual goal from Helman Mkhalele-bursting down the left wing, cutting inside and curling a shot around the keeper-the Buccaneers self-destructed. They allowed the very small John Zaki to equalise; ASEC had gone 2-1 up through Donald-Olivier Sie with just half an hour gone. Then Bucs captain Innocent Mncwango was red-carded for an unnecessarily violent challenge on an opponent. It was left to the remorseless Gavin Lane to force an equaliser just before half-time but after 90 minutes the score remained 2-2. Morale was further sapped by the mindless behaviour of a portion of the home crowd, who had attack the handful of Ivorian supporters in Soccer City after ASEC had taken the lead. To top it all coach Joe Frickleton made what seemed an unreasonable judged and attacked to the media about the club’s organisation.

There had been problems with transport but to speak out halfway through a two-legged final seemed like aiming a kick at a prone body. Frickleton was summonsed to the downtown sports shop that was two times big as Pirates chairman Irvin Khoza’s office and was instantly dismissed. Loyal assistant coach, Ronald Mkandawire was made coach for Mission Impossible: Abidjan. This Orlando Pirates team like many in the club’s history had a strong spirit that never allowed them to give up. The winning mentality of Mark Fish, William Okpara, Gavin Lane, Marks Mponyane, John Moeti, Edward Motale and Bernard Lushozi had carried the team through severe test throughout the year’s African Campaign.

Had Pirates not forced a 1-1 draw away BCC Lion in provincial Mkurdi, Nigeria, in the face of extreme harassment? Did they not overturn a 2-1 defeat away to Mbilinga in Libreville, by winning with a resounding 3-0 in South Africa? Had the spirit of Enzinyama not seen them through, away to express in Kampala in the semi-final when centre back Lane headed a 90th minute goal to put Pirates in the final? It was time for the last efforts from the players and the chairman Mr Khoza still had faith. He had travelled with a small packet of ‘muti’. He also acquired quantities of ‘grof sout’ in Abidjan, to cancel out the notorious juju of the Ivorians. He kept his doubts to himself and did his best to up lift his players’ spirit. Even during the match, he sent messages to Mkandawire on the bench, suggesting a substitution at one point, asking for long-serving stalwart Lushozi to be sent on for the tiring reserve, Vincent Sokhela, who was standing in for Mncwango. Above all players like goalkeeper Okpara, Fish and Lane were splendid players. ASEC battered the Pirates goal for the full 90 minutes and the record shows they had 28 goal attempts. Okpara saved eight goals and others were blocked by one of the defenders and 18 of them went wide two hit the woodwork.

In the 73 minute Fish hoofed a long clearance forward. Two ASEC defenders went for it and collided with each other. Lone striker Jerry Sikhosana swooped the loose ball and scored the most important and most famous goal of his life. Pirates held on for another about 17 minutes, which to them felt like a lifetime and were in the end able to celebrate a famous South African victory.

Later in the hotel rooms, the chairman Mr Khoza also known as the Iron Duke shed a tear and offered a prayer of thanks. The first stage of his revolution at the club was complete, the boys were back and Orlando Pirates was back to.

It had begun less than four years earlier that the club had been in turmoil, off the pitch the players were rebelling and on the field they were not performing well. Meanwhile in the office there was dismay and Mr Khoza was persuaded out of football. He returned on the condition that he had full control. His stipulation was definitely granted and so his revolution began.

In1992, the Castle Cup was won and Pirates finished fourth in the League. They remained in the shadows of archrivals Kaizer Chiefs however Amakhosi won the championship. The next year, Pirates lifted the BP Top Eight Cup and finished fourth in the league for the second time.

New players were being introduced to the squad, players like former Chiefs goalscoring hero Marks Maponyane, the Nigerian goalkeeper Williams Okpara, Zairian livewire Ettiene Mvumbi-Nsuna and no-nonsense stopper Gavin Lane.

In 1994 the chairman decided to move quickly, he began negotiating with the former club hero Jomo Sono for the cream of his relegated Cosmos team. The rising star Mark Fish, midfielder hard man Linda Buthelezi and dashing winger Helman Mkhalele. Then from Dynamos, who had gone out of business, came the intelligent midfielder John Moeti and the overlapping fullback Edward Motale. These men added to a side that were already on fire, the players like Innocent Mncwango, Brandon Silent and Oupa Mabuza. They also got helpers from older clubs, man like Nick Sesheeni, Bernard Lushozi and Ernest ‘Botsotso’ Makhanya.

Not so well known but the progressive thinking Mike Makaab was roped in as coach with the vastly experienced Lawrence Ngubane as team manager to lean on. It took the Bucs a month or so to get thing rolling, they only won one out of their first four games but they eventually began to click. Fish and Lane were rock especially at the back, Mncwango and Moeti electrifying on the wing. Playing a swift, short passing game, goal chances were created with ease and the veteran Maponyane began scoring. A nine match and they were untouchable Bucs were on top of the game. Chiefs halted the run but Pirates picked up their socks up, this time 14 matches, these boys were hot.

A 2-1 defeat to reigning champions Mamelodi Sundowns kept the title race wide open. Cape Town Spurs were in solid form too and Chiefs were hovering hungrily. Then came a big blow when Marks Fish was involved in a car accident a week before Pirates were to face their old enemies Kaizer Chiefs. With the players fearing for the life of their teammate, they continued to prepare themselves for this game. Lushozi was called in to fill the Fish’s position and played his level best. Bucs won 2-0 the one goal was scored by Maponyane and the other by a new signing Marc Batchelor who scored with a diving header. The League was won -- now Africa beckoned.

Marks Maponyane

Marks Maponyane
Marks Maponyane

Kagiso "Zero My Hero" Mogale In action

Kagiso "Zero My Hero" Hurdles over the opposition in pursuit and control of the ball
Kagiso "Zero My Hero" Hurdles over the opposition in pursuit and control of the ball | Source

Orlando Pirates play in the BP top Eight in the 1970's

A Look At Orlando Pirates Today: Orlando Pirates Top 10 Goals - 2011/12 Season

Vusi "Maria-Maria" ~ "Computer" Lamola

The Best and Fast/creative Mid-fielder to ever play soccer in South Africa
The Best and Fast/creative Mid-fielder to ever play soccer in South Africa

Golden-Era Star Press-ganged Into Playing For Buccaneers(Pirates)

Former dribbling wizard, Kagiso "Zero My Hero" Mogale will be watching with mixed emotions when Mamelodi Sundowns take on Orlando Pirates in the MTN8 semi-finals this afternoon," writes Kgomotso Mokoena.

A Buccaneer through and through, Mogale also has a soft spot for the Brazilians, after having had a short spell with them in the twilight of his career.

He happily invited us to his house for a trip down memory lane recently. His Protea Glen home might be modest - but it radiates warmth and welcoming smiles from his family.

Many will remember him for always sticking out his tongue whenever his scholarly left foot was hypnotising opponents up and down the touchline.

But sadly, the father of two was born at the wrong time - when football was played more for entertainment.

Mogale was born in Sophiatown in 1959. He grew up in Rockville, Soweto and played for local amateur teams there and in Diepkloof. People started noticing his talent after he won a BMX bicycle during a football-juggling competition in primary school.

It was at amateur outfit Blue Whales where he charmed Pirates supporters.

Like Kaizer Motaung, he was one of the players who was given no choice and joined Pirates. Blue Whales and Naledi Young Texas were curtain raisers for a Pirates and Kaizer Chiefs derby and, after a five-star performance, the Bucs fans pounced.

"They blocked the exit and were waiting for me in the tunnel after the match. They took my address and told me to go to Pirates training the following Monday. I was young and very scared. They told my mother I was now a Pirates player. Irvin Khoza was also involved," said Mogale.

"I was with superstars such as Julius 'KK' Sono, McDonald 'Rhee' Skhosana, Patson 'Kamuzu' Banda, Oscar 'Jazzman' Dlamini, Phil 'Jones' Setshedi, Elias 'Shuffle' Mokopane, Jomo Sono and Chilliboy Koloba when I arrived. It was scary.

"Our generation would have done very well if we had had the opportunity to play in the World Cup. We had Joel 'Ace' Mnini, Zebulon 'Sputla' Nhlapo, Nelson 'Teenage' Dladla, Joel Faya, Patrick 'Ace' Ntsoelengoe, Jomo Sono, William 'Khura' Makhura, Daniel Ramarutsi, Thomas 'Who is fooling Who' Hlongwane, Professor Ngubane, Samora Khulu, Kenneth 'The Horse' Mokgojoa. These guys could dribble and score amazing goals.

"And who could forget the white players who kicked the s^*! out of us? Phil Venter was tough and kicked everything that moved - the ball or the man - sometimes both. Then there were players such as the suave Stuart Lilley, Mike Lambert, Peter Ballack, Greg Jacoby, Big John Salter, Eugene Kleynhans and Brummie de Leur. They were lekker and easy to dribble but they ran and chased you for 90 minutes," he said.

Mogale gets animated when he talks about some of the mouthwatering individual duels in the '80s.

"There was Jomo versus Ntsoelengoe, 'Zero' against 'Sputla' and 'Teenage' taking on Mnini. These duels started at school level. They need to revive school competitions because we already knew about this troublesome Teenage Dladla from Tlakula High School in Kwa-Thema, Springs.

"Money has somehow spoilt the game. My first salary was R400, including a R50 bonus for a win. But we played epic matches every weekend. It did not matter whether it was in Mangaung, Balfour Park, Sinaba Stadium, Atteridgeville or Witbank, the stadiums were always full. "

After retiring in 1990, Mogale joined an estate agency. They were building and selling houses in new townships like Protea Glen and Spruitview.

These days, he has a business selling meat, vegetables and eggs to keep the wolves at bay.

He lives with his two children and wife Nthabiseng.

Gold Memories with Vusi The General Lamola (1971-1979)

Vusi Lamola for his football brain, quick thinking is up there with the best midfielders ever to grace South African football. He spoke to kaizerchiefs.com about the fond memories wearing the no. 8 jersey thrilling fans where ever the Club played.

Before the interview, Bra Vusi as many affectionately call him in Soweto today admitted to be busy but said; blessed are those flexible for they shall not be bent out of shape.

My transfer...

I was playing for Orlando Preston Brothers when the late Ewert Nene recruited me to join Kaizer Chiefs in 1971. I could have joined Orlando Pirates but maybe they did not see what the late Ewert Nene saw in me (laughing).

My debut...

I do not remember my debut for the Club as I used to come mostly as a sub when I joined.

My most memorable Soweto derby...

It is has to be the Life Cup final against Orlando Pirates in 1973. I replaced the late Ace Ntsoelengoe after only ten minutes. It was time for me to show that I do not belong to the bench and I had a game of my life and we came back forcing the game to extra time after trailing 2-0. We scored five goals in the extra time beating Orlando Pirates 7-3. The fans cornered the Coach after the game, why is this player coming on as a sub? I never looked back from that game onwards.

My most memorable goal...

The goal against Highlands Park in the Mainstay Cup final in 1978 will forever remain engraved in my heart. The situation demanded that I lob the ball instead of going for power. It was a dodgy attempt; there was more intelligence than power.

The Club I wanted to beat most...

Lusitano! Joe Frickleton their Coach then once made a statement, if a white team lose to a black team I will walk naked. I felt insulted by that. I remember telling my teammates that when we meet Lusitano I want to contribute to their downfall and I am glad that we beat them. We fought apartheid on the field of play while others were of course in the forest and in churches.

My favourite Coach...

The late Zero My Hero Johnson! He liked to see players expressing themselves. We worked more with the ball during his tenure as compared to running aimlessly.

My best buddy...

My best buddy was Jackie Asinamali Masike maybe it was because of the looks (laughing). I think good friendship is based on common grounds and we were close beyond football.

My jersey no...

I am the spiritual owner of the jersey no. 8 at Chiefs. I think I was given the number because of the position I was playing.

My nickname...

I had three nicknames; I was called Maria Maria after a player by the name of Albert Johnson who used to play for Germiston City. We went to play in Rustenburg and the fans struggled with the pronunciation, Hurry-Hurry of which Albert was affectionately called. They ended up calling me Maria-Maria.

I was also called Computer; this nickname came from the fans at Orlando Stadium. They said I was thinking fast.

The one I liked the most is the General; I think this nickname had something on it an element of authority. This is my own interpretation!

My favourite stadium...

I have fond memories playing at Orlando Stadium, the Mecca of South African Football. The fans called it Isigodi sikaMaminzela.

Vusi "Computer" Lamola

'Computer' of Kaizer Chiefs dribbles away from Tiger Motaung (6/2/77)
'Computer' of Kaizer Chiefs dribbles away from Tiger Motaung (6/2/77)
"Computer Lamola-Played for Kaizer Chiefs Midgfield since1971-1981..
"Computer Lamola-Played for Kaizer Chiefs Midgfield since1971-1981..

Chiefs Mid-Field Wizard And Computer: Maria-Maria Lamola

It is surprising, actually its criminal, how anInternet search for so famed a name in south Africa soccer, Zacharia Vusi Lamola, yields less than a handful articles.

The stories I could unearth on a Google search were all of a few paragraphs. How's that possible that a man nicknamed "Computer" for his sheer footballing brain could have so little archived about him?

The history of Kaizer Chiefs would be incomplete without mentioning the little dynamo that ran their engine room and helped establish a football empire of almost unequalled magnitude on the sub-continent.

South African football has always had a love affair with nicknames, and some followers of the game christened Lamola "The General" for obvious reasons.

"I started my career at a team called George Goch Spades, in the old Johannesburg township in the south. I was about 10 years old," LAMOLA REMINISCES.

"I used to carry and polish soccer boots for the players. I guess that's when the seed for the great love I have for this game was planted and nurtured," Lamola said.

"Back in those days we used to go to the Bantu Sports Grounds in Von Wielligh Street [central Johannesburg] where we witnessed great football played by the likes of Scara Sono and [William] 'King Kaizer Matatazela' [Mkhwanazi]."

It was at this point that emotions seemed to overcome Lamola as he mentioned the great injustice done to our sports heroes, who are generally never acknowledged for their contribution to the game.

"We buried King Kaizer just the other day last month and I was honoured to be the MC at his funeral.

"Not a single newspaper report his death."

Lamola recalls having to leave the township of his early years in 1966, aged 16, to live in Orlando East, Soweto, but not before forming his own team called George Goch Aces, in honour of "the Witbank Black Aces side that beat some of the great teams of the time".

"They had the likes of Slow Masuku and Ace Mkhonza in their team. What a team!" Lamola said.

At Orlando he joined a team called Preston Brothers where he played alongside Ephraim "Shakes" Mashaba, who was later to captain Orlando Pirates and Moroka Swallows, and is now the coach of the SA national Under-23 team.

Then Ewert "The Lip" Nene came knocking and a legend was born when Lamola found his way into Kaizer Chiefs.

"Chiefs had awesome players then, such as [Johnny] Magwegwe Mokoena, who I regard as a genius, the best footballer in this country ever, Ten Ten Nzimande and, of course, [Patrick} Ace Ntsoelengoe."

Lamola doesn't remember the first match he played for Chiefs but won't forget their clash with Lusitano, the eminent side from the white National Football League, soon after the merger with the National Professional Soccer League in 1978.

"Lusitano used to thrash the likes of Pirates and Swallows by some heavy scores, and their cocky coach [Joe Frickleton] declared before our match that he would stroll naked in Joburg were Lusitano to be beaten by a black team.

"It was an insult. To us it became much more than a football match, it was political. Rand Stadium was packed, and there were even more people outside the stadium listening to radio. We knew we were not just playing for Chiefs. We won 2-1, Teenage Dladla and I scored."

Lamola also remembers a clash with Pirates when he made his name. "It was the Chevrolet Cup final. I was on the bench and I didn't know why. Pirates were leading 2-0 when Ace hopped off injured with 10 minutes to go, and the coach said 'General, it's your turn'. I told myself I'll show the coach who I am.

"I did not score but I engineered almost all the goals as the match ended 3-3 in 90 minutes. We went on to win 7-3. After the match the coach [Zero Johnson] had to tell lies that it was his game plan when fans asked why he had benched me."

In a previous interview another legend, Jimmy Cook, regaled us with the wizardry of Lamola. "Playing against Chiefs was a nightmare. Guys like Computer Lamola were so skilful that some of us ended up watching their trickery on the ball to a point of almost applauding them," Cook said.

What does Lamola make of the standard of football today? "It has gone down. The problem is that foreign influences have killed our style. Football is about entertainment and what you see with the empty stands is because people don't like the product. We need to see more of players like [the late] Emmanul Scara Ngobese."

The beginning of the end of Lamola's playing days makes for a rather sorry tale and the pain still lingers. He was unfortunate to score an own goal for Pirates in a high-stakes Soweto derby in 1980.

Not that there is such a thing as a friendly match when the two giants of the local game clash, but that Lamola was hounded out of Chiefs is testimony to the bitter rivalry between the two teams then.

"I was accused by some at the club of doing that deliberately because I was from Orlando East, the home of Pirates." he said.

"I am a Christian and would never at any point in my life do such a thing."

Teenage "Botsotso" Dladla

One of the most nimble and fleet footed striker and dribbler of the Golden Era of south African soccer
One of the most nimble and fleet footed striker and dribbler of the Golden Era of south African soccer | Source

Kaizer Chiefs Legend Teenage Botsotso Dladla

Black Aces FC

Modern Starting Eleven Of Black Aces`
Modern Starting Eleven Of Black Aces`

How it all began

Black Aces was formed way back in 1937 when a group of dairy workers decided to get the ball rolling, but it was not until after World War II that the team really began establishing itself on the soccer front. During the 1940s and 1950s when the beautiful game spread like wild fire to the Transvaal’s ever-expanding population, Aces came up against other formidable footballing units like Methodists FC, Black Jacks, Bantule Callies, Home Stars and Riverside Aces.

The early Pro ERA

And during the early 1960s, with the establishment of the National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), the team rose to the occasion and finished near the top of the table on a number of occasions. The Lynneville Stadium hosted many exciting matches, and huge crowds would flock to witness games between Amazayoni and once famous opponents like Black Pirates, Katlehong United, Randfontein Young Zebras, Transvaal Black Birds, Orlando Highlanders and Pretoria’s Spa Sporting club. Significantly, in 1964 the “Blue and Whites” reached the finals of the UTC Cup but narrowly missed the handsome cup and the R400 prize money on offer, when Young Zebras outplayed them.

At one stage during their affiliation to the Witbank Bantu FA, they experienced tremendous success by capturing league honours on a regular basis. Derbies between the “Ace of Spades” and Witbank Real Rovers were real humdingers. However, it was not until the 1970s under the auspices of George Thabe’s new NPSL that the whole country stood up to take note of Aces’ achievements on the field of play.

Legends in the making

He was known as the "best sweeper in the business and is a true Aces legend. The best sweeper in the business, Black Aces’ Donald Mashabela, contains Orlando Pirates Rashid ‘Bomber’ Khan. Mashabela, along with Ace Mkhonza and Slow Masuku, played a big hand in the formation of Kaizer Chiefs as they turned out for the Kaizer X1 prior to the formation of the Amakhosi. The apartheid laws forced Khan and a number coloured players to leave Bucs shortly after this picture was taken. Lethal Black Aces striker Ace Mkhonza up against another Witbank hometown boy – Orlando Pirates’ Msomi Khoza who later left Bucs to become a founding member of Kaizer Chiefs. Alfred "Ace" Mkhonza together with Excellent Mabuza were great players in the 1976 -under the guidance of Moses "Slow" Masuku. Pictures courtesy of Cyril Mcaravey " WEBSITE SUB EDITOR " KICK OFF.

Aces thrive in the Airborne League

Black Aces were one of the original thirteen founding members of the “Airborne” league, which kicked off on 3 April 1971, and they did extremely well to complete their opening season in fourth position – just four points from the all-conquering Orlando Pirates. In fact, throughout most the 1970s the “Coal City Giants” finished in the top eight of the NPSL, therefore qualifying for the lucrative BP Top Eight tournament, although no honours came their way.

For example, from 1972 to 1974 they completed their 30-game programme not lower that sixth place, and in 1975 recorded a superior goal difference to Lamontville Golden Arrows and Vaal Professionals which again helped them remain in that elite Top Eight bracket. And in 1973 and 1974, Aces reached the quarter-finals of the Life Cup Challenge, only to be beaten by Kaizer Chiefs and Pretoria Callies respectively.

Earlier, in a nine-goal thriller, they had ousted Pimeville United Brothers 6-3 and crushed Chiefs 5-1 in a home League encounter. But in 1976, Aces slid down the table to eleventh position, their worst performance, and the next year survived the relegation chop by the narrowest of margins, after coming fourteenth out of sixteen teams. One of the main reasons for their poor showing around this time was that ace sharpshooter Thomas “Junior” Ngobe (PIC) had missed much of the 1976 season with a broken leg. The levelheaded player made his debut in 1973 under the then coach Moses “Slow” Masuku and together with teammates Excellent Mabuza and Alfred “Ace” Mkhonza an excellent slide-tackling defender, was responsible for changing the face of football in Witbank.

The end of Apartheid in Soccer

Significantly, as soon as “Junior” recovered fully from injury, the gifted player blasted his way to the top of the 1978 League scorers’ ladder with forty fantastic goals, to lift his club back to the dizzy heights of the top six. However, that season was different to any other because a number of clubs which had previously belonged to the “whites-only” National Football League, joined the NPSL as soccer decided it had had enough of the apartheid government telling it what to do.

The new multi-racial League, which consisted of 24 clubs, was divided into two zones of 12 clubs each with teams playing twice against sides in their own zone and once against teams in the other zone. It was during this historic year that Aces came face to face with the relatively unknown Wits University, Highlands Park, Lusitano and Arcadia. And that year, although three ‘white’ teams finished in the top three, Aces did well to notch up the same number of points as third and fourth placed Kaizer Chiefs and Highlands Park, but eventually had to settle for sixth place as a result of an inferior goal difference.

In July 1979, after a run of 13 unbeaten games, for some strange reason, coach Nick Koapeng was shown the door. There had been allegations that he expected too much from his players and following his departure, the club dropped to eighth. One of the best matches at Lynnville that year was when 18 000 fans crammed into the 10 000-capacity ground to watch Kaizer Chiefs and Black Aces battle it out. Chiefs netted the only goal of the game in the first half but Aces responded with some bone-crunching tackles in the second period, which resulted in Nelson ‘Teenage’ Dladla, the goal scorer, having to leave the field. Almost exactly a year later, Englishmen Nick Howe (PIC) made a winning start as player-coach with a 5-1 away victory at Benoni.

The BP Top Eight Cup comes home

Earlier in 1980, Black Aces had picked up their first silverware of the modern era when, following an exciting win over Orlando Pirates, the much-heralded BP Top 8 Cup found its way to their clubhouse. In the first leg, the teams played to a 1-1 draw but Aces’ defence held firm in the second game, and their 1-0 win was credit to a newfound team spirit.

Around this time, they also reached the quarterfinals of the Mainstay Cup but went down 3-4 to the eventual winners, Kaizer Chiefs. The squad who did the ‘Coal City Giants’ proud was: Cyprian “Mahala” Maimane, Jacob Ntuli, Nick Howe, Meshack ‘Touch’ Mokwebo, Shakes Nhlapo, Steve Maseko, Jacob Mathale, Emmanuel Motla, Steve Selape, Abel ‘Rollaway’ Mkhabela, Steve ‘Disco’ Makua and Ngobe. Other notable men from the same era included: Willie ‘Mad Max’ Mahlangu, George Mthembu, Douglas Molaudzi, Jonathon Mdlalose, Arthur Zulu and Solomon Mohlabane.

In 1981, Makua was out for a period after breaking a jaw, while Ngobe spent time playing in Austria, and Walter Rautmann (PIC) also returned to the coaching post after Howe decided to concentrate on his playing career instead. Significantly, the Austrian was ecstatic as his team humiliated early-season giant killers Mamelodi United 7-0 at Lynnville, with ‘Shuffle’ Mokopane grabbing four great goals. Later, Aces beat Pubs to top the table but ended the season in sixth place.

1983 Mainstay Cup Final

Amandebele reached the final of the 1983 Mainstay Cup but their brave warriors lost 1-0 to Moroka Swallows at Ellis Park before 70 000 spectators, when Ace Mnini hit a sensational, angled last-minute strike, which disappointed Aces’ chairperson Sonny Ndala and manager Henry Mhlongo. Some of the new names in the team around this time included: Ben ‘Hindu’ Ntuli, Alfred Tshole, William ‘Sunshine Man’ Sibiya, Bobby ‘The Best’ Hearn, Nicholas “Bazooka” Seshweni, Jacob ‘Butha’ Mathathe, Peter ‘Fuduwa’ Mokotedi, Harris ‘TV 4’ Chueu (PIC), Kenny Gill and Barney Tweedle (coach).

Transfers and Wage Disputes

Early in 1984, Seshweni was transferred to Orlando Pirates for R25 000 during the period when player-coach Augusto Palacios replaced Orlando Casares in the hot seat. But the Peruvian had caused a stir in the conservative town of Witbank and when his white wife joined him, local council officials refused to allow the pair to live in the same house.

In fact, he had an on-off relationship with the club that year and with fellow South American, Sergio Novoa, was involved in a dispute over wages. Subsequently, the two men left Ukhumba Black Aces, who did well to qualify for the BP Top for the first time in three years.

The club also played under the banner of Super Kurl Aces, and there was quite a lot of chaos during the mid-1980s with striker Gordon Igesund (PIC) involved in a lawsuit against them, while coach Rautmann, back for the umpteenth time, complained about unpaid money. They also suspended midfielder Chueu after he went to Belgium for trials. However, although their League form dipped again, Aces managed a fantastic 2-1 home win against log leaders and eventual champions, Durban Bush Bucks in September 1985.

Jazzy, Queen, TV4 and Cooke

Talented midfielder Harold “Jazzy Queen” Legodi, a man gifted with lots of creativity and acceleration, starred in a double-act with Chueu, while top scorer that season was Welshman Terry Cooke, who netted 14 goals, including four against Wits University. And the evergreen Ngobe, who hit a hat-trick against Hellenic, was still the master craftsman – his pin-point crosses continued to tear opposition defenders apart. “The club was not run very well. They used to promise me the earth by saying they would get me this and that, but nothing materialized. There was very little discipline in the camp.

It was do as you like, and there were always loads of girls following the players around at hotels. The players were like sailors with a girl in every port,” recalls Cooke. There were more problems in early 1986 when more than half the team members were suspended by management after absconding. This followed three League losses in a row, but they bounced back to end Kaizer Chiefs unbeaten run, thanks to an Eric Maele strike.

Terry Paine becomes Coach

Midway through that year, former English 1966 World Cup winner, Terry Paine, was signed as coach, and gave games to Peter Gordon and Goody Bentley, both previously amateurs. And because of Paine’s professionalism, the team went on a long unbeaten run, which was finally broken in Umlazi by Bush Bucks as they sought sweet revenge after Aces had ended their 22-game run a year earlier.

Days before Christmas, Paine departed but he had managed to lift the team into 11th position. Other notable players to have donned the club’s kit during this era were Amos Mkhari, Owen da Gama (PIC) , Mathews Msibi, Pio Nogueira, Roberto Bitencourt and Michael Buthelezi, whose hat-trick once demolished African Wanderers. Defender Msibi was killed in a car crash on 5 July 1988, and his family received a donation of R2 000 from the NSL. The controversial Palacios, who replaced John Lathan in January 1989, signed compatriot Alberto Cano. And for the second time in less than a year, Aces added Mamelodi Sundowns to their list of major scalps.

Thomas 'Junior' Ngobe retires

However, by June there was more chaos with Ngobe, the club’s long-serving captain, accused by officials of instigating a pay revolt – as the team failed to honour a home game. ‘Junior’ hung his boots up at the end of 1989 - after representing the club for sixteen years, and although no records of his amazing goal-scoring attributes are available, his name will remain forever in the 100-goal club amongst the likes of Jomo Sono, Ace Ntsoelengoe, Bernard Hartze and Marks Maponyane. “Aces actually didn’t need a coach, all we needed was someone to talk to us and give us the confidence because we could change the pattern of the game ourselves,” explains Ngobe.

“During the 1980s the team was at its best, we groomed all the big names, the only problem were lack of money. If Black Aces had been in Johannesburg, I am sure we would have survived. When people used to talk about the top four, they referred to us, Chiefs, Pirates and Swallows. Sundowns were nothing in those days.”

Chairperson Joe Ntuli fired Palacios late in 1989 as his team finished dangerously close to the drop zone. By this time, Percy Nxumalo had become Aces leading striker but for the next few years, there was nothing to write home about as the club struggled at the wrong end of the table.

1993 BOB SAVE Super Bowl Victory

It was only after Johnny Ferreira (PIC) took the coaching post in the early 1990s that things began to change for the Amazayoni. He turned the squad from an average side into a winning combination, and inspired them to an unexpected 1-0 victory over Kaizer Chiefs in the money-spinning 1993 Bob Save Super Bowl, thanks to an injury time free kick by Richard Peer.

“The guys did well, it wasn’t a brilliant team but we worked hard,” says Ferreira. “It was as a result of a bit of luck and smart thinking that we got to the final. We actually lost to Manning Rangers in the semis, but they had a goalkeeper from Liberia who had played under a different name. Irvin Khoza, who knew everything and still does, told me about the illegally registered player.”

Aces makes history in Brazil

Total Aces had earlier reached the final of the BP Top 8 Cup but could not repeat their 1980 success over Orlando Pirates. This time the Buccaneers won 3-1 and it was the end of a fairly tail-year which saw the 56-year-old club make history by becoming the first team to travel overseas after South Africa’s re-admittance to Fifa in July 1992. In fact, under their new Brazilian coach Walter Moreira, they played against Tupi of Juiz de Fora and Flamengo of Rio de Janeiro, after Ferreira had resigned when bonuses for reaching the Top Eight Final never materialized.

“When the team came back from Brazil, King Mabhoko-Mayisha II called me and said ‘this is a shambles, I’ll pay your bonus, please come back,’” recalls Ferreira, who remained with Aces until the end of 1995.

“It was a massive club, a big strong club, but the administration side was a shambles. Everybody expected them to go forward in 1994 but it all fell apart.” The men who were on Aces’ books during this memorable era included Joseph Sibiya, Jerry Madonsela, Manuel Pereira, Winston Mgqamqo, Brad Deetlefs, Adam Mabena, Joseph Thulare, Cesar Maphalla, Thembinkosi Biyela, Sello “Page” Mahlangu, Percy Nxumalo, Johannes Shili and Peer.

The club gained further international experience in 1994 when they campaigned in the CAF Cup Winners’ Cup, beating Bantu FC from Lesotho in the first round. They also defeated Reunion’s Stade Tamponaise 1-0 at HM Pitjie on 30 April 1994, but later lost 4-2 on the Indian Ocean Island. In 1995, Biyela’s eleven goals made him top scorer, while Shili hit six, followed by Bonga Mofokeng and Lawrence ‘Sista Monica’ Siyangaphi (both with four). The ‘Royal Blue and Whites’ was registered as a CC and besides the King; the other members were Solly Kgapola, J. Ntuli and Chairperson Veli Mahlangu. Home games were played either at the Kwaguqu Stadium in Witbank or at KwaMhlanga.

A Fall from Grace

After the departure of Ferreira, Black Aces fell from grace and in their golden jubilee year (1997) there was no reason to celebrate. Despite a long history of solid mid-table league finishing positions, they had the embarrassment of becoming the first PSL club to face the chop at the end of the 1996/97 season. And what a dismal display it was! The team only picked up 19 points out of a possible 102, while conceding 70 goals, with Chiefs and Hellenic both netting seven times against an inept defence.

Steve Haupt (PIC), who took the doomed team over for their last six PSL games, did a good job in the Inland Stream of the First Division, and at one point his side were 15 points clear of all their rivals. “We were top of the League but when Steve Makua was brought in for two months, we lost 8 games on the trot and ended up a point behind promoted Dynamos. It was a really, nice team. We had an amazing system whereby we trained in Ogies, after picking up players all along the way from Soweto and Tembisa,” says Haupt. Some of the men who did duty around this time were leading goal scorer Jean-Paul Bang Penda, Dennis Lota, Teboho Mokoena, Tebogo Mophaleng and Dumisa Ngobe, the son of the legendary Thomas.

Former Aces players who have won their national Bafana Bafana colours - but not whilst on the books of the Ama Zayoni - include Peter Gordon, Sam Kambule, Harold Legodi, Dumisa Ngobe and Jerry Sikhosana. In 2001/02 Aces were almost relegated from the Inland Stream of the First Division whilst playing with the likes of Tycoon Silver Stars, Black Leopards, Giant Aces and Arcadia Shepherds. On 12 September 2002 Robert Gumede, an Mpumalanga multi-millionaire and former owner of Dangerous Darkies, bought 51% of the club’s shares. The deal was between Gumede and long-time Aces owner Veli Mahlangu. The club name changed to Dangerous Aces FC - a combination of Darkies and Aces.

A new ERA in the MORFOU Family

Some three years ago (2004), joint-chairpersons George Morfou and his brother Mario, purchased the remnants of relegated Dangerous Darkies, changed the name to Mpumalanga Black Aces and reached the Vodacom League play-offs at the end of last season. And in December 2006, the pair bought the franchise of Polokwane-based City Pillars, the former Mvela Golden League side who were at the last minute denied a place in the play-offs – after being deducted points for fielding an improperly registered player.

“When both our sides failed to win promotion last season, we took stock and decided on a new structure, a new set up. Obviously it is not legally possible to swap the statuses of our clubs but if you look at it, that is exactly what happened,” explains George Morfou, whose father Laki Morfou is club president. “We renamed our Vodacom League side Aces Academy, moved Pillars to Witbank and registered them as Mpumalanga Black Aces.


Moroka Swallows LTD

The revival of the “Massacres”...Andries “Six Mabone” Maseko, Frederick “Congo” Malebane, Ephraim “Shakes” Mashaba, Trott “Trapper” Moloto, Joel “Ace” Mnini, Jimmy “Music Man” Mahlangu, Simon “Ox” Mahlangu, Aubrey “The Great” Makgopela , Norman “Goal
The revival of the “Massacres”...Andries “Six Mabone” Maseko, Frederick “Congo” Malebane, Ephraim “Shakes” Mashaba, Trott “Trapper” Moloto, Joel “Ace” Mnini, Jimmy “Music Man” Mahlangu, Simon “Ox” Mahlangu, Aubrey “The Great” Makgopela , Norman “Goal | Source

Ace Mnini Of Swallows

MNINI is irreplaceable. He made the ball speak his own language and we don't have such players today. His darting moves and dribbling skills would force fans from other clubs to support Swallows. He was effective on the left and right wings. He was a
MNINI is irreplaceable. He made the ball speak his own language and we don't have such players today. His darting moves and dribbling skills would force fans from other clubs to support Swallows. He was effective on the left and right wings. He was a

A Rare Interview With Joel "uMsheshi" Mnini

Forget about interviewing "uMshesh," was the curt warning from one of Moroka Swallows' directors, Sipho Xulu, when we asked permission to talk to the great Joel "uMsheshi/Ace" Mnini," writes Mcelwa Nchabeleng.

"The interview will never happen, you might as well look for someone elsewhere for your feature. He just doesn't want to be interviewed. He has never been interviewed so forget it," added Xulu as he took us to Mnini's modest home in Dobsonville, Soweto.

Indeed, convincing the revered Mnini to talk to us was as difficult as trying to get to sleep with a new baby around.

Wearing a black cap with a brown golf shirt and matching pair of trousers, Mnini, arguably one of the finest wingers the country has ever produced, made no bones about his aversion to interviews.

"I don't talk to the media, so look for someone who will talk to you," he said in a hostile tone. "I will not talk to you, so go ."

But after much persuasion, the 53-year-old father of three reluctantly agreed to accompany us to the Swallows offices "just for a chat", but insisted that we should not be long as he was tired and wanted to rest.

Mnini turned out to be good company.

He also has a sense of humour.

MCELWA NCHABELENG (MN): What is it with you and interviews?

JOEL MNINI (JM): I hate interviews! I just don't see the reason why I should talk to the media about my career. It really doesn't make sense to me. Those who saw me play know about Joel "Ace" Mnini. It is unfortunate for those who were not born while I was playing.

Look, people will accuse me of blowing my own horn when I start talking about me as a player. But now that you have cornered me, I can proudly tell you that I was the best.

MN: So why did you agree to talk to Sowetan?

JM: Niya fostela angithi (you are forceful). And I know that if I don't appear in the Sowetan, your paper will not sell (smiling for the first time in the interview).

MN: What are you doing for a living?

JM: I coach the Moroka Swallows reserve team (the Under-19 side) and I enjoy each and every minute of it. This is despite the fact that I don't train the team physically. I give out instructions because as you can see for yourself, I can't walk properly. I have a problem with my foot (he struggles to walk though it doesn't appear to be that serious).

MN: What happened?

JM: I don't know, maybe it has to do with age, but at 53 I'm still young. Leon Prins (the Swallows boss) has been insisting that I go for an operation but I'm reluctant because what if the doctors make a mistake during the operation and I die? But I will consider an operation if I don't get any better.

MN: Can you tell us about the players you have produced from the reserve league?

JM: There are many and I have to count. You must remember that I have been working for this team for more than a decade. The players include Sifiso Myeni, Ramahlwe Mphahlele, Spumelele "Ace" Bengu, Sibusiso Khumalo, Ayanda Dlamini, Vincent Kobola, Thulani Ncepe and Keegan Ritchie.

I also had Siphiwe Tshabalala at one stage. I'm working hard to produce more players for the senior team. We are not only promoting players for the sake of it but those who will add value to the team.

MN: How did you join Swallows?

JM: It was in 1977. I was called to train with the team for a day and the following day I was in the starting line-up against Orlando Pirates. I was substituted at the interval. It was a bit hard for me because I was playing on grass for the first time and the pitch was very heavy. I joined them from Zola Black Gorillas.

MN: How was the experience in your first match with Swallows and your reaction to the crowd?

JM: I was a bit nervous and it was natural as it was my first match with such a big club. To make matters worse we were up against another big club. But I settled in well as the match progressed and put one or two shibobos and the crowd loved what they saw.

MN: You scored quite a number of stunning goals in your career, which one do you think still stands out?

JM: The one against Witbank Black Aces. It was in the final of the 1983 Mainstay Cup at Ellis Park Stadium. The match ended with no goals in regulation time and it went into extra time. It was at this stage that I beat Ephraim Maimane with a powerful shot and we won that match 1-0. That goal earned me the Golden Boot award, which I still have at home. I'm proud of that goal and I showed the award to whoever cared to look at it. That award is priceless.

MN: Who was your most difficult opponent?

JS: All of them because every player and coach planned their games around Ace Mnini. But I had a way to deal with them. I was tricky, remember, and always had the last laugh.

MN: Your trickery earned you a horde of soubriquets like Ace, Mkhuthuzi, Mseshi ... the list is endless. Which one were you comfortable with?

JM: I liked all the nicknames, though some of them were misleading. For instance, Mkhuthuzi means someone who pick-pockets in IsiZulu, of which I'm not. But in football I did what my nicknames meant and the fans befittingly gave me those nicknames. I loved my fans.

MN: Are you still being recognised and how do you react to your fans?

JM: Not many people recognise me and I'm happy about this. I'm not a celebrity and it is good for me that I don't draw attention wherever I go. I don't really like to be noticed. But the old-timers at some shebeens still recognise me and they sometimes make it difficult for me to enjoy the cold ones as they will keep asking me question about my playing days.

MN: So you don't think Swallows can win the league title?

JM: Not that I don't have faith in this team. It is just because of the tight title race. For now all the top five clubs can win it and it is difficult to predict which one will clinch it.

MN: Tell us about your family, are you a family man?

JM: I've been married to my lovely wife Dorris for 27 years now and I love her to bits. We have three children - two boys and a girl. The two boys played football at amateur level and though they were promising, they did not take football seriously. But even if they tried to play football at the professional level, they wouldn't have matched me. I was special.

MN: How do you relax?

JM: I watch a lot of soccer on TV but I also have time to chill with my buddies in Zola drinking my favourite Castle Lite (he was quick to insist that he drinks moderately).

MN:Who was the best dresser at Swallows?

JM: Simon Mahlangu.

MN: Who was the most talkative player?

JM: Jeffrey "Tornado" Ntsibande and Panyaza (Andries Maseko), while I was very quiet.

Joel "Umsheshi" Ace Mnini

Former Swallows midfielder, Joel "Ace" Mnini(Left) and John "The Great" Morapedi(Right)
Former Swallows midfielder, Joel "Ace" Mnini(Left) and John "The Great" Morapedi(Right)

William Makhura Recalls The Glory Days With Swallows

The former Moroka Swallows midfielder is employed by the Limpopo department of roads and transport as a traffic officer.

He just loves his job and appreciates the recognition he always receives from motorists who still recognise him.

"Kurra Makhura!", "The great Makhura!" These are some of the reactions he gets from motorists almost on a daily basis on the roads.

"Kurra Makhura" was his famous sobriquet during his spell at the Beautiful Birds in the '80s.

Swallows' devotees also nicknamed the burly Makhura "Sneezing Machine".

The monicker was befitting considering Makhura's adeptness at ripping opponents' midfielders and defenders to shreds almost at will.

He also had the pace and a powerful right foot. He was a complete player.

This week, the Polokwane-based ex-player opened up to Sowetan and spoke about a variety of issues, including his journey to becoming one of the respected footballers in the local game and life after football.

MCELWA NCHABELENG: You are now 56 years old - and how do you find life after football?

WILLIAM MAKHURA: There is life outside football and I enjoy life to the fullest. I remain humble to people and I never complain when people stop me in the streets or at the malls to engage me in football topics. That's how I am.

MN: We are told that you don't issue traffic fines to motorists who speak nice about you as a footballer even if they disobey the rules of the road.

WM: (Laughing) There is no truth in that because when it comes to my work, I fine everybody, even if they are my fans. In fact, the majority of those I have fined turned out to be my fans.

MN: How did you join Swallows?

WM: It was back in 1984 after I left Benoni United. Swallows were very interested in me after my exploits at United and interestingly they were a team I dreamt of playing for.

It was a dream come true for me. I played for them until I hung up my boots in 1990. It was a memorable six years.

MN: How did you join United?

WM: The guys from United used to attend some of our matches at Seshego Stonebreakers and they knew what I can do on the pitch. They were at the Seshego Stadium when we beat Kaizer Chiefs 1-0 in the Champ of Champs in 1978. They were impressed with what they saw. I was on top of my game in that match and we were inspired by the fact that we were playing against a team as big as Chiefs.

They recruited me with Dance Malete, (Kagiso) "Zero My Hero" Mogale and Johannes Mahlaba in 1980.

MN: Which game stands out for you at United?

WM: Let me tell you about the goal I scored in a league match against Chiefs. I scored from a close range from a square pass and Peter Bala'c did nothing to save it. He just stood still and watched the ball hit the back of the net. The match ended in a 1-all draw and we earned a vital point.

MN: At Swallows?

WM: I scored a beauty after a solo effort against Jomo Cosmos in a replay of the Mainstay Cup at Ellis Park Stadium in 1985. I intercepted the ball from the centre and passed it to Thomas Hlongwane who quickly passed back to me to finish the job I'd started. I beat a cluster of midfielders and defenders on my way to score. We won the match 5-3.

MN: Which is your most memorable game at Swallows?

WM: The same match against Cosmos. We were all determined to win the rematch after the first match was abandoned at Volsoorus Stadium after fans invaded the pitch.

We were leading 1-0 through Andries "Chaka Chaka" Mpondo when the match was called off. 'The Godfather" (Mario Tuani, then Swallows coach), teammates and fans gave me fulsome praises after the match.

Just before the final whistle, I stood on top of the ball and the Godfather made a tumble with his glasses on in jubilation and the fans just loved what they saw from me. The Godfather was my best coach.

MN: What was your most embarrassing moment as a professional player?

WM: When we were knocked out in the last-32 stage of the Mainstay Cup by an amateur team from Cape Town. I've forgotten the name of the club and the year but it is good for me that I have forgotten. It was very embarrassing.

MN: Tell us about your first salary at Swallows?

WM: I was paid R450 per month - it was quite a substantial amount of money then. I saved enough to buy a second-hand Mazda 323 cash. The car was worth just over R4,000. I managed my life well with that salary and took care of my family because I was not paying for accommodation. I stayed at the house of one of the club directors in Katlehong.

You can laugh but the R150 a month I earned at Benoni United was also good enough. Remember that I was a teetotaller so I did not spend on alcohol and cigarettes.

MN: How much were your signing-on fees?

WM: It was R250 when I moved to United and R1,000 when I joined Swallows.

MN: When did you hang up your boots?

WM: At the end of 1990 after my six-month loan spell at Pretoria City (who gave birth to SuperSport United).

MN: Do you believe in muthi and did you use it?

WM: Some clubs don't use muthi, others do. They believe muthi will win matches and Swallows are one of those clubs. Though I didn't believe in it, I used it because it was the belief of the club. I believe hard work and commitment, with good coaching, will help clubs succeed, not muthi.

MN: Take us through the rituals at Swallows?

WM: (laughing) I really don't feel comfortable talking about this muthi issue. We had to undergo different rituals before the game.

MN: You were very famous, driving a nice car and surely you were a hit with beautiful women. You had plenty, hey?

WM: No no no! I wasn't a ladies' man. I was just a boy from Seshego and I was in Johannesburg solely to play football. But I must say that I really enjoyed myself in Jozi.

Darius Dhlomo, one of the first South African football players to ply his trade in Europe

The life and times of multi-talented footballer, Darius Dhlomo, and the football administrator, Dan Twala, are also unpacked. Dhlomo, who was born and bred in Durban, was one of the first South Africans to play in the European League, opening the way
The life and times of multi-talented footballer, Darius Dhlomo, and the football administrator, Dan Twala, are also unpacked. Dhlomo, who was born and bred in Durban, was one of the first South Africans to play in the European League, opening the way

The Best South African Soccer Nicknames

Posted: 17 November 2011 Time: 02:18 pm

We've got AK-47, Duku-Duku, Slender and Cheeseboy, but – like strikers – South Africa doesn’t make nicknames like it used to.

KickOff.com is compiling the definitive list of South African soccer nicknames, and we have picked a top 50 to give you 'The General' idea.

Of course, we don't see ourselves as the ultimate 'Professors' of the game, nor do we have the memory of a 'Computer', so we'd love to hear your 'Sense of Knowledge' on the subject.

Don't be 'Stadig my Kind', 'Go-man-go' and send in your 'Killer' memories, before it's too 'City Late'.

You can leave your suggestions in the comments at the end of the story, or get us on

THE TOP 50 (in alphabetical order by first name)

  1. Albert 'Ayashisa Amateki' Mahlangu – the title of a hit pop song from the '80s, by Mercy Pakela, during the heyday of Pantsula dance. (Mahlangu was also known as 'Bashin'.)
  2. Amos 'Heel Extension' Mkhari – reputedly used to take backheel corners.
  3. Andrew 'Jesus Christ' Karajinsky – commanding presence in Pirates' midfield, with flowing black hair and a thick beard.
  4. Andrew 'Jaws of Life' Rabutla – to call him a hard tackler would be an understatement.
  5. Aubrey 'Sense of Knowledge' Lekwane
  6. Bernard 'Dancing Shoes' Hartze – a reference to his slick movement.
  7. Brandon 'Sqebezana' Silent – applied to him and other short players; no bigger than mini-skirts (Silent was also known as '20/20').
  8. Daniel 'Mambush' Mudau – a reference to his height, or lack of it ...
  9. Doctor '16V' Khumalo – because of his powerful engine.
  10. Emmanuel 'The Black Jesus' Ngobese (famously known as 'Scara')

  11. Ephraim 'Shakes' Mashaba – a big, intimidating man, who gave his opponents 'the shakes'. (Others players known as 'Shakes': Alfred Gwabeni, for his midfield antics, and Isaac Kungwane, who defence-splitting passes terrified defenders.)

  12. Ephraim 'The Black Prince' Sono (also known as 'Jomo', 'Troublemaker', 'Mjomana', 'Bra J') – he got the nickname 'Jomo', which most people think is his real name, after the first president of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta, while the moniker 'Black Prince' was given to him at the height of the Black Consciousness movement. As the son of the great 'Scara' Sono he was seen as the heir apparent at Pirates.
  13. Eric 'Scara' Sono – shortened version of Scaramouche, a sly, swaggering, dashing rascal, from the character originating in Italian theatre.
  14. Ernest 'Botsotso' Makhanya – a fan-favourite Buccaneer who made up for a lack of pace with quick passing and good movement off the ball. Small but skilful. (A number of players are known as 'Tso', famously Benedict 'Little Napoleon' Vilakazi.)
  15. Gavin 'Stability Unit' Lane
  16. Harold 'Jazzy Queen' Legodi
  17. Helman 'Midnight Express' Mkhalele – in 1995 South Africa played Egypt in the Four Nations Cup at Mmabatho Stadium, but the match was delayed because of a power failure. When the players finally took to the pitch, Mkhalele was unstoppable and destroyed The Pharoahs, scoring the first goal as Bafana won 2-0. From then on, he was known as 'Midnight Express', which is the poetic name of a fast train that travels at night, popular in literature and film.
  18. Henry 'Black Cat' Cele – became an actor after hanging up his goalkeeper gloves. Played 'Shaka Zulu' in the TV series of the same name in the '80s. (Interestingly, Orlando Pirates striker Siphelele Mthembu is nicknamed 'Shaka Zulu' because he looks like Cele.)
  19. Jabu 'Shuffle the Pack' Mahlangu (Previously Pule. Also known as 'Ngwana wa Tswenya' and 'Lost and Found'.)
  20. Jeffrey 'Tornado' Nsibande

  21. Jerry 'Legs of Thunder' Sikhosana – this was the name of a champion racehorse.

  22. James 'Hitler' Sobi – dominated the ball like Adolf dominated Europe (for a while, anyway).
  23. Jimmy 'Brixton Tower' Joubert – a towering defender.
  24. Johannes ‘Yster’ Khomane – 'iron' in Afrikaans, meaning strong.
  25. Johannes Fetsi 'Telephone Exchange' Molatedi (more famously known as 'Chippa')
  26. Johnny 'Black Sunday' Masegela – scored four goals on a Sunday for Jomo Cosmos against Pirates ... who then signed him, of course.
  27. Kagiso 'Zero my Hero' Mogale
  28. Kaizer 'Chincha Guluva' Motaung – roughly translated as 'dribbling wizard'.
  29. Kenneth 'The Horse' Mokgojoa – defences dreaded hearing this nickname, which conjured up images of a wild stallion galloping towards them at a furious speed.
  30. Lawrence 'Sister Monica' Siyangaphi

  31. Leonard 'Wagga Wagga' Likoebe – like 'Legs of Thunder', this was the name of a champion racehorse.

  32. Lesley 'Slow Poison' Manyathela – a deadly striker known for his lazy, deceptive style. He had great potential, but passed away before his time in a car crash in 2003.
  33. Linda 'Mercedez Benz' Buthelezi – a hard-man, just like the Benz. This nickname was invented by Clive Barker, who famously said, "Buthelezi is my Mercedez Benz".
  34. Mandla 'Metroblitz' Sithole – named after a fast commuter train to Soweto.
  35. Marks 'Go-man-go' Maponyane
  36. Mlungisi 'Professor' Ngubane – an expert in his field, which was on the field.
  37. Nelson 'Teenage' Dladla (also known as 'Botsotso')
  38. Nicholas 'Bazooka' Seshweni – a 'bazooka' is a rocket launcher.
  39. Noel 'Phinda Mzala' Cousins – Song by Stimela, means 'say it again, cousin'. The nickname was given to Cousins because of his scoring prowess.
  40. Ntsie 'Teargas' Maphike – opponents could not see him in the box during corners; as if they had been affected by teargas.

  41. Pule Patrick 'Ace' Ntsoelengoe – As in a deck of cards; the most valuable and skilful player; a game-changer. Other famous Aces: Joel 'Ace' 'Mkhuthuzi' Mnini and Donald 'Ace' Khuse. (Ntsoelengoe was also known as 'Mabheka Phansi', because he used to look down when he played, as if their had been a foul or the match was over, and then surprise opponents with a burst of pace).

  42. Sam 'Happy Cow' Nkomo
  43. Sam 'Babboon Shepherd' Shabangu – a member of the original Pirates (but named thus by a teacher, not on the field of play).
  44. Steve 'Kalamazoo' Mokone – after the hit song, 'I've got a girl in Kalamazoo'.
  45. Stuart 'Kool and the gang' Lille – after the RNB/jazz group.
  46. Sulie 'Bump Jive' Bhamjee
  47. Thabo 'Tsiki Tsiki' Mooki – nickname invented at a time when Kwaito music was still new and setting places ablaze. 'Tsiki Tsiki' was a song by M'du Masilela, who was hot in the early '90s.
  48. Thomas 'Who's Fooling Who' Hlongwane
  49. Vusi ‘Computer’ Lamola – quick-thinking and fast. (Also known as ‘Maria Maria’)
  50. Vusi 'Stadig my kind' Makatini – 'slow down my child' in Afrikaans; that was the message from the crowd as Makatini wreaked havoc on the pitch as a teenager. (Jennifer Malec)

Bias In reporting Fans In The World Cup

Medidne Man From Ghana
Medidne Man From Ghana
Source
Fan of his country soccer club of Ghana
Fan of his country soccer club of Ghana

World Cup Brazil In Retrospect

Fans Of The World Cup And their Fan Styles and belief.. But Remain Fans.. Except Those from Africa.. What's That?

Dubbed "The Ghana Juju Man"...-He Just Shakes His Dreads, and When That Happens.. Ghana Scores.. Believe It On Not.. I see It As Fans Projecting Their Soccer Psyche, and the world is More Like "What The Dicken Is Gong On". But, That is a fallacy and as always, Africa will be negatively projected, even as fans of African teams are doing whatever they are doing, as Fans of other countries are doing, using their own Soccer Fans Superstitions to help psyche other fans and other teams, the best way they know how, but you never hear them or those who write about these things, especially Ghana and other countries from Africa, as if they are doing something wrong, and yet, when they talk about the other fans whose pictures I have shown here, it is not "JuJu" and "Witchcraft".

I have collected this collage of fan picture in their different states of Dress, depicting the colors of their countries, and yet they are talked about in positive terms. But, The Juju Man Of Ghana", is using African Shit to Win matches.. Why? Well, Anything African scares the hell out of other people, and they have always viewed us in a negative light. Yet, the same fans of other countries, looking just as more weird, are not said to be using "Juju" nor spoken of in negative terms. Well, I thought that I would post whatever I could get and let's see what' s happening here.. All these people are fans, and they do whatever they are in all World Cups, present their wares/dress-codes as fans for their National teams..

Africa has the right to do it their way, which has nothing to do with anything, but are shown to be not so human, or fan-like whenever they are doing their Shit.. This is Wrong, and I posted the Photos in this part just to show how all fans, from any part of the world, have their strange stuff.. Yet, in the eyes of these who are detractors of African people, they remain fans. We, in Africa, are "Juju" and we use potions and some whacky shit to win matches.. Well, Germany and the US saw that it is not the Juju, but the skill of our soccer players which delivers the results. Nigeria/Ghana just did it..

Anybody checking out the post I have made about Fans, will notice that all Fans from France, Germany, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, United States, etc., whose pictures I have just posted o this collage, are doing what Fans from all over the World Are doing.. Just Being Fans... That's my point here.. All is nothing but negativity, so long as it relates to Africa.. Well, some of us are here to point out this discrepancy using Imagery from the world cup In Brail just to show how Ridiculous the whole thing about the "juju" man from Ghana, Togo or elsewhere in Africa is just the same crap we hear about us..Well, If its Juju, Then We should be cutting-off their legs of the opposition using the so-called Juju.. Just a lot ot hogwash and negativity..

Fans from Africa are just that.. Fans.. Believe it or not... See the rest of the fourteen(14) or so pictures posted here along within these on the Wall Just to see my point... But I must say the photo of the Ghana Fan with a light sparkling on his left eye is somewhat food for thought...

Soccer Fans From All Over The World Are Merely Soccer Fans

Fan From Togo
Fan From Togo
Tiger Fan
Tiger Fan
Mexican Fan
Mexican Fan
French Fan
French Fan
Fan from Algeria
Fan from Algeria
American Fan
American Fan
From Brazil with love, samba and soccer
From Brazil with love, samba and soccer

Just Checking: The Last Time Culture Was And Is Still Our Way Of Life

I brought in the issue of the 2014 world Cup in Brail because of the biases that are not only found in South Africa, but world wide. There is still a bias against African people that translates an attack against the Africans being fans and people/human beings.

Sports in south Africa started from segregation to today, where it is no more so prominent amongst the poor.The soccer giants of the 1960s to the 1980s are all gone now, and we are left with a former shell of those greats-in terms of soccer. We could not qualify for two World Cups. The one that was held in south in 2010, we qualified because we were the host, and we never even left the group stages of the World Cup2010. This year in 2014 we could not qualify. The sport of soccer has crumbled.

Tennis for Africans has died. There is no production of players, coaching of youngsters and the encouragement of the elderly; the community of Africans has no organized tennis, coaching and many of the tennis courts in the townships have rotten, fallen and gutted, The only Arthur Ashe stadium that has been built has been ridden and riddled with problems and corruption, ineptness and no production of players at any level. Cricket is only amongst the rich communities; golf is the preserve of the rich, who have the poor Africans as caddies for mere pittance.

Boxing is in the doldrums, and in fact, we have a total collapse of the sporting activities that were the staples of the African communities during the apartheid era. It is now in fact, everybody for their children and clique, and the community sporting affair that was a daily routine has now ceased. This is due to the wars since q976, all the way to the coming of the ANC, who created some complicated Sporting Codes, that have effectively taken the creation of sports from a community, to being outsourced to those who are given tender of these Sporting Codes by the government, and that money is stolen and abused, hidden under reports as "other", so that nobody really knows what happened to the monies that were supposed to upgrade the sporting activities in the African communities.

The privatization of Sport since the coming-in of the ANC, has seen soccer die in South Africa. We might have all these leagues, but Internationally we cannot even measure-up. Some of our present players, like the players of old, form Kalamazoo. Kaizer Motaung, Jomo Sono, Ashe Ntswelengoe, and the like, went overseas and became sensational stars too. But the present generation is only good in playing for those clubs overseas, but cannot even compete for South Africa in the International and continental soccer gems. Only individual clubs are trying to win over some African continent or overseas teams in different tourney land.

Culture is embedded in our society and in sports, entertainment and should be in education (which it is not). So that, the fall of sporting activities in the African communication, points to a much more serious dysfunction and social breakdown which can be seen in sports, and also in church attendances, community unity and cohesion, disjointed and destabilized communities and societies, that in the end, the best sporting/entertainment event going is the flow of liquor in an unprecedented usage of different designer drugs that are decimating families and communities (both African and White communities).

This brings into focus issues about our culture. I have tried to show how Art and sports have developed, or was developing, and now it is not; i.e.e, both sports and art are now controlled by foreign companies band White-owned museums and show-rooms. Both sports and art have been taken out of the hands of the sportsmen and artists; out of the control of the communities and the Africans who were supposed to be representing and represented in various sporting activities. Like in the case of when Orland Stadium was rebuilt in preparation for the World Cup, the new stadium is good only for rugby, soccer, and festivals. The Old Orlando stadium used to have Track and field tracks and schools in the communities throughout Soweto would meet there and partake in the sporting activities there. Now, with the new stadium, the track and field stadium has never been configured into the building of the stadium-was never rebuilt into the stadium, and the stadium serves, mostly, soccer teams, and the community has a useless new stadium, either than sports, music, church events and such like things.

This brings me to the culture of Africans in South Africa. I think I have written a lot about this and published various articles here on this Hub.This time, I would only like to showcase our African culture in dress and music and its people.The aim here is not to decry what the Boers and the British have done to us. But emphasis is going to be on how we look in our cultural and customary gear and music and heritage, and hope to create a much more positive and progressive picture and outlook about our diverse culture and its power and beauty below.

Traditional South African Clothing

Bapedi women
Bapedi women
Traditional healers/Sangonas
Traditional healers/Sangonas
Tsonga Women dancing in traditional dress
Tsonga Women dancing in traditional dress
Tonga Lasses Doing Traditional dance in their traditional wear
Tonga Lasses Doing Traditional dance in their traditional wear

Zulu Men In Traditional Clothe, Dancing and singing

Buthelezi and Zulu Indunas in traditional Zulu Wear
Buthelezi and Zulu Indunas in traditional Zulu Wear
Zulu Men Wearing Cultural Garb and performing tradition/customary dance and song
Zulu Men Wearing Cultural Garb and performing tradition/customary dance and song
Swazi Maale Dancers
Swazi Maale Dancers
Full traditional Zulu customary garb, dancing and singing
Full traditional Zulu customary garb, dancing and singing

The Look Of Our Traditional Dress and Culture

Xhosa Men and women in their traditional Xhosa Dress
Xhosa Men and women in their traditional Xhosa Dress
Basotho Men in their traditional hats an dress sitting next to a calabash
Basotho Men in their traditional hats an dress sitting next to a calabash
Venda Women in a traditional gathering
Venda Women in a traditional gathering
Largest Baobab Tree in the world.. Venda City of Limpopo, South Africa
Largest Baobab Tree in the world.. Venda City of Limpopo, South Africa
Beautiful Venda Girl
Beautiful Venda Girl
Ndebele girls in their traditional clothing and sitting next to their house they decorated themselves
Ndebele girls in their traditional clothing and sitting next to their house they decorated themselves
Swazi men doing their traditional dancing and singing, dressed in their cultural/traditional clothes
Swazi men doing their traditional dancing and singing, dressed in their cultural/traditional clothes
Swazi girls in the festival and celebration of the reeds dressed in their colorful traditional dress
Swazi girls in the festival and celebration of the reeds dressed in their colorful traditional dress
Ndebele house
Ndebele house
Zulu Women Clad In Their Best Traditional and customary wear..
Zulu Women Clad In Their Best Traditional and customary wear..
Traditional Zulu home-Made Beer Pot
Traditional Zulu home-Made Beer Pot
Tightly woven Zulu baskets.  These hand woven African baskets are a true art form and are functional, beautiful and decorative as well as a testament to fine weaving skills.  Zulu baskets are considered some of the most collectible baskets in the wor
Tightly woven Zulu baskets. These hand woven African baskets are a true art form and are functional, beautiful and decorative as well as a testament to fine weaving skills. Zulu baskets are considered some of the most collectible baskets in the wor

South African Culture En vogue

Two Zulu Princesses
Two Zulu Princesses
Traditional Zulu Hat Worn By Women
Traditional Zulu Hat Worn By Women
Iscolo- Zulu Women head-gear
Iscolo- Zulu Women head-gear
Zulu Girl Dancing in Traditional wear
Zulu Girl Dancing in Traditional wear

Looking Much closely at the Basotho Traditional Dress

Modern Basotho dressed in Sesotho traditional Cloth and various colors and styles
Modern Basotho dressed in Sesotho traditional Cloth and various colors and styles
Baotho people coveed in their traditional blanet and waring their customary traditional hats-The dress so because they live in the Maluti(Mountains of Drakensberg where it is very cold
Baotho people coveed in their traditional blanet and waring their customary traditional hats-The dress so because they live in the Maluti(Mountains of Drakensberg where it is very cold
A Mosotho Female Initiate coming home
A Mosotho Female Initiate coming home
Basotho Hut
Basotho Hut
Basotho Men tightly clad in their blankets and corning their traditional hats
Basotho Men tightly clad in their blankets and corning their traditional hats
Lesedi Cultural Center in Lesotho
Lesedi Cultural Center in Lesotho
Basotho in the Parade of the blankets and men riding their horses
Basotho in the Parade of the blankets and men riding their horses
Xhosa Women In Their Cultural Element
Xhosa Women In Their Cultural Element
Xhosa children dancing with and for Elderly people
Xhosa children dancing with and for Elderly people
Xhosa Men-Wearing the Mfengu traditional headband and dress/plus beads
Xhosa Men-Wearing the Mfengu traditional headband and dress/plus beads
Thembu women(Of the Xhosa People) wore highly decorated leather purses hanging from the hip over leather skirts.Circa 1960
Thembu women(Of the Xhosa People) wore highly decorated leather purses hanging from the hip over leather skirts.Circa 1960
 Xhosa women in their traditional attire smoking their trademark pipes
Xhosa women in their traditional attire smoking their trademark pipes
Xhosa Mother and child at intonjane at Nkondlo in Transkei province,South Africa.Circa 1962.
Xhosa Mother and child at intonjane at Nkondlo in Transkei province,South Africa.Circa 1962.
 Xhosa ladies.It is important for women to look dignified at all times particularly if there is a cultural ritual. Women must cover their head at all times and have a scarf around their waist and have something to put on their shoulders. This is a si
Xhosa ladies.It is important for women to look dignified at all times particularly if there is a cultural ritual. Women must cover their head at all times and have a scarf around their waist and have something to put on their shoulders. This is a si
Xhosa chiefs waiting to be served traditional beer and meat A chief occupies the position because he is the firstborn son of the main wife of the previous chief. The main wife is the one who was chosen for the chief by the tribe. In the tribal areas
Xhosa chiefs waiting to be served traditional beer and meat A chief occupies the position because he is the firstborn son of the main wife of the previous chief. The main wife is the one who was chosen for the chief by the tribe. In the tribal areas
 Xhosa chieftain Qula kwedini
Xhosa chieftain Qula kwedini
Xhosa Women Dancing
Xhosa Women Dancing
Baby Xhosa girl
Baby Xhosa girl

The Easy Going and Singing/Dancing Batswana

Tswana Girl
Tswana Girl
Tswana Dancers From windhoek, Namibia
Tswana Dancers From windhoek, Namibia
Modern Tswana women in modern Tswana traditional dress
Modern Tswana women in modern Tswana traditional dress
Tswana men in dancing traditional form and mode
Tswana men in dancing traditional form and mode
Motswana Woman carrying her baby other back.. Decked in a scarf the Tswana way..
Motswana Woman carrying her baby other back.. Decked in a scarf the Tswana way..
Tswana Traditional Garb
Tswana Traditional Garb
Tswana Boy Cancers
Tswana Boy Cancers
Tswana Youth doing traditional dancing and wearing traditional clothes
Tswana Youth doing traditional dancing and wearing traditional clothes
Tswana girls dancing their traditional dance
Tswana girls dancing their traditional dance
Batswana Boys doing the traditional dance and singing
Batswana Boys doing the traditional dance and singing
Elderly Batswana Women Dancing their Traditional shindig
Elderly Batswana Women Dancing their Traditional shindig
Tonga men and women
Tonga men and women
Tsonga woman dancing to trading beat in dance and wearing traditional Tsonga skirt
Tsonga woman dancing to trading beat in dance and wearing traditional Tsonga skirt
Shangaan/Tsonga women in traditional dress
Shangaan/Tsonga women in traditional dress
Tsonga Women in Gazankulu, Soouth Africa
Tsonga Women in Gazankulu, Soouth Africa
Tsonga women in their modern Tsonga traditional dress for a wedding
Tsonga women in their modern Tsonga traditional dress for a wedding
Little Tsonga girl in traditional dress
Little Tsonga girl in traditional dress
Tsonga women in traditional dress line-up
Tsonga women in traditional dress line-up
Shangaan women drummers and dancers in traditional clothes and drum singing traditional and dancing traditionally to music of their culture
Shangaan women drummers and dancers in traditional clothes and drum singing traditional and dancing traditionally to music of their culture

The Venda People of Mzantsi

Venda Kids perfuming communal traditional Singing and dance clad in traditional Venda garb...
Venda Kids perfuming communal traditional Singing and dance clad in traditional Venda garb...
Venda traditional dress with a modern touch and taste
Venda traditional dress with a modern touch and taste
Venda Married women
Venda Married women
Young beautiful Venda Ladies adorning their tradition wear
Young beautiful Venda Ladies adorning their tradition wear
Venda women in their traditional outfit
Venda women in their traditional outfit
Venda male Sangoma and dressed in Sangoma regal traditional clothing
Venda male Sangoma and dressed in Sangoma regal traditional clothing
Domba: The domba is a pre-marital initiation. The preparations are made by the families for the girls to be ready and to prepare what is necessary to attend the ceremony. Entrance fee is paid before the girl’s admission.
Domba: The domba is a pre-marital initiation. The preparations are made by the families for the girls to be ready and to prepare what is necessary to attend the ceremony. Entrance fee is paid before the girl’s admission.
The tshikona is also traditionally a male dance in which each player has a pipe made out of a special indigenous type of bamboo growing only in few places around Sibasa and Thohoyandou (which no longer exists). Each player has one note to play, which
The tshikona is also traditionally a male dance in which each player has a pipe made out of a special indigenous type of bamboo growing only in few places around Sibasa and Thohoyandou (which no longer exists). Each player has one note to play, which
The tshigombela is a female dance usually performed by married women, this is a festive (winter months) dance sometimes played at the same time as the reed flute dance of the men (tshikona). Tshifhasi is similar to tshigombela but performed by young
The tshigombela is a female dance usually performed by married women, this is a festive (winter months) dance sometimes played at the same time as the reed flute dance of the men (tshikona). Tshifhasi is similar to tshigombela but performed by young
Pottery Of the Venda Poeple
Pottery Of the Venda Poeple
Venda Sculpturing
Venda Sculpturing
Venda Village and its art and sculpture/architecture
Venda Village and its art and sculpture/architecture
Venda Traditional dancers and singers/performers in traditional garb
Venda Traditional dancers and singers/performers in traditional garb
Renowned Venda Artist Noria Mabasa was born in Xigalo village in 1938
Renowned Venda Artist Noria Mabasa was born in Xigalo village in 1938
The Art Of Noria Mabasa
The Art Of Noria Mabasa

Bapedi man in their traditional gear

The Northern Sotho have been subdivided into the high-veld Sotho, which are comparatively recent immigrants mostly from the west and southwest, and the low-veld Sotho, who combine immigrants from the north with inhabitants of longer standing. The hig
The Northern Sotho have been subdivided into the high-veld Sotho, which are comparatively recent immigrants mostly from the west and southwest, and the low-veld Sotho, who combine immigrants from the north with inhabitants of longer standing. The hig
BaPedi Women wearing their traditional clothes. Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. The language of Sepedi is spoken by approximately 4,208,980 individuals and it is one of the eleven official languages in Sout
BaPedi Women wearing their traditional clothes. Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. The language of Sepedi is spoken by approximately 4,208,980 individuals and it is one of the eleven official languages in Sout
Modernly dressed Bapedi women in their cultural dress. Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. The language of Sepedi is spoken by approximately 4,208,980 individuals and it is one of the eleven official languages
Modernly dressed Bapedi women in their cultural dress. Sepedi is also sometimes referred to as Sesotho sa Laboa or Northern Sotho. The language of Sepedi is spoken by approximately 4,208,980 individuals and it is one of the eleven official languages
Bapedi men making preparation of their drums for a Cultural celebration and festivities
Bapedi men making preparation of their drums for a Cultural celebration and festivities
A moped man clad in traditional regalia performing a Traditional dance, and clad in Pedi men's traditional war. The present-day Pedi area, Sekhukhuneland, is situated between the Olifants River (Lepelle) and its tributary the Steelpoort River (Tubats
A moped man clad in traditional regalia performing a Traditional dance, and clad in Pedi men's traditional war. The present-day Pedi area, Sekhukhuneland, is situated between the Olifants River (Lepelle) and its tributary the Steelpoort River (Tubats
Bapedi women hawking their wares: Embroidered Beads. The Pedi are of Sotho origin. The name Sotho is derived from batho ba baso,meaning dark or black people. All available evidence indicates that the Sotho migrated southwards from the region of the G
Bapedi women hawking their wares: Embroidered Beads. The Pedi are of Sotho origin. The name Sotho is derived from batho ba baso,meaning dark or black people. All available evidence indicates that the Sotho migrated southwards from the region of the G
Young Bapedi Women in traditional dress. Women did agricultural work, and men and boys work related to cattle. Male superiority was reinforced in daily life: for example at meals men and initiated boys sat together and were served first, and women at
Young Bapedi Women in traditional dress. Women did agricultural work, and men and boys work related to cattle. Male superiority was reinforced in daily life: for example at meals men and initiated boys sat together and were served first, and women at
Royal Highness accompanied by her sister in laws, in sepedi 'ke di ngwetshi'-they are married women. They all dressed in the same attire.
Royal Highness accompanied by her sister in laws, in sepedi 'ke di ngwetshi'-they are married women. They all dressed in the same attire.
Bapedi Woman
Bapedi Woman
Bapedi women dressed in ceremonial.cultural garb, and performing their sacred rites and practices, through music and dance
Bapedi women dressed in ceremonial.cultural garb, and performing their sacred rites and practices, through music and dance
Bapedi Man performing his traditional dance adorned in his customary traditional clothing
Bapedi Man performing his traditional dance adorned in his customary traditional clothing
Swazis at the Reed Festivities
Swazis at the Reed Festivities
Swazi men corning their traditional wear and necklaces, carrying their cultural sticks on their way to a Swazi Reed festival
Swazi men corning their traditional wear and necklaces, carrying their cultural sticks on their way to a Swazi Reed festival
Swazi Girl in her traditional adornment and with a cell phone to go with that too. African Culture meets modernity
Swazi Girl in her traditional adornment and with a cell phone to go with that too. African Culture meets modernity
Swazi men in traditional garb and accessories marching to the Reeds festivities
Swazi men in traditional garb and accessories marching to the Reeds festivities
Swazi young lasses strolling to the center of the Reed festivities
Swazi young lasses strolling to the center of the Reed festivities
Swazi men and boys in the Reeds march
Swazi men and boys in the Reeds march
Swazi children in the formation of their Reeds fest
Swazi children in the formation of their Reeds fest
Swazi Young and youthful girls marching in the Reeds
Swazi Young and youthful girls marching in the Reeds
Swazi ladies clad in their traditional cloths and beadwork
Swazi ladies clad in their traditional cloths and beadwork
2 Swazi Pinces
2 Swazi Pinces
Zulu Swazi Princess and her maidens
Zulu Swazi Princess and her maidens
Swazi Girls Collecting The Reeds for the Festivities
Swazi Girls Collecting The Reeds for the Festivities
Swazi girls gracing the Reeds Festivities in Swaziland
Swazi girls gracing the Reeds Festivities in Swaziland
Teenagers marching in the Reeds festivities
Teenagers marching in the Reeds festivities
Swazi children in the Reed mix
Swazi children in the Reed mix
Adorning their cultural gdb and marching in the reed carrying their traditional sticks, The elderly men march on in the Reeds Festivities, bare-footed
Adorning their cultural gdb and marching in the reed carrying their traditional sticks, The elderly men march on in the Reeds Festivities, bare-footed
Young pretty girls showing of their curtail style and all the accessories..
Young pretty girls showing of their curtail style and all the accessories..
Young Swazi lad clad in cultural garb and a stoic look to go with it...
Young Swazi lad clad in cultural garb and a stoic look to go with it...
Young Swazi Lass strutting her cultural stuff and stride with confidence and dignity
Young Swazi Lass strutting her cultural stuff and stride with confidence and dignity
Young and pretty Swazi girl holding her Reeds, and adorned in her cultural garb
Young and pretty Swazi girl holding her Reeds, and adorned in her cultural garb

The KhoiSan

They called Themselves Khoikhoi to distinguish themselves from those who do not own livestock. They had lived in southern Africa since the 5th century AD.When European immigrants colonised the area after 1652, the Khoikhoi were practising extensive p
They called Themselves Khoikhoi to distinguish themselves from those who do not own livestock. They had lived in southern Africa since the 5th century AD.When European immigrants colonised the area after 1652, the Khoikhoi were practising extensive p
Rituals The central theme of almost all Khoikhoi ritual was the idea of transformation, or transition from one state to another. Most rituals marked the critical periods of change in a person's life - birth, puberty, adulthood, marriage and death. Th
Rituals The central theme of almost all Khoikhoi ritual was the idea of transformation, or transition from one state to another. Most rituals marked the critical periods of change in a person's life - birth, puberty, adulthood, marriage and death. Th
The rituals also reveal something about social relationships and status in Khoikhoi society. Wealthy stock-owners gained prestige by their ability to provide stock for the feasts they hosted. Marriage involved the transfer of cattle. The emphasis on
The rituals also reveal something about social relationships and status in Khoikhoi society. Wealthy stock-owners gained prestige by their ability to provide stock for the feasts they hosted. Marriage involved the transfer of cattle. The emphasis on
Khoisan Cave painting
Khoisan Cave painting
Khoisan man with his children/family
Khoisan man with his children/family
Pausing and taking a break in the sand dunes whilst watching the sun go down and contemplating the next move/a child playing nearby
Pausing and taking a break in the sand dunes whilst watching the sun go down and contemplating the next move/a child playing nearby
Khoisan children
Khoisan children

The Aesthetics Of The Cultures Of Africans In South Africa

Culture As A Review-Mirror Into Our Past, Present And Future...

"Ways Of Looking And Learning From Our Own Cultures"..

This whole section showcasing the culture of the Africans in South Africa reveals somethings about itself. It is a very powerful and colorful culture. Many things are the same if one were to look at it from the traditional clothing and the colors used. It is a culture which is full of play, laughter, singing, action, human-centeredness and having humanity(what people have come to know s 'Ubuntu'/'Botho').

It is a people-centered culture in that it involves large numbers of peoples in its ceremonials and Africans and brings together Africans living and doing their culture. For us to learn and know more about culture and its diverse but sameness, we have to see it laid-out in the format I have just presented here. A photographic essay on the 10 different peoples of African descent in South Africa, teaches us to see ourselves as a nation with variegated but diverse cultural manifestations, but it is more bits and pieces of a wholesome one-unified culture.

We have to see ourselves not as our former enslaver meant us to be like. Seeing each other as 'tribes', as being different and with nothing in common. That is, until one begins to view the whole cultural landscape of Mzantsi in int various forms and manifestations, one will not be able to see the uniformity and continuity of a culture that we need to transmit to our children and their future.

If we want our culture to live and be powerful, we are going to have to make it so. I have laid out a rough-sketch of "Ways Of Looking And Learning From Our Own cultures" on this Wall. The intention was to give form and structure to what up to now has been dubbed a divided and different[backward] culture.

I have attempted to show that it is one culture, if one were to look at its material culture very closely, and dances, colors, singing, and so forth, that all theses are the one heartbeat of our large and diverse unified culture.

Even in photographs, our culture lives and breathes joy and happiness. The music vibes which I will post of the various people's whose pictures I have shown here, will give the viewer reader a much more better sense as to what this culture is about, outside the photos into live video. Meaning, seeing it live is awesome, for real. The videos only give a glimpse of this fact.

We should know and understand our culture. We should pick it apart and align all the similar things about it on one side, and line up the differences and base them on degree; in so doing, like a puzzle work, we will be able to discern and put together our culture as one culture with diverse but original same parts to it throughout the different various 10 peoples of South Africa.

The styles of the women dresses are as diverse and different and yet the same. One dress links to two or different other types of cultural dresses in the group of the 10 peoples of Mzantsi. but they Do not lose their uniqueness and originality, whilst conforming cry closely and tightly to the traditional cultural original as much as possible.

It's just like our languages and music. One is different as according to the region, but have many similarities in worlds, meanings, syntax, content ext, memes, zines, donation, accentuation, voicing(here too it is by region, not necessarily different to any other language, tones, accents and so forth of other languages of the 10 peoples of South Africa.

Just by looking at the picture, they jump out one with their color and all types of gyration and smiles-exuding energy. Technology only enhances it and blows it out on our screens. We see us in many different ways, acts, poises, positions, and all the time singing and smiling, and enjoying it all. How then can such a culture be a backward culture? How so, indeed?

The arts and sculptures ring African in form and structure; design and message transmission. The music is one of its kind with many genres to pool from; the traditional dress in impeccable, to say the least, and it blends with nature and the joy people are engulfed into in the pictures below-in its birth colors.

This is a culture that is suited for technology for it brings vibrancy color, sounds, and various and the same languages, cultural dress bright colors, different styles, and of course, I like the fact that it has shown the knack to adjust to modern times and change in look, form and aesthetics-to all its people here in Mzantsi.

We should choose and display all the positive parts of our culture without being negative. Positive images of our culture enhance our being human in the global nations. We attain an identity that adds to the potpourri of cultures dotting the planet earth. We have in our cultures than that I have displayed more than I would have like to show.

One of the thing about our culture is what is considered nudity in the Western world is what I know as our way of life, bare-breasted women are not seen as object of sex, in the true cultural sense of the meaning and use/reality that women working/walking and dancing/performing bare-breasted, is seen as natural in South Africa, but then, here on the Web, it takes its own life.

So I have carefully chosen those images that are positive, not to try and create some sensationalism, but to put forth a positive and good image of ourselves as the Africans of South Africa.

This is our culture as it is lain before our eyes by the present technology. It tells us and talks to us about ourselves. It teaches us about ourselves through ourselves. There is no way we are gong to learn anything from anyone if we do not learn everything about ourselves within our culture.

This is that way of feeling, being and edifying oneself by confirming our human beingness as real and respectable as all other human beings The changing and various forms and patterns that are imbedded in our culture are the very variants and other such related differences/likeness that are like pistons of a car, but they have one engine: Our Unified African Diversified Culture here in Mzantsi...

We cannot rely on our miseducated selves and keep on regurgitating what we have imbibed in the marble halls of higher learning. We have to begin to use that knowledge solidly in finding new ways that jive with the technology and puts a positive spin on our culture and people. Other people have their cultures to take care of.

We Africans of Mzantsi do not need to make excuses to anyone about how we want to present ourselves in the spiraling viral stream we are all hooked-up to. We must stop consulting about ourselves and our culture just because we will say we are employed or 'moving on up'. To where, when in no time most of us are thrown out like snuff mucous when there's no more use for us in the private sector and government.

Our culture is the way towards our building a united African nation. Some people extol and expound on us having a revolution. I am more inclined to look at it from our cultural revolution, which in of itself is very difficult, but once gotten control of by the masses, it is one of the most potent weapons we can ask for in any confrontation or success. We should not only issue palliatives, complains and carry-on like we cannot think. We have so much to do with in and with our cultures here in South Africa

Our own culture beckons to us without making too much noise. Acting it our will help us right our present sinking ship. We can and should shore it to adapt to present without losing its cultural core. That is possible as seen here on the post. The thinking about it is believing that it is doable and can come true in the minds and lives of the Africans of South Africa.

That, in reality, these other cultures can be appreciated, but not at the expenses of our own culture, which has represented itself well on the Web-and over time whilst we were oppressed and incarcerated in the Township Concentration Camps. I know because I post in very many Walls, and the reviews are very encouraging.

Culture as pedagogical material is great because you do not have to buy books, but just participating is good enough for one to be cultured by their own culture. We have enough material culture to take us into the much more deeper and longer future.

Our way of life is just as good as any, and will not sound culturally chauvinistic about the issue, but we are a viable and live culture that is just as powerful as any, and full of many things as anyone on the planet earth, and that really should tweak something in many of us.

This Hub is about sports, Arts and Culture(music, dance and traditional dress, plus accessories) and how this has deteriorated over time and the oncoming ANC-led government has not done any better.The other thing that this Hub does towards the end is to use culture as a motivator of all the doom and boom before I posted photo of the Africans of South Africa.

The Hub is also a way of learning from and about our culture from viewing photos made of it. The use of the social media, whereby we are able to post these photos and bring awareness about the Culture of South Africans. I tried to look for and use high resolution photos to heighten awareness and ways of seeing this culture.I still need to put in many people who are part of the creation and sustenance of the culture of Africans in South Africa,

Gerard Sekoto

Art Dpeicting Life,,,
Art Dpeicting Life,,,
San Art
San Art

Technology And Machine: The Africans Of Mzantsi - Living In the World Of Technopological Technopoly..

"Modern Antique African Culture"

"Then too, one can extract from our indigenous cultures a lot of positive virtues which should teach the Westerner a lesson or two. The easiness with which Africans communicate with each other is not forced by authority, but is inherent in the make-up of African people.... Again, this is a manifestation of the interrelationship between man and man in the Black(African) world, as opposed to the highly impersonal world in which Whitey lives. These are the characteristics we must not allow ourselves to lose. Their value can only be appreciated by those of us who have not yet been made slaves to technology and the machine... (Bantu) ...

Do we early understand the present-day technology and the machines(gizmos it has spawned and still emerging as I am speaking?) There is also this confusion and misperception as if culture in South Africa cannot be merged with the modern technologies and its machines, and that we are a hopeless and lost backward cause and people.

One can see this from the virulent and vitriolic posts one finds in many posts about South Africa and the culture/custom/traditions/history/music and traditional gear/music and dances of the Africans, and this has taken the form of our former detractors be our 'interpreters' and propagators of our culture as they have been lying to us about our past and culture, etc., are, on the Web, somehow the preserve of these White writers, and the uglier they sound and write, the more they attack and put down African people-and they have ardent readers out there. It is our duty to change this picture and perception.

I am not making this up, and also, this piece is about technology and Biko foresaw its downside and I wish he had elaborated more. But the bit he says above, is more powerful than a million words: "These are the characteristics we must not allow ourselves to lose(Of our Culture). Their value can only be appreciated by those of us who have not yet been made slaves to technology and the machine"... (Bantu)

We are living today in the 'present future', and as we struggle to come to grips with the emerging technologies and their submerging and linking limos, we have become or are on our way to becoming technophiles in a Technological/Technopological environments/societies and reality, that we need to begin to "Understand The Media", and Know that The Message Is In The Media , And The Media Is the message.

Thinking outside the Box/Web, has become very difficult for man today. We are today using these technologies, and do not understand their human effects and affects on our using, being exposed and depending on them. This has been shown to have some kind of effects on memory, retention, in-depth-reading-i.e., many today are being literarily being consumed and swallowed wholesale by these technological badges and their techniques.

Some of us today read Biko to confirm their worst fears about his Black?African Consciousness to suit and confirm their fears and disbelief about Biko.. I got this quote from someone on Facebook:

"We don't want to be reminded that it is we, the indigenous people, who are poor and exploited in the land of our birth. These are concepts which the Black Consciousness approach wishes to eradicate from the black man's before our society is driven to chaos by irresponsible people from Coca Cola and hamburger cultural backgrounds..."...from the quest for a True Humanity, I write What I like, 1978..

I think today we cannot escape from the fact that our lives are being dictated to by Cash(Material want/looting and greed/theft.. Biko was not even near trying to say that if the Black/Man can rise from the grip of Apartheid, he will have no need to be 'reminded, that we, the original people of this land are poor and exploited in our land.. So that, it would be clear that Bantu is saying African Consciousness is a way of eradicating that mind-set referred to above, of being reminded of our misery by being side-tracked by cultural imperialism", which is what we are at present using to communicate: Imperial media and machines known as the Computer(Smart phones, etc), Lap tops, Computer, The Internet, Streaming and The social Media.

My opening with Biko's reference to Technology and machine, was precisely the very reality we are all linking in, and are not even conscious of the effects and affects of Technopological Technology, its gizmos and their embedded techniques. and these machines impact/enslave and inaccurate its users in our society to become alienated against their poor brethren who mightn't afford some of theses machines and 'Air-Time"(another form of censorship here), which comes out to be cry expensive.

And not only that, the access which has been so carved-up by these Internet Service providers, in the end, the poor who cannot afford computers, smart-phone, and "Air-time" for their Internet, are outside the loop, and will not likely recover from this decrepit situation; this also has a large impact/and paradigm shift on our ways of life(African Culture, and defiles and destroys our humanity, psyche, communities and existence(wretched or opulent), in ways that Bantu has referred to: that his generation was lucky not to be affected and effected by Technology and Machines. Pithy!

It is at this Juncture that we check out what McLuhan has to Say about 'Enculturation'...

"After three thousand years of explosion, by means of fragmentary and mechanical technologies, the Western world is imploding” (McLuhan 3) With these words on the first page of Understanding Media published in 1964, Marshall McLuhan burst onto the intellectual scene with his most influential book. At the time the Commonweal Review called the book “infuriating, brilliant, and incoherent” (Gordon, "Critical Reception.") More recently, Nicholas Carr wrote that Understanding Media is “oracular, gnomic, and mind-bending” . Terrance Gordon argues that “Understanding Media occupies a central place in McLuhan’s work” but also says that the book “defies summary” (“Editor’s Introduction” xiii).

With its mosaic style 'Understanding Media' is not an easy book to understand or to teach to students. I have been teaching Marshal McLuhan’s Understanding Media to undergraduates for 18 years. When teaching major theorists such as McLuhan, I prefer to expose students to the original texts rather than distillations provided by another author whenever possible. This, of course, presents some difficulties in McLuhan’s case because of his nonlinear style and the complexity of his ideas.

In this essay I will explain how I interpret McLuhan’s Understanding Media. This essay is more interpretative than pedagogical. If we understand what McLuhan is saying in this book and how he is saying it, we can make these ideas understandable to students and interested readers. I impose some linearity and coherence on McLuhan by identifying the following four themes that run throughout the book: media as extensions of ourselves, hot and cold media, the reversal of the overheated medium, and antidotes to the narcotic effects of media. Understanding Media as McLuhan discusses how his theories apply to specific media, is vast and very involved. In this piece, I will only deal with "Media As Extensions Of Ourselves"

Media as Extensions of Ourselves

The core of McLuhan’s theory, and the key idea to start with in explaining him, is his definition of media as extensions of ourselves. McLuhan writes: “It is the persistent theme of this book that all technologies are extensions of our physical and nervous systems to increase power and speed," and, “Any extension, whether of skin, hand, or foot, affects the whole psychic and social complex. Some of the principle extensions, together with some of their psychic and social consequences, are studied in this book."

From the premise that media, or technologies McLuhan’s approach makes “media” and “technology” more or less 'synonymous terms', are extensions of some physical, social, psychological, or intellectual function of humans, flows all of McLuhan’s subsequent ideas. Thus, the wheel extends our feet, the phone extends our voice, television extends our eyes and ears, the computer extends our brain, and electronic media, in general, extend our central nervous system.

In McLuhan’s theory language too is a medium or technology (although one that does not require any physical object outside of ourselves) because it is an extension, or outering, of our inner thoughts, ideas, and feelings—that is, an extension of 'inner consciousness'. McLuhan sees the enormous implications of the development of language for humans when he writes:

“It is the extension of man in speech that enables the intellect to detach itself from the vastly wider reality. Without language . . . human intelligence would have remained totally involved in the objects of its attention."

Thus, spoken language is the key development in the evolution of "human consciousness" and "culture" and the medium from which subsequent technological extensions have evolved.

But recent extensions via electronic technology elevate the process of technological extension to a new level of significance: “Whereas all previous technology [save speech, itself] had, in effect, extended some part of our bodies, electricity may be said to have outered the central nervous system itself, including the brain."

Thus, pre-electric extensions are explosions of physical scale outward, while electronic technology is an inward implosion toward 'shared consciousness', a change that has significant implications. McLuhan states: “Our new electric technology that extends our senses and nerves in a global embrace has large implications for the future of language." This electronic extension of consciousness is one about which McLuhan himself seems conflicted, as when he writes:

"Rapidly, we approach the final phase of the extension of man—the technological simulation of consciousness, when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of human society, much as we have already extended our senses and nerves by the various media. Whether the extension of consciousness, so long sought by advertisers for specific products, will be 'a good thing' is a question that admits of a wide solution."

Thus, it is incorrect to categorize McLuhan as either a technophile or a technophobe, but I prefer to call him a "Media Ecologist, as his critics often try to do. McLuhan is more interested in exploring the implications of our technological extensions than in classifying them as inherently “good” or “bad.” And McLuhan's preview of the effects and affects of technological and its cultural artifacts, seems to be headed for its take over from human beings and various cultures as we know them, heretofore.

At times McLuhan speaks of a movement toward a 'global consciousness' in positive terms, as when he writes: “might not our current translation of our entire lives into the spiritual form of information seem to make of the entire globe, and of the human family, a single consciousness?" But at other times, he expresses reservations about this development: “With the arrival of electric technology, man extended, or set outside himself, a live model of the central nervous system itself. To the degree that this is so, it is a development that suggests a desperate and suicidal autoamputation . . ."

Art and Sculpture From African South African Artists

"Anguished Woman" by Dumile Feni
"Anguished Woman" by Dumile Feni
Dumile Feni's Art...
Dumile Feni's Art...
Gerard Bhengu's Art...
Gerard Bhengu's Art...
"Dancer" Sculptured by Sydney Khumalo
"Dancer" Sculptured by Sydney Khumalo

Thus, one of McLuhan’s key concerns in Understanding Media is to examine and make us aware of the implications of the evolution toward the extension of collective human consciousness facilitated by electronic media.

Also, he coined the term "Global Village' precisely for the reasons of his oscillations above, One can see that he knew that the Internet will get hold of the 'global village encased in a global consciousness-but he really does not know if the advertisers and spin masters will eventually overcome. That will need another article just to discuss that fact.

Bantu Biko knew that our culture was a 'conscious culture,' and that, if it was to be in the orb of Technologies and machines, it might spinout of control. So far, we have learned the other way round. We forgot all about culture and dove head-first into the emerging and merging technologies. What then happened is that, our culture was and is still well-suited for the present technology, but we, whose culture it is, do not know or have forgotten a lot about our own cultures, traditions, custom, history, music traditional dress, music, and dances.

Our culture is an extension of ourselves, our being and reality. We wear it, dance to its rhythms as we do in a diverse fashion. Our culture can go viral and be the staple of exhibitions like other people of other cultures ddl. Being ashamed of one's culture means one is ashamed of themselves.' The social media is just what the doctor ordered for our culture. We are a talkative and friendly people, and we recognize that we are a 'people centered' nation, no matter how much we might try to be Europeanized, Americanized and Asianized.

We cannot change ourselves and pretend as if our culture does not exist, and when we show it here on the media, some believe we are embarrassing ourselves. Those who are embarrassed should see how the world looks at their fake selves: fake accents and exaggerated love of exorbitant clothing, cars(machines), new smartphones, living in opulence and being lewd and lascivious in many of our indiscretions… Simply stated: Cultureless Anomie And Normlessness.

So that, it is how we do not know or not know what to do with these technologies that is our shortcoming and Achilles heel. We have to first of all understand concretely clear know all our cultures, languages, music, dances, customs and so forth, before we can even wax political and economical.

We cannot keep up this life-style when our country is going broke. Where do we think that the gold and diamonds unearthed in 'our mines' is going to? What are we getting for it? Gold Teeth and diamond eating(by many young men/women) 'Blinging' like we are not 'cultured and civilized'.

We cannot transplant nor copycat other cultures wen we have our own. Once we begin to know more and solidly, and are prepared to sacrifice and suffer for our people without looking forward towards remuneration; once we set clear goals and positive outcome in manipulating and applying our culture amongst ourselves, we will become empowered and we will be able to won and control our Nation.

Bantu writes this about Black(African) Consciousness, after talking about Technology above:

"…Here again Black(African) Consciousness seeks to show the Black(African) people the value of their own standards and outlook. It(Black/African Consciousness), urges Black(African) to judge themselves according to these standards, and not be fooled by White society who have white-washed themselves and made White standards the yardstick by which even Black(African) people judge each other.

"It is probably necessary at this stage to warn all and sundry about the limits of endurance of the human mind. This is particularly necessary in the case of the African people. Ground for a revolution is always fertile in the presence of absolute destitution. At some stage one can foresee a situation where Black(African) people will feel they have nothing golive for and will shout unto their God, "Thy Will Be done."

Bantu adds:
"Indeed his will shall be done, but it shall not apply equally to all mortals for indeed we have different versions(!!), of his will. If the White God has been doing the talking all along, at some stage the Black(African) God will have to raise His voice and make Himself heard over and above noises from His counterpart.What happens at that stage depends largely on what happens in the intervening period.

"Black(African) Consciousness" therefore seeks to give positivity in the outlook of the Black(African people to their problems. It works on the knowledge that White hatred" is negative, though understandable, and leads to precipitate and shot-gun methods which may be disastrous for Black(African) and White alike.

"Black[African] Consciousness seeks to channel the pent-up forces of the angry Black(African) masses to meaningful and directional opposition basing its entire struggle on realities of the situation. Black(African Consciousness wants to ensure a singularity of purpose in the minds of Black(African) people and to make possible total involvement of the masses in a struggle essentially theirs." (Bantu Biko)

Reading Biko is ordering our priorities, shifting the existing paradigm to the one that is people-centered; it is utilizing the present technologies as in an oral form that is already part of our cultural and linguistic make-up; we belong to the conscious global humanity and therefore, our own Black[African] Consciousness is part of the human progression and the evolvement of culture as it adapts to the present Technopological Technologica/merging-emerging-and-gadget-ridden societies we are all now part of. Technology should serve our needs and interest; we should not be the slaves of technology, serving it and being dictated to in our soul's core by its technique and surging stream serving int the Internet viral soup.

Douglass Rushkoff informs us that:

"When we use technologies in a passive, unthinking way, we risk changing our world and behaving in ways driven by our technologies’ built-in biases. For example, think of the difference between the websites Amazon and Facebook. What does Amazon want you to do? Buy stuff. So every button, every paragraph, every pop-up window you see when you visit Amazon is designed to get you to buy stuff. Facebook, on the other hand, wants you to share information about yourself — because that information is valuable to the marketing companies and research firms who pay Facebook for access to it. That’s why Facebook encourages you to list the bands and brands you like, and to “friend” and “like” everything in your universe. You aren’t Facebook’s customer; those businesses are. Your information is Facebook’s product.

The debate over whether the Net is good or bad for us fills the airwaves and the blogosphere. But for all the heat of claim and counter-claim, the argument is essentially beside the point: it’s here; it’s everywhere. The real question is, do we direct technology, or do we let ourselves be directed by it and those who have mastered it? “Choose the former,” writes Rushkoff, “and you gain access to the control panel of civilization. Choose the latter, and it could be the last real choice you get to make.” In ten chapters, composed of ten “commands” accompanied by original illustrations from comic artist Leland Purvis, Rushkoff provides cyberenthusiasts and technophobes alike with the guidelines to navigate this new universe.

In this spirited, accessible poetics of new media, Rushkoff picks up where Marshall McLuhan left off, helping readers come to recognize programming as the new literacy of the digital age––and as a template through which to see beyond social conventions and power structures that have vexed us for centuries. This is a friendly little book with a big and actionable message.

World-renowned media theorist and counterculture figure Douglas Rushkoff is the originator of ideas such as “viral media,” “social currency” and “screenagers.” He has been at the forefront of digital society from its beginning, correctly predicting the rise of the net, the dotcom boom and bust, as well as the current financial crisis.

'We're living in a new era in which the omnipresence of media and media-delivering devices have combined the past, present, and future into an always-on 'now,' where the priorities of the moment trump all else.' And he says this unwelcome change has its origins in the Industrial Revolution. While improvements in sanitation, life expectancy, and social mobility are hard to deny, he argues that this temporal disruption continues to be one of the most profound effects of the Industrial Era.

In our man centered society we talk and converse incessantly with one another- and we do not do this for the sake of arriving at a particular conclusion, but merely to enjoy communication for its own sake. Intimacy is a term not exclusive for particular friends but applying to a whole group of people who find themselves together through work or through residential requirements.

"In fact, in the traditional African culture, there is no such things as two friends. Conversation groups were more or less naturally determined by age and division of labor. Thus one would find all boys whose job was to look after cattle periodically meeting at popular spots to engage in conversation about their cattle, girlfriends, parents, heroes, etc.

All commonly shared their secrets, joys and woes. The curiosity manifested was welcome. It came out of a desire to share. This pattern one would find in all age groups. House visiting was always a feature of the elderly folk's way of life. No reason was needed as a basis for visits. It was all part of our deep concern of each other(This is Ubuntu/Botho with pretenses and falsities-my add).

"Nothing dramatizes the eagerness of the African to communicate with each other more than their love for song and rhythm. Music in The African Culture features in all emotional states. When we go to work, we share the burdens and pleasures of he work we are doing through music. .. Any suffering we experienced was made much more real by song and rhythm…"

Biko has just described the Whole social network we are all hooked-up to today and what and how we could use it amongst ourselves. These ways of attending, communicating and engaging with one another are what we have in our culture, and we do not need to look for any new ways of using Facebook today. We communicate with each other, we share, everybody in our enclaves and collectives is our "Friend," and there is nothing new here.

Understanding The Media and ourselves in the past and in real time is of prime importance here: the Present future, will require us to pay attention to ourselves and how we conduct or live our ways of life: Culture, etc. Bantu has just reminded us what our music is to us. All these things I have posted on this wall, and hope they stir some imagination or ideas that can be worked on to better our lot. We should not and cannot forfeit our culture for unknown colorless pastures. We are more well versed with who we are than what we are now of late pretending to be, which is not our own selves, by the way. We have a culture that is well designed to be prime in the viral stream and social media, because we are a people-centered Nation.

This finally brings me back to Bantu Biko who writes:

"I'm against the belief that African culture is time-bound, the notion that with the conquest of the African, all his culture was obliterated. I am also against the belief that when one talks of African culture, one is necessarily talking of the pre-Van Riebeeck culture. Obviously, the African culture has had to sustain severe blows and may have gotten battered nearly out of shape by the belligerent culture it collided with, yet in essence, even today, one can easily find the fundamental aspects of the pure African culture in the present-day African. Hence, in taking a look at African culture, I am, going to refer as well to what I have termed the "Modern African Culture".

This is the culture I have posted of its ten peoples, in their different types of cultural dress, and I have also posted their music and dances. If anything about technology about has anything to do with our culture, it is that our culture, as I have demonstrated through the various posting below, is made for and easily adapts to the present-day technologies and techniques. We need to make it grow and glow in its magnificence and Power...

Our Culture Lives and It Rocks!

SKHOKHO!

1. Douglass Rushkoff's Mechanical time And Human time Schema

2. Gerard Sekotos' Communal Meeting/Gathering/[Imbizo-Zulu/Pitso-Sotho]

3. Art Of The San People Today: traditionally, San artists found their materials in nature. Their canvases were rock and stone surfaces in caves, under overhangs and in the open veld. Their paints were finely ground ochre, charcoal and clay, mixed with natural binding agents.
As the pressures of modernity have increasingly eroded San culture, they have also resulted in fewer and fewer San artists. By promoting their art, this art gallery in Cape Town wants to create better understanding of the problems facing the remaining San people, and how these can be overcome…

4. Dumile Feni's - "Anguished Woman". Bronze....

Mahotella Queens - "Thoko" (1964)...

Margaret Singana - Pass the Calabash (hamba Bikele) (1977) ✿

African Music Bombers...

Cultural Songs and Dances from Botswana 1...

South African Music (Uya kwini ka rose remix)...

Our Road (aka 'Now That It Feels So Good Tell Everybody') - Lee Oskar (1980)...

Lou Donaldson - "POT BELLY"...

The Right To Know Is Enshrined In Our Bill Of rights

The Bill Of Our Rights

People's Right To Know It Is A Duty And Right For All South Africans To Clearly Know Their Bill Of Rights

I recently read a newspaper reportage in the Press that about 43% of African South African do not know anything about their Bill of Rights in their country. I have gone around and asked people at random what do they know about Their Bill Of Rights enshrined into their Constitution. Nearly all of the respondents to my unscientific (sic) probing, did not have a clue what I am talking about.

This empowers the present-day ANC government in many ways. This government, we all know is coming back into power, is more afraid of its collective being enlightened about these rights, than they are about the howling and charges allayed against them from their opposition. This securely assures them the opportunity and 'false' confidence that they can run roughshod over these rules knowing that their polity is unaware what are their Rights.

I think, therefore, it is about time we begin pasting these Constitutional beachheads like the Bill Of Rights of the people of South Africa. Maybe if we paste it on our sites and break it down/deconstruct this part of the Constitution, we might begin to contribute to the new struggles, new thinking and move away from the old modes of resistance and furbish and furnish the effort with new theoretical ideas and ideology.

As it is often mentioned, we all have to work in tandem with the masses in ways that address both the masses, and we can cull lessons from the masses, that, in that dialectic, we can embed what works for us, permanently and relevant to our cause. We cannot go about just sprouting and splurging mouthfuls about "Our Constitution" whereas many of us have not honestly and really taken time to read it and break it down.

The failures of the implementation of these rights goes hand in glove with the neglect of the education of the masses. There's a lot that the honchos in the Department of Education are not doing the educating of the people, that, this is now on the shoulders of the country's intelligentsia to rework the belief and reality that the masses need to be enlightened and helped with their educational preparedness and Rights.

If one is going to have fight the ANC, one is going to have to do things differently. We should work on implementing masses-friendly knowledge, beginning with us, the Edumacated, simplifying the whole government matrix.
When one looks more closely at the Constitution and its various parts, it will be important not only to know its design and contents, but to relate it to the day to day lives of the poor and unaware African voting polity: i.e., explaining the Bill of Rights, and making examples or pointing out to the day-to-day applications or non-applications of this social contract/protocol.

Awareness developed in this manner, will make possible that the poor people begin to see and work with these rights as written and as applied or not applied and acting as a check and balance on the state whenever they contravene these, as they are doing so now, arrogantly, with impunity, and a laisez faire carte blanche attitude and iron fist.

Breaking down the Bill rights is key to beginning to entrench new ways of approaching our struggle, because, if in the next four years we are still using the old old protestation maneuvers, this is playing into the hand of the ANC(crew) rule and their Local deep fiscal pockets and Imperial potentates, who are just having a field day in manipulating, exploiting and oppressing us.

We cannot ignore the ANC but we can begin to look closely at what is it that is in our Bill of Rights that we need to know and were not aware of.

A Bill of Rights for a New South Africa

Preliminary Revised Text, February 1993

Introduction

In the light of a vast number of comments received in many forms on the Draft Bill of Rights prepared by the Constitutional Committee of the ANC, this new text has been prepared. The objective is to work out a preliminary revised text for presentation to the Policy Conference. This draft will therefore be finalised after comments have been received from the ANC membership.

NOTE: The words in bold are new, while words in brackets are to be deleted. The notes are intended to draw attention to controversial areas - they do not form part of the text.

Article 1 EQUALITY

(1) All South Africans are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

(2) No individual or group shall receive privileges or be subjected to discrimination, domination or abuse on the grounds of race, colour, language, gender, or creed, political or other opinion, birth or other status.

(3) All men and women shall have equal protection under the law.

Article 2 PERSONAL RIGHTS

The Right to Life

(1) Every person has the right to life.

(2) No-one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her life.

(3) Capital punishment is abolished and no further executions shall take place.

NOTE: The question has been raised as to whether the use of the phrase `right to life' indicates an anti-abortion position in the Constitution. In our view, the issue is left open in this clause. We feel the matter should be left open for legislative action after democratic discussion in future. The issue needs sensitive and informed debate with extensive participation by all interested parties and a respect for differing views. Uninformed debate could be extremely divisive and distract attention from the basic question of equal political rights. The Constitution should not in any way pre-empt proper debate. We regard the issue as of great importance and would recommend that it receive high priority as soon as democratic institutions are in place.

The Right to Dignity

(4) No-one shall be subjected to slavery, servitude or forced labour, provided that forced labour shall not include work normally required of someone carrying out a sentence of a court, nor military service or national service by a conscientious objector, nor services required in the case of calamity or serious emergency, nor any work which forms part of normal civil obligations.

(5) The dignity of all persons shall be respected.

(6) No-one shall be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

(7) Everyone shall have the right to appropriate protection by law against violence, harassment or abuse, or the impairment of his or her dignity.

The Right to a Fair Trial

(8) No-one shall be deprived of his or her liberty except after due process of law, and the courts shall have the right to order the release of any person held without due legal authority.

(9) There shall be no detention without trial, banishment or house-arrest. Legislation may provide for legitimate restriction of movement in relation to illegal immigrants and persons of unsound mind.

(10) No persons shall be arrested or detained for any purpose other than that of bringing them to trial on a criminal charge.

(11) Arrest shall take place according to procedures laid down by law, and persons taken into custody shall immediately be informed of the charges against them, shall have access to a legal representative of their choice, and shall be brought before court within 48 hours or, where that would be a Sunday or a public holiday, on the first working day thereafter.

(12) Bail shall be granted to awaiting-trial persons unless a court rules that in the interests of justice they should be kept in custody.

(13) No-one shall be deprived of liberty or subjected to other punishment except after a fair trial by an independent court.

(14) Trials shall take place within a reasonable time.

(15) Everyone shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty.

(16) No conduct shall be punished if it was not a criminal offence at the time of its occurrence, and no penalty shall be increased retrospectively.

(17) No-one shall be tried or punished twice for the same offence.

(18) Accused persons shall be informed in writing of the nature of the allegations against them, and shall be given adequate time to prepare and conduct their defence.

(19) Everything that is reasonable shall be done to ensure that accused persons understand the nature and the import of the charges against them and of the proceedings, that they are not prejudiced through illiteracy or lack of understanding, and that they receive a fair trial.

(20) Accused persons shall have the right to challenge all evidence presented against them, to be defended by a legal practitioner of their choice, and if in custody, to have access to a legal practitioner at all reasonable times.

(21) If a person is unable to pay for legal representation, and the interests of justice so require, the State shall provide or pay for a competent defence.

(22) No persons shall be required to give evidence against themselves, nor, except in cases of domestic violence or abuse, shall persons be required to give evidence against their spouses, whether married by civil law or custom, their parents or their children.

(23) No evidence obtained through torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment shall be admissible in any proceedings.

(24) Juveniles shall be separated from adult offenders.

(25) Punishment imposed by any Court shall be humane and any term of imprisonment shall be reviewed periodically.

Synergy

A casual perusal of Article 1: Equality, one begin to see what is put down on paper that is Our Rghts. From the assertion that All south African are born with equal Rights and Dignity to the protection of the privileges, protected from abuse based on all the listed prejudices(especially , one begins to see the good or bad of our rulers. It means, many people have a lot to say about that, not really against anybody, but for themselves, and their communities.

This is the list of the abuses, the violation of the Constitutionally enshrined , today in our midst, we already have a sense of how and what to think about these issues as they pertain to us. I can go on this topics and break them, but I only what to highlight that reading the first three points, one already has contradiction and other issues that come to light.

I regard to the Article 2: Personal Rights-The Right to Life, The government says it is going to leave this to legislative bodies and Democratic discussion. so that, 'the Constitution should not 'pre-empt debate', according to the government, why has it not yet reached the masses and we see conscious and active participation it this aforesaid process?

Either the legislative bodies stall and put it in the back-burner, and the masses do not know that they are entitled to discuss these matter before they are past into Law or the constititution, seems like there is a deliberate abortion by the government of the implementation and manifestation of these Individual Rights; or, the people need to read them below with a keen eye and try to understand what they mean or how they relate to them as individuals and as a community/society/Nation-realistically and constitutionally

Article 2 PERSONAL RIGHTS

The Right to Life

(1) Every person has the right to life.

(2) No-one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her life.

(3) Capital punishment is abolished and no further executions shall take place.

NOTE: The question has been raised as to whether the use of the phrase `right to life' indicates an anti-abortion position in the Constitution. In our view, the issue is left open in this clause. We feel the matter should be left open for legislative action after democratic discussion in future. The issue needs sensitive and informed debate with extensive participation by all interested parties and a respect for differing views. Uninformed debate could be extremely divisive and distract attention from the basic question of equal political rights. The Constitution should not in any way pre-empt proper debate. We regard the issue as of great importance and would recommend that it receive high priority as soon as democratic institutions are in place.

The Right to Dignity

(4) No-one shall be subjected to slavery, servitude or forced labour, provided that forced labour shall not include work normally required of someone carrying out a sentence of a court, nor military service or national service by a conscientious objector, nor services required in the case of calamity or serious emergency, nor any work which forms part of normal civil obligations.

(5) The dignity of all persons shall be respected.

(6) No-one shall be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

(7) Everyone shall have the right to appropriate protection by law against violence, harassment or abuse, or the impairment of his or her dignity..

In our culture, Respect(Hlompho/Inhlonipho) undergirds our cultural core. We know that in our cultures of Mzantsi, Ubuntu has been broken down to personal rights(not in the Western sense of the meaning of the word) explaining it to the people, one must be cognizant of our culture(as a whole-not as broken up-becasuse it has the same tenets in all the 9(n) groups/nations of the Africans of Mzantsi. This will enable us to be able to teach the people about their Bill of Rights

I am a pedestrian in Constitutional matters. but I belong to the army of the poor that need to interpret and make meaningful these Rights. The most interesting thing is that they make me come face to face with our culture, customs, traditions, and other such matters that we live by.

No 4 is quite ambiguous, and it will do good to break down the whole sentence in another article. But for now, it is coughed in military jargon that it obfuscate/deflecting its covert-like operational tactics in the private sector in our country today. Like I said, the last sentence is not grounded in any meaningful sense, and needs further discussion.

Line 5 is very disingenuous-What it says, is not what is being affected on the ruled. There are many examples of which contradict this line, and there are egregious violations here, disregard for human rights, dignity and respect. Were it applied to the letter, there wouldn't be the hue and cry from the poor of the violation of these in their lives and communities.

As for Clause 6., well, need I say more-assasinations, intimations, political killings, ideological enforcement, cabals, cronyism, retributions on communities that do not tow the line, instilling fear and pretending to be the real Overlord(literally) and anointed leadership to carry out these dastardly deeds: "it's cold outside the ANC and such-like retorts.

That, the clause, as brief as it is, it is chockfull of contradictions, and serious dissatisfaction and disaffection feelings of the voting polity. I do not know what knowing it would change, but it is better than not even read, seen or being aware of it.

Reading line number seven, one is left saying, "Really"?. Some of these assertions really seem preposterous because everyone invokes the Constitution as this document that is protecting us against all the vicissitudes and wrangling of life, and reading it, it all seems so mundane and a Big Lie. It is not relevant to the decrepit reality experienced and loved by the poor.

Reading it to different people in the Kasie, it makes one sound like a fool and irrelevant, because they they ask, if this is so, why is it not so for me or us. And usually, the poor and supposedly 'untutored' people will continue from there and list all their grievance and points of view/affect on them by the contravened clause above. Good Question!. But helping them read it, and making them know and understand that working in tandem as a critical mass aware of this, is better than facing it as an individual--has a remedying effect on the mindset of the poor. There are no quick solutions to this method, but the journey one takes begins with the first step.

The next installment will be The right To A Fair Trial; The Right to Judicial review(which will be summed up because this is a very quirky and dicey area, and if one get to hear about the British coming to open jails in our country, we all know, seeing the evidence from YouTube and on the Web, we are in for a rough ride,. and our judicial rights, Fair Trial rights and Right to Judicial Review, has long been seriously compromised and are flawed to the hilt. Our rights have been set aside and ignored. These will be discussed in the upcoming posts.

We may all wax political and revolutionary, that is our democratic right. We can also put in the hard work that is need to recreate and fashion the struggle that it become a serious threat to any government that violates and does not respect Human rights, dignity, housing, families,societies, communities and by bringing the constitution to the people-by giving ourselves a chance to read and understand this document and simplify it.

If we fail to this, we hare just blowing hot air, huffing and puffing to a government that knows that these acts/opposition is futile and we are not a threat to it. I do not prescribe to violent opposition as the only and final solution. I think. certain ways of thinking and seeing should be part and parcel of our thrusting towards ousting the calibre of leaders we have at present.

I think it is a big pull and dig to workout our situation because there are so many cooks on the stove. Well, there are too many ideas about "What Should Be Done" (a la Lenin?). Well, there are many who talk about weaning ourselves from dependency and be authentically free and Independent. Well those are the choices that we have available at present.

Anybody can disagree with my approach, but I think we need to clearly know what our struggle is about, requires and what other alternatives are there in executing it Post Y2K Apartheid and now present-day ANC(crew) rule.. I think we have laws and a Constitution, it is the people/crew that is running the country that should be check mated with bringing around and making the poor conscious/knowledgeable about the Constitution and how it works; how they, as being protected by their Bill Of right, could take these laws/rule, own them, apply them as they see fit, and see the results.

I know there have been demonstrations and strikes you name it.. Well I think it is about time all the elderly, the youth and the children begin to be tutored extensively and more forthrightly about things like, The Bill Of Rights enshrined in Their Constitution. It Is their "Right" to Know....

African People: We Are Clearly Identified Through Our Cutlural Garb, Traditonal Appearance

Any study of African culture must take into account that Africa 5 minutes ago, 50 years ago, 500 years ago and Africa 5000 years ago is not a static feature. A diverse Africa has influenced, and been influenced. Concepts and cultures of African origi
Any study of African culture must take into account that Africa 5 minutes ago, 50 years ago, 500 years ago and Africa 5000 years ago is not a static feature. A diverse Africa has influenced, and been influenced. Concepts and cultures of African origi | Source

Culture Is The Main building Block Of A Nation

I begun this Hub by touching here and there about art.. I then proceeded to give a short history of Soweto, and added a South African Soccer Historical Timeline. Then I used photos of Africans in their cultural traditional gear. I followed this up with cultural musical videos. Well, I cannot cover all the cultural aspect of the Africans in South Africa. I chose these subjects because I had access to their information, images and music.

Art against Apartheid was discussed and photos of the art of the artists utilized. For now, I think the Art in Mzantsi in a state of flux. It was more vibrant during Apartheid. As for soccer, it has gone to the doldrums from the stories of the few teams I have talked about. The photos of the superstars of the day, have gone, and the present soccer players are below par.

As for traditional dresses, customs, music and dances, these still exist. The only problem is that Africans have not yet ceased the opportunity we have today to coalesce around the strengthening and rebuilding of our Traditions and culture, as a unified people. This Hub then, was in the spirit of capturing a past and the manifestation of this past today, and maybe the soccer stories and traditional pictures, along with the art, and customary traditional videos, will help give people the depth and breadth of their cultures, traditions and so forth.

This is a work in progress, and it will be refined with and more other aspects of or culture added. For now, I used the culture and traditions to give people a sense that our culture is not dead. Not only that, I have discussed in-depth how we can go about implementing the cultural transmission techniques and tactics to rejuvenate our traditions and cultures, etc. The culture used at the end part of this entire Hub, is to make it easier for people to remember themselves and what they have and are capable of doing as a people.

It is through knowing, understanding, respecting and working around the clock with our cultural reality that we will be able to reorientate our people and shift the oppressive paradigm and dysfunctional zeitgeist that we see now amongst our midst as an African people For us to have a fully fledged and autonomous nation, we shall have to upgrade our cultural sensitivity and know-how… Until we do, the situation will deteriorate even much more faster, and we face being 'disappeared'' and being genocidally wiped off the face of the earth. African Culture, Traditions, Customs, Traditional sacred Rites and Practices, Traditional music and Dance, Languages and so forth, those are for us the only way to a free, independent and autonomous nation.

South African African Culture As We Africans Chronicle It…

I am going to deal with the Consistent Wars that are waged against Africans Expressing themselves and their culture, and the European attempts to dissuade and discourage us from writing and projecting honestly and truly about our African Culture. Biko nailed it:

"One of the most difficult things to do these days is to talk with authority on anything to do with African culture. Somehow, Africans are not expected to have any deep understanding of their own culture or even of themselves. Other people have become authorities on all aspects of the African life or to be more accurate, on BANTU life. thus we have the thickest volumes on the strangest subjects — even "the feeding habits of the Urban Africans"" Biko is so on point here that if one peruses throughout the Web, you find such sites that talk about "The Urban African's and their feeding patterns", this is now in 2014, and Biko spoke about it in 1971.

Clarifying some African South African Cultural Concepts

Biko continues:

"In my opinion, it is not necessary to talk with Africans about African culture. However, in the light of the above statements, one realizes that there is so much confusion sown , not only amongst casual non-african readers, but amongst Africans themselves,that perhaps a sincere attempt should be made at emphasizing the authentic cultural aspects of the African people by the African people themselves."

This is what I have done in the Hub above, and many of such a genre I have already published here on HubPages. I have written the Hub above as an African and from an African-Centered Perspective. I had hardly had this Hub published then I was met with all the negativity one can imagine. I did not imagine or contemplate that writing such a Hub everything will go smooth.

Just as I have had hard time with several Hubs, which were attacked by the White detractors of African people in south Africa, and the other 'invisible' and powerful forces which do not approve of my posting our south African culture as it is, nothing held back. I have tried to limit my postage of our women in their cultural gear as much clad as possible. I have caught flack to censoring the 'appearance' of our people in their cultural element because there are perverts and other voyeurs who will look at it as the African peoples culture in South Africa. Instead, it has become viewed as the media has seduced it users and followers to view women as sexual object.

Well, as Biko intoned, We, Africans, are going to have to write our own Story, History, Culture, Traditions, Music, Dances, traditional dress, languages, and cultural tradition customary sacred rites and practices as we see fit. There are still people who come to this Hub and others and trash Africans as being nothing, backwards and that they needed the White man to come and rescue them from their indolent and barbaric situation to build cities, and so forth/using them as slave labor and destroying everything they had and not giving a rats ass as to the fact theta they were destroying human beings. To them we are not even human, and are lower than the monkey and baboon.

Revisiting Bantu Biko, we refresh our historical mind when he writes:

"Since the unfortunate date - 1652- to the present[I usually start in 1490] — we have been experiencing a process of acculturation. It is perhaps presumptuous to all it "acculturation" because this term implies a fusion of different cultures. In our case, this fusion has been extremely one-sided. The two major cultures that met and "fused" were the African culture and the Anglo-Boer culture. Whereas the African culture was 'unsophisticated' and 'simple,' the Anglo-boer culture had all the trappings of a colonialist culture, and therefore was heavily equipped for conquest.

"Where they could they conquered by persuasion, using a highly exclusive religion that denounced all other Gods and demanded a strict code of behavior with respect to clothing, education ritual and custom. Where it was impossible to convert, fire-arms were readily available and used to advantage. Hence, the Anglo-Boer culture was the more powerful culture in almost all facets.This inhere the African began to lose a grip on himself/herself and his/her surroundings."

My Hub comes in at this period in time when the disjuncture and dislocation of Africans and their culture, customs, traditions and so forth were disassembled, crushed and distorted. This Hub talks to African people in that it says, it is not true that our sports, arts and crafts, culture, music traditional music and dance have been crushed or destroyed or were never. Through show and tell, the artists speaking for themselves what they had to go through Apartheid and producing the type of Art we see in the being in and throughout the Hub; it also lets the top international soccer players and local legends talk about their experiences in trying to make it to the top of the world and being regressed by the colonialist Apartheidizers.

The third part of the Hub is about Africans traditional wear, music, dance and the cultural transmissions I have decried at the beginning of the Hub the absence and lack of cultural transmissions mechanisms that are so sorely needed in the midst and core of the african personality and being. We then pick hit up whee Biko says:

"Thus, in taking aloof at cultural aspects of the African people, one inevitably finds him/herself having to compare. This is primarily because of the contempt that the "superior"(Anglo-Boer) culture shows towards the indigenous culture(African). To justify its exploitative basis, the Anglo-Boer[American] culture has at all times been directed at bestowing an inferior status to all cultural aspects of the indigenous people."

Ways Of Seeing Modern African Culture

I have a response that does this put-down on Africans on this Hub. It is more so the reason I am writing about the culture of African people and in the process trying very hard to bring them around-to be on one page-as to the nature of these attacks, and what this Hub does in allaying the fears of the poor and poorly educated people, that is, pushing back harder than they are attacking, maybe the confidence and growth need to mull on these issues as a collective for African people will manifest itself and become a way of life and seeing.

This means, I am telling African people that we are better than this and that pour culture is still around, and we can still use and utilize it to our advantage as long as we can take control and charge of our own culture, language, music, traditional cultural dress, dances, history and so forth.

To this, that which I have just stated above, Biko puts it this way:

"I am against the belief that African culture is time-bound, the notion that with the conquest of the Africa, all his culture was obliterated. I am also against the belief that wen one talks of African culture, one is necessarily talking to the pre-van Riebeeck culture.

Obviously the African culture has had to sustain severe blows and many have been battered nearly out of shape by the belligerent cultures it collided with, yet in essence even today, one can easily find the fundamental aspects of the pure African culture in the present-day African. Hence, in taking a look at African Culture, I am going to refer to what I have termed "The Modern African Culture".

According to the Hub above, Modern African Culture has within its core, pilfering Apartheid Art and Other Art of Africans; sports has many elements of African culture in it, and soccer, which I have dealt with above, is one way that shows the evolution and adaptive tendency our culture has and ca do. Lastly, I have used the ability to upload photos of our people in fantastic imagery, and sameness that one can see as the ability to enhance what I am talking about that the culture of the Amaguni/Bakone, are the same, and they are just a diverse part on one huge culture.

The modern technological gadgets/gizmos, and the flow of the viral stream, has enabled me to advance Biko's idea of The Modern African Culture, by being able to showcase our variegated but same culture for viewers to see unity not different and disunited parts of many cultures. I have used the modern technological gizmo to enhance and show that our culture is so powerful, diverse and that one, by so doing, finds objections to it in various ways and place. What I have just put together in the Hub above is Modern African Culture, written and created by an African of south Africa.

This Is Our Culture..

Biko: "One of the most fundamental aspects of our culture is the importance we attach to Man. Ours has always been a Man-centered society. Westerners have in many occasion been surprised at the capacity we have for talking to each other(Meaning "us" African people) — not for the sake of arriving at a particular conclusion but merely to enjoy the communication for its own sake. Intimacy is a term not exclusive for particular 'friends', but applying to a whole group of people who find themselves together either through work or through residential requirements" (In the case of apartheid and us/our living condition and locations). Biko elaborates:

"... We are not a suspicious race. We believe in the inherent goodness of man. We enjoy man for himself. We regard our living together not as an unfortunate mishap warranting endless competition among us, but a deliberate act of god to make us a community of brothers and sisters jointly involved in the quest for a composite answer to the varied problems of life.

"Hence, in all, we do always place Man first and hence all our action is usually joint-community orientated action theater than the individualism which the hallmark of capitalist approach. We always refrain from using people as stepping stones. Instead we are prepared to have a much slower progress in an effort to make sure that all of us are marching to the same tune." (I mentioned, above, all of us African people being on the same page.)

Music In Our African Culture Of Mzantsi

Since I have posted musical videos that show our cultural and traditional performances of all the integrated groups of Africans in Mzants i-Biko says about music and our culture:

"Nothing dramatizes the eagerness of the African to communicate with each other more then their love for song and rhythm. Music in the African culture features in all emotional states. When we go to work, we share the burdens and pleasures of the work, we are doing through work… this particular facet strangely enough has filtered through to the present.

"Tourists always watch with amazement they synchrony of music and action as African working at a roadside using their picks and shovels with well-timed precision to the accompaniment of a background song. Battle songs were a feature of the long march to war in the olden days. Girls and boys never played any games without using music and rhythm as its basis. In other words with Africans, music and rhythm were not luxuries but part and parcel of our way of communication… Any suffering we experienced was made much more real by song and rhythm. There is not count that the so-called "negro spirituals sung by African in the United States as they toiled under oppression, were indicative of their African heritage,"

Music was and is still part and parcel of our live. But what has happened to us, as we became a bit free from Apartheid(which is still here), we have now been mediarized to the extent that we are now imbibing the western cultural artifacts and mannerism/cultural values. We are more interested in and are trying very hard to ape the American musical and cultural system at the expense of our own indigenous culture. We have out of the blue now become anglicized American poor copies. We do not even want to listen nor read about ourselves… We think that being 'American' signifies modernity.

We have been so Apartheidized that we have shorn-off our own original culture and now speaking English, a lot, and do not really want to be seen listening to or caring very much about our culture for it will mean we are what our detractors say we are.We worship and shop for the latest gizmos that are hurled into our midst. We seem to believe the Apartheidizers and the Americans who impress upon us the fallacy that if we were to forget our own culture, we will then be an advanced and belong to the world that has been created by the Boers and the Americans for us.

I and many of us who are chroniclers of our story and history, are trying very hard to draw and win the conscious consciousness of our people in relation to their culture. That is what the Hub above is about. I will tell the story of Colonialism, for that is the elephant in our cultural room; it is the monkey on our backs and we cannot seem to shake it off nor be able to proudly be of our culture. That is, understanding and know clearly and concretely the cultural significance of music as our culture.

Farming, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and 'Shared Community' chores

So that, when it comes to our own music, we are better off heeding the words of Bantu Biko:

"The major thing to note about our songs is that they never were songs for individuals. All African songs are group songs. Though many have words, this is not the most important thing about them. Tunes were adapted to suit the occasion and had the wonderful effect of making everybody read[sing' the same thing from the common experience.

"In war, the songs reassured those who were scared, highlighted the determinate of the regiment to win a particular encounter and made much more urgent to the need to settle the score; in suffering, as in the case of African[American] slaves. At work, the binding rhythm makes everybody brush off the burden and hence Africans can continue for hours on end because of this added energy.

Attitudes of Africans to property again show just how unindividualistic the African Is(One can read my Published Hub on the Pondo Culture). As everybody here knows, African society had the village community as its basis. African always believed in having many villages with a controllable number of people in each rather than the reverse. This obviously was a requirement to suit the needs of a community-based man-centered society.

"Hence, most things were jointly owned by the group, for instance, there was no such thing as individual ownership of land. The land belonged to the people and was merely under the control of the local Chief on behalf of the people(We have laws in our culture that govern the Kings) When cattle went to graze, it was on an open field/plain/'veld' and not on anybody's specific farm.[There are rules and regulation what happens if someone's cows trespass on someones allotted plot and so forth].

Farming and agriculture, though on individual family basis, had many characteristics of joint efforts. Each person could by a simple request and holding a special ceremony, invite neighbors to come and wok on his plots. this service was returned in kind and no remuneration was ever given"

Now, you have people come and read this Hub, and ignorantly have and rude and racist comeuppance whereby they arrogantly make very jingoistic and jaundiced deduction about us because that was how apartheid was existing: putting us down, telling us we had no culture and were badly disorganized and poorly led by our "chiefs who sold us for a song and that, even today south Africa is in chaos because that's what we were like when the European "discovered and rescued us from pour barbarity and introduced our accursed lot into the modern World.

Well, I have already responded to such frivolous and ignorant rants and racist views of our culture. I interned to further that discourse further down in this Hub. For now, I will make note for those readers who come and read a Hub like this. It will be advisable to read what I have been talking about with regard to our culture before one makes a bellicose and dumb comments fashioned form a tired Apartheid offensive/talking points and belief against us when they ruled us. Now, with the Crooks that are leading us(ANC), this does not mean all of us are crooks or corrupt as a people. Some of us, albeit how few, are still at it, and trying to help ourselves come to grips with the importance and role that culture plays in our lives and the future.

Biko addresses the issues of poverty now so common in our midst this way:

"Poverty was a foreign concept. This could only be really brought about to the entire community by an adverse climate during a particular season. It never was considered repugnant to ask one's neighbors for help if one was struggling[this is still the cultural modus operandi of our collective to this day].

In almost all instances, there was help between individuals, 'clan and clan', chief and chic, etc., even in spite of war[in this case one can read up on the war between Moshweshwe and Shaka, who , when Moshweshwe and his people retreated to their Mount Thaba Bosiu, and roll down huge blocks of stone of the advancing Zulu army. They left them tired, beaten and hungry. Moshweshwe offered them food, even thigh there were at war-this is some of the compassion and cultural Botho/Ubuntu-Where man is the center of our very existence: As Biko has said about" we africans believe in the inherent goodness of Man. We enjoy Man for himself."

We know, of course that the Mfecane/Difaqane(Scattering) that were the state the Voortrekkers found us in, is not unique to us. The wars of unity fought by Chaka, were not successful, and he derailed a lot of life of the Africans, who had to flee from his advancing 'Armies', and this created a lot of problems for our people, and the Boers want to claim that we were at war with each, not peaceful and barbaric.

War is barbaric-so were the so-called "Kaffir Was agains the Xhosas[by the Boers and the British]; so was the war against the Khoisan in the Cape; so were the Wars against Sekhukhune devastating and barbaric; the Wars against the Africans by the 'belligerent Anglo-Boer colonial war machines, were brutal and dislodged us from our cultural moorings and created chaos and panic unparalleled in our history as Africans, here in Mzantsi…

We further learn from Bantu Biko that"

"Another important aspect of the African culture is our mental attitudes to problems presented by life in general Whereas the Westerner is geared to use a problem-solving approach following very trenchant analyses, our approach is that of 'situational-experiences.' I will quote from Dr. Kaunda to illustrate the point:

"The Westerner has an aggressive mentality. When he sees a problem he will not rest until he has formulated some solution to it. He cannot live with contradictory ideas in his mind; he must settle for one or the there or else evolve a third idea in his mind which harmonizes or reconciles the other two. And he is vigorously scientific in rejecting solutions for which there is not basis in logic. He draws a sharp line between the natural and the supernatural, the rational and non-rational, and more often than not, he dismisses the supernatural and the non-rational as superstition". ...

Some of us have forgotten how we think and think that the present-ray of our thinking is the right thinking. It is when comes face to face with vitriolic, jaundiced and prejudiced racism that many-a-times are jolted back into reality. Our thinking will be guided and helped-along by our complete knowledge and understanding of our culture. The cultural rules and principles will help us mold our thinking into preserving out culture/customs/traditions, and being our culture and of our culture through our own indigenous African culture. About how we think, Biko informs us thus:

"Africans being a pre-scientific people do not recognize any conceptual cleavage between the natural and supernatural. They experience a situation rather than face a problem. By this I mean they allow both the rational and non-rational elements to make an impact upon them, and any action they may take could be described more as a response of the total personality to the situation than the result of some mental exercise."(Kaunda)

Biko continues: "This I find a most apt analysis of the essential difference in the approach to life of these two groups. We, as a community, are prepared to accept that nature will have its enigmas which are bend our powers to solve. Many people have interpreted this attitude as lack of initiative and drive yet in spite of my belief in the strong need for scientific experimentation.

"I cannot help feeling that more time also should be spent in teaching man and man to live together, and that perhaps, the African personality, with its attitude of laying less stress on power and more stress on man, is well on the way to solving our confrontation problems."

This is important for African people to read and understand very well, our attitudes and thinking patterns should be Man-centered, and this will help us to be able to overcome our problems and solve those hard to do issues much better. Because, we learn from Biko that:

"It is difficult to kill the African heritage. There remains, in spite of the superficial cultural similarities between the 'detrabilzed' and the Westerner, a number of cultural characteristics that mark out the detribalized as an African. I am not here making a case for separation on the basis of cultural differences. I am sufficiently proud to believe that under a normal situation, africans can comfortably stay with people of other cultures and be able to contribute to the joint cultures of the communities they have joined.

"However, what I want to illustrate here is that even in a pluralistic society like ours, there is still some cultural traits that we can boast of which have been able to withstand the process of deliberate bastardization. These are aspects of Modern African Culture - a culture that has used concepts from the White world to expand on inherent cultural characteristics. 'The Modern African Culture' is fast becoming our modern culture. A culture of defiance, self determination, self assertion and group Pride and Solidarity.

"This is a culture that emanates from a situation of common experience oppression. Just as it now finds expression our music and dress, it will spread to other aspects. This is the new Modern African Culture to which we have given a major contribution. This the modern African culture that is responsible for the restoration of our Faith in ourselves and therefore offers a hope in the direction we are taking from here."

I am amongst those that are writing and chronicling an African history by exploring our cultural reality and its manifestation today. I am one of the Africans of Mzantsi who is using modern technology and its gizmos to highlight and project/propagate our culture to the world. I have decided and determined, as an African historian/media Ecologist, that I will start our history from where it began-media and communications as my vehicle.

I have already written Hubs and published them here on HubPages that trace our origins from when the continents were fused together and called 'Gondwanaland' Adding to our paltry African History, A Histiography of Africans Of South Africa. This Hub on this Subject and it is called "From Gondwanaland To Mzantsi..." In this present Hub, I have written, thus far, our history form fist arrival of the Europeans in the late 1400s.

I have explored the social media and its 'offering' to upgrade and highlight the virtues and positive aspects of our African culture in Mzantsi. I have embedded our so-called backward culture through use of images music, dances, music, language, customs, traditions and everything that can be accommodated and transmitted by the new technologies and their modern techniques-within this Hub.

If I can use modernized contraptions, to troll or splurge our culture online permanently, then our culture, due to its adaptation to being assimilated and accommodated by the mew Media and its technological techniques, is enabled by the fact that Our African Culture Is Man-Centered.

Then, who's to say that our culture is backward-when the whole world can see and read, listen and observe a lot about it, without some self-appointed righteous and 'know-all' about Africans, attempting to tell us how to write, project and transmit this culture amongst ourselves as an African collective and to our born and not as yet born descendants It is they who are going to be able to read their history, not from someone who is not of their people, but by their own people, like me, for one. I have written above a history of a people, and what happened to some of their cultural institutions I have touched on above: Art, sculpture, Artifacts, Traditional dress, dance and music. It is no more a matter of writing about our culture and history, it is now a fait accompli...

More Hubs Will have the similar theme and expanded breakdown of African South African History, Culture, traditions, Music, Languages, and the whole bit.

African Culture And History Will Give the World A Much more Human Face

So, Bantu Biko sums up his view of African cultural Concepts towards our "Human-beingness" theme by writing:

"Thus, in its entirety, the African Culture spells us out as people particularly close to nature. As Kaunda puts it: "Our people may be unlettered and their physical horizons may be limit, yet, 'they inhabit a larger world than the sophisticated Westerner who has magnified his physical senses through inverted gadgets at the price all to often of cutting out the dimension of the spiritual.'

"This close proximity to Nature enable the emotional component in us to be so much richer in that it makes it possible for us, without any apparent difficulty to feel for people ad to easily identify with them in any emotional situation arising from our suffering."

I am not writing this Hub to apologize nor to sake for permission from anybody as to whether I should write a Hub of this nature, or not. I am not interested, really, in all those who find it in themselves to tell us what we should write or not write. Whether our history, as we see and relate it, as above in the Hub, should be approved by anyone or please anyone, except help motivate and give our people a fighting chance where we find a lot of foreigners claiming to be 'involved' in our history and writing of it.

I do not need that type of support or phony historians who complain about what we write about ourselves. The time is now, and we are going to be, speaking for myself, write and produce works that tell the truth to my people, and help them understand the past, and use that knowledge to work on the present dysfunction we are presently experiencing, to better and ably furnish and design our future.

This is why Bantu Biko wraps up his history of our suffering this way:

"The advent of the Western Culture has changed our outlook almost drastically. No more could we run our own affairs. We were required to fit in as a people tolerated with great restraint in a western type of society. We were tolerated simply because our cheap labor is needed. Hence, we are judged in terms of standards we are not responsible for. Whenever colonization set in with its dominant culture, it devours the native culture and leaves behind a bastardized culture than can only thrive at the rate and pace allowed it by the dominant culture-purely because the African people in urban complexes are mimicking the White man rather unashamedly.

"In rejecting Western values, therefore, we are rejecting those things that are not only foreign to us, but that seek to destroy the most cherished of our beliefs — that the corner of society is man himself — not just this welfare, not his material wellbeing, but just man himself with all his ramifications.

We reject the power-based society of the Westerner that seems to be ever concerned with perfecting Their technological know-how, while losing out on their spiritual dimension. We believe that in the long run the special contribution to the world by Africa will be in this field of human relationships. The great powers of the world may have done wonders in giving the world an industrial and military look, but, the great gift still has to come from Africa - giving the World a more "Human Face."

The Hub above is for and about African people in south Africa and what happened to them when colonization took over. It is also a castigation and admonition on our part by some of the things I touched about our lack of Cultural transmission methodologies, and how, since we have lost most of it, we should look at our cultures, histories, customs, traditions, cultural and traditional music, dances and traditional dresses, languages, and our sacred rites and practices.

A lot has been foisted on us, and as African people in south Africa, this is what I am writing above about. We can no longer accept and the imposition and foisting of foreign values and cultures on our African collectives canon no longer be sustained and tolerated. Our being tolerated has led to our being incarcerated for many centuries.

Now that we have some modicum of "Freeness," I have taken this opportunity to write, about ourselves, as an African of Mzantsi myself, about our history, truthfully and correctly so that the future generation should not miss nor not know what happened to their African people under Colonization and Apartheid. Also, it is a Hub that gives people a sense and chance to look at ourselves anew, and from learning about these matters that affect the, how we should go about rebuilding and rewriting our own history, traditions, customs and so on.

I find it very disingenuous of the White people who question my motives for writing about how Colonization has destroyed our African culture. Those who have replied to this Hub, and those I continue to meet and discuss these historical truths, and the rest who use all forms of media and communications system to deride and put down the African culture of south Africa, to those, I say, time for African people to tell the colonizers/Settlers who we are, and what our story is all about, not from what they want to think and tell us about ourselves, but ourselves telling them what they ought to know and learn, without being apologetic or asking for permission to write about ourselves from anyone.

What I have written and composed above is giving Africans of South Africa a Much More Human Face. I brought forth our cultural art and how it depicted us at a certain time of our hesitance under apartheid; I have made sure I give stories written by others, and told in most cases by the soccer stars of yesteryear(during Apartheid) as to how they managed to keep their talents to be in service to the masses; I also posted photos of our people in their cultural gear, dances, music videos perfuming and singing our cultural music and performing the dances thereof in their diverse traditional and cultural garb and demeanor.

This was important to make note-off, because, we do not have many accounts of our history from our perspective that abound in the Viral soup, and in many books. The many books written about us by foreigners, are just that: Hour history as told by foreigners. In this case, as in the Hub above, this is our story and history as we see, and have experienced it-as we Africans do-also, as Biko had pointed out above about the differences between Western thinking and our own indigenous way of seeing things, that , it is not a matter, as some have pointed out, of us trying to solve or relieve history, only. Yes, it's what I am expressly doing that, bringing back our past to life alive in the Hub above.

Also, if the Boers have their own histories and stories, no one tell them what to say or not what to write. Who then, gives them the power over us, the ability they abrogate to themselves telling us what not to say, that we should now be talking about the present and the future. Well, How can we, as African people(and this is important) talk about the present and fort about the past. Even the Jews have better and enough sense to recognize that what happened to them in the past millennia, and the Hitler nightmare, they have clearly told the world that: "We shall Not forget". Well, why is it important to some people of different culture to come and tell us not to talk about our past because it is gone.

It really shows a lack of respect of our abilities to write, a fatal disregard of what we are writing about, as is the case of the Hub above. Also, the many years that the Boers and the Brits and now of late, the Americans, think and feel that they can come and dictate to us, impose on us, and do away with our culture-only for them to hawk it for a profit for themselves-but tell and accuse us as to why we are still looking back, we should now be concerned with the future, and forget the past because is now gone and will no longer save any good or better outcome if we persist on peeling off the scabs that have remained from our oppressed past.

Well, I will not stop, just like they have libraries, the White people of South Africa, in their houses and suburbs, book and many volumes of their past which they read and pass on to their children, and we should not write as I do, and not pass anything to our children, instead, teach them that the past history does not matter, and that we should now be concerned with the present.

This just goes to show how little many people of European descent know about us. They have gotten used to telling us what and how to learn and become educated; they have chosen for themselves a role of telling us how to write and what to write because they are the authority on our history, culture, languages, custom, tradition-that, they simply own us, and we should not think, nor write for and about ourselves without listening to them first, and consulting with them before, and take they advise, if not let them co-author our thoughts, and contributors to what we want to write about ourselves. So that, we are to ask for permission to write about things that are of our concern, but do so under their auspices andy guidance. What a lot of hogwash-balderdash..

Bantu Biko

When The Truth Hits, You Should Feel No Pain, But Be Liberated - On Both sides Of The Conflagaration

Asa Hilliard:

"The transmission of African culture for the purposes of socializing the community must, first and foremost, must be under the control of the African Community. There is no alternative to it. If we have few resources, then we on do only what our resources permit.

Retreading and Retracing My Thoughts On Culture:

Preface Notes For The Article Below

I have posted cultural musical video of the Africans of Mzantsi on these Hubs, so that, when one read the post above, you can simply review what I had posted earlier. the topic for the article I wrote and am posting here on this Hub is called

"Cultural Wars - The Video Story Of Africans and their Cultural And Customary Dance Routines"

... With Their Accompanying Retinues...

I have added and rewritten this article and posted it on the FB Wall wherein I found the members very active and interested in the work I provided for them. I posted the same videos(added some) and the history of the Africans of Mzantsi for them, and those of Africans in South America, Latin America and the US.

I have decided to make a separate Hub for the Africans in Africa and those in the Diaspora - showcasing their musical cultures, some African traditions, their various short histories and some documentary videos show that All these African cultures, World-wide, are the same and are African.

And I concluded the whole exercise by writing this updated article below. In keeping with the spirit of upgrading and uplifting our African milieu and , I have decided to Post this updated version with a unique take about the Africans and their Cultures, music and traditional clothing worn by Africans to in performing their culture, dances and the African languages they sing in. I hope this strikes a certain cord with many Africans and other people, and maybe that that will help inform and empower them about themselves and their cultures, too.

**Note!**: Anyone can use this information to help others, but I only ask that people credit the source honestly and properly… I do not think in all good conscience this is too much to ask...

The Explosive and Awesome Music, Dances, Cultural Dress of the African people of Mzantsi

"Culture Empowers; Culture Liberates"

When I began posting , I decided to use some positive music from other countries with a sprinkling of South African African Music. I changed gears,and I started posting the cultural music and Dances of the "11 people" of South Africa: The "Xhosas". "Zulus", "Tswanas,". "Bapedi," "Shangaans," "Vendas," "Ndebeles," "Swazis," South "Sothos",The "Khoisan," and the "Colored Peoples" music/dance videos, and their cultural gabardine and languages.

One thing I have learnt about our culture is that we have been told, timex, that it is backward, barbarian, irrelevant and useless, and it does not fit the modern times, nor can it adjust to make us a better people. My posting it on this Wall is not the first time I have dabbled with this subject/topic, I have even gone to the extent of writing a whole Blog about it.

But recreating it on this Wall has been important because I can see that tell that the members of this FB Wall are people who either read or watch the stuff that is posted on the Wall, although most members say nothing, of which I take no offense, I am encouraged by the response that this FB Wall shows me how many people have "Seen" a particular post. On this Wall, there is a lot of activity, which I saw with my earlier post before the cultural material of which I am about to talk about below(The music I started posting prior to the cultural set below, and that many people do or are paying attention and have a serious interest about what's on their Wall).

As to politics, I maintain that it is useless if you do not know or have your culture in ones sights. If one is ignorant of ones culture, customs, traditions, languages, music, traditional dress of the different groups that make the Africans of South Africa, not aware of one's cultural bearings, moorings and make up, that is, the culture of the eleven nations I have posted here, one is hopeless and helpless and hapless, and knows nothing about Africans of Mzantsi. Many people write about Africans of South Africa not having lived with them, or just toured and read books, but know nothing about these African people. Politics makes sense if one understands, holistically, that political and cultural reality and manifestation: 'Politics is Art of the Possible'.

What am I saying? What I am saying is that, presently here in our country, there is a paucity(shortage or lack) of reading material, or sort of a place where one can have a chance to read about one's own culture, traditions, cultural music, dresses, dances and different languages that comprise this culture. We have been denied access to understanding our own particular cultures, traditions, customs, history, music, dances, traditional dresses, languages, sacred rites and practices by those who want to confuse us and keep us in perpetual ignorance and as slaves. We are easy to enslave because we 'really' do not know much about our cultures, etc. Some of us do not really care… Many have bought into being slaves of the present day South Africa and would not even care less about what I am writing about in this whole Hub

We are still suffering from the Apartheid hangover(Setlamama/Babalazi), that even the Africans north of us think we are not 'really' Africans because we do not respect nor know and either understand ourselves, culturally, historically, customarily, traditions and the whole bit. Instead, we want to be Europeans, we want to behave like what we think Europeans are like-we are. We think that being European-like in our speech, dress and "fast Foods" and restaurant living-acquirement of the new technologies, foreign cars and suits, clothes and house-ware, is the way to go.

We even misunderstand that which we are copying and aping. We are seriously bad and poor carbon-copies of the masters who oppressed us that we seek to emulate to be and make pretend we are not Africans. We refer to our history, traditions, customs music and so forth as 'superstition,' backward and dead/non-existent This is brought about by pure ignorance and self-imposed amnesia on one hand(along with the amnesiac outlook that has been installed in us by the Apartheid regime-on the other hand). We have still not yet sobered-up and we are heavily inebriated to the hilt!

We think that America and Europe/Japan and so forth are the epitome of modernity and civilization, as opposed to us with our seemingly regressive and backward culture. This we have been taught in school and in life that we are a worthless people. Our children today, since they go to European private school(many of them, mostly go to poor public schools), where they are not really taught about themselves, and have begun to look at us(Oldies, etc) as dumb and really backward and useless people-even if we are their parents, relatives, and community. We have sold our souls to a people who really do not care nor give a rats ass about us, so long as they can keep us weak and ignorant, thus, we willingly imbibe our paltry wealth and abuse our labor power and permit these Capital investors to keep us passive and scared, and they could not care less for anything else.

From the days of the early struggles to now, our intellectual cadre has no yet realized what type of powers we are really up against and what their motives and modus operandi is. Instead, we end up joining our detractors in oppression and depressing of us(Africans), without even thinking about what we are doing-we conveniently forget and pretend that we are now living today, and the past does not affect us, since there's nothing we can do about it. This is where One of my battles with anyone who thinks like that and says such statements that I have been dealing with head on and energetically opposed, throughout this Hub.

So, to me, politics, which we really know nothing about, except regurgitate what we read or get from hearsay, TV or radio, is how we approach and broach the political/cultural/historical subject — after having been subliminally seduced by contemporary media and its gizmos/techniques. And, also, having been taught a one-sided and falsified version of our African History. But without ones consciousness awareness and being cognizant of how one's culture empowers and liberates one, we are supinely prostrated like cadavers on the operation table being torn apart at will, with us having no say nor action against what is happening to us. 'Dying [brutally] and a Supposedly 'Peacefully', a la Malcolm.

This then, brings me back to the purpose of why I posted am writing this piece. Before I started posting these cultural musical/dance videos, I posted an article I wrote about "Cultural Wars"-anyone can go back and re-read the piece, which is just before the first cultural videos I have posted thus far, on this Hub. What I did with each posting, I gave a brief historical account of the nation(not 'tribe'). In some videos I erased the word 'tribe', but was not entirely successful with the articles. Nonetheless, I was trying to augment for the lack and paucity of reading material by giving a brief historical account of each of the 11(eleven) peoples of Mzantsi.

I did not include the Boers and other people, they have their own people who can do and have done that work. My interest is in the African people whose music, cultures, dance and so forth that has been distorted and not talked much about-and that which I have posted above, is my way of using cultural pedagogy to heighten the conscious awareness of Africans in South Africa and globally. This means, I have collated videos and historical records to begin to give us a fighting chance by knowing each other-enhancing and propagating our culture, future and autonomous African freedom and independence, etc.

What am I talking about or saying? We are not different from each other as promulgated by the Boers and their learned minions. Africans of South Africa are really and basically one united nation. If you get a chance and look at all the cultural videos I have posed here, you can begin to discern a common pattern. The Tswanas, San, Xhosa, have the same vibe in the step.Dance technique; the Bapedi/VhaTsonga/Shangaans, have and admixture of both the Batswana/Xhosa/San dance and technique; The same statement will be the thrust of the New Hub I am working on, about the Cultures of the The Africans(more so, of South Africa/Africa and those of the diaspora.

The Basotho are unique but the same as everyone else[Acapella-wise] and women's ululating,if one were to watch the women's "Mokgibo"(akin to the Xhosa's Mtjitjimbo) and the Men's Mohobelo, although the line of the Basotho men is makes them unique in their presentation one can also look at the Xhosas, Mtjitjimbo and to "Xhentsa" as being the self-same techniques and dancing styles of each of these groups. Most of these groups use hand-clapping and rhythmical foot-stomping with effect and in tandem with the drum and melody, the Bapedi are more vigorous, along with the Shangaans, Venda and Ndebeles. Drums Feature all over the music and dances of Africans in south Africa, Africa all over the world

Now, All these Ten people, have cultures that form a confluence around the drum, hand clapping, synchrony of men and women(see the Batswana women, Xhosa women and other videos of women in the collection below, musicality, variegated and diverse but same dance that in fact speak for itself and also projects itself as that of one people. The colored people, one should read the historical piece I gave, but that too, which is a good thing, emanates from the Africans of New Orleans, which is entirely another topic and subject-and the word or term 'Coon', elsewhere it's viewed as a derogatory term, and the Colored People in the Cape say that this is not done in the American context of the word-next time for that) We are different because the White people say so. I say we are the same and unified because our culture shows and informs me so-it is also a hugely and large diverse culture, from south Africa into Africa and throughout the Diaspora. But it is One African Culture...

We are one and the same because our culture shows and informs us as so, and if you begin to read the historical record I have posted along with watching the videos on dance and music-see also the traditional garb. If we look at each and everyone of them one by one, the Swazis are the same with the Zulus(Dance and, technique and music); the Xhosa and the Sothos, Pedis, Shangaan, Tsongas, Khoisan and the rest have similar singing, traditional dances, hand-clapping, various other types of dancing, that is the same, but varies a bit accommodating for diversity and spiced-up cultures, traditions, music and so forth of Africans in

The Bapedi and Vendas and Ndebeles fall into one group, dance-wise, musical and style-wise(which defines their diversity in common as a culture than the manufactured differences by our detractors); then you have the Batswana, Xhosas, and San, who, if you watch the San videos, they have the elements that are found in the Xhosas, and Zulus(foot thumping-and the Zulus connect to the Bapedi and Shangaan in rolling and stomping the ground hard, and vigorous dancing techniques), and so on; so does one get that same sense of oneness and sameness as one begins to look at this culture wholly and holistically. Their bodies are used as percussion and where percussive sells of innovative means of backing up their hand-clapping, singing, dancing as they perform their traditional acts.

The posted traditional pots, musical videos and histories above, are testament and evidence that we have never been "Tribes" but one nation of the Nguni/Bakone, if we so wish and decide to see and think ourselves, that is no ones business but our prerogative. Because we have no ready-made material that puts our cultures, customs, traditions, history, music, dances, traditional dance and so forth in a good and concerted and intelligent light , we have to create one and invent one for ourselves-This is what I am doing with the postings and the article I am onto now. Our culture is still in its pristine and original form, so is this article original because it is addressing an original reality-Our cultures, customs, traditions, practices, scared rites, language, music, dances and our traditional wear-thus making the writing thus far, Original. If we understand, control own and disseminate our culture ourselves, we are empowering ourselves and liberating ourselves at the same time.

Wilson informs us thus:

"The definitions of Power are various and conflicting. This is due mainly to the multifarious nature of power itself, rather than due to its unreality of ephemeral spirit. If any of us, doubt the reality of power and the tangible effects its application engenders[then one remains eternally enslaved]. Our confusion as to its exact definition more likely flows from the fact that power, depending on context and circumstance, assumes ubiquitous shapes and forms, varying degrees of transparency and visibility. Power is the chameleon; it takes on the texture of its environment.

"Power comes with being; with interactive existence; with being alive. It is the essence of life and the motive force of growth. And development and the adaptability of living things to environmental changes and demands. Power refers to the ability to do, the ability to be, the ability to prevail. Beingness and aliveness originate with power. To be powerless is to be will-less, impotent and lifeless; without effect or influence; to be nothing, of no account.

"The oppressed and downtrodden, having been traumatized by the abuse of power by their powerful oppressors, often come to perceive power itself as inherently evil, as by nature corrupting and therefore as something to be eschewed, denied and renounced. The pursuit of power is viewed as unworthy of virtuous persons, and the desire to possess it as sinful.Therefore, many among the powerless and poor feel compelled to find in their powerlessness and poverty the emblematic signs of their Godliness and redemptive salvation.

"How convenient a precept for rationalizing and maintaining the power of the 'Haves' over the "Have-nots! As the result of their ideological manipulation by the powerful and their own reactionary misperception of reality, the poor and powerless have been made to perceive the pursuit, possession and application of power in their own behalf as unbecoming to themselves. This is even more the case when through their naive acceptance of the self-serving deceptive propaganda perpetrated by the powers-that-be, their own reactionary self-negation, and their nursing of their internalized inferiority complexes, the poor huddled masses perceived the possession and exercise of power as the inherent and exclusive prerogative of the ruling class.

"There are many Blacks(Africans) who have ben convinced by racist propaganda that supreme power is divinely deeded to dominant Whites, They therefore suffer anxiety attacks and feel as if they are blasphemously rebelling against god, Himself, if they — even for a moment — seriously dare consider conspiring to wrest power form the hands of their oppressors. More unfortunate than this sorely mistaken theological perception is the self-abnegating perception by many Blacks(Africans) that they are incapable of mounting a successful campaign against oppressive White power and therefore must sulkingly seek the least onerous accommodation to it.

"This perception of and orientation toward power on the part of African peoples, is but a prescription for their unending subordination, exploitation, and ultimately, when it is convenient to the purposes of their oppressors, their genocidal demise. Therefore, if they are to survive and prosper in freedom then, like it or not, African peoples must come to terms with power. We must be ever conscious of the fact that "...the establishment, whatever rewards it gives us, will also, if necessary to maintain its control, kill us."(Howard Zinn)

We acquire power if we know something and or everything about our cultures, etc. When we begin to learn and have a sense and more concrete knowledge about our culture, by looking it as it in it its whole wholesomeness(Holistically), we begin to understand, see and recognize, and observe more similarities in dancing styles, hand-clapping, voicing, circle-formations, and half moon patterns crisscrossing lines, snake-like, and choreographic back and forth movements in-sync and patterned precisely, with a flurry and changing shapes, and forms on and of their same bright and energetic colors, Polyrhythmic syncopated sounds, explosiveness, and rhythm of all the 11(eleven) African people as one unified and diverse, variegated and one common national entity.

Now, I want to give an even much more in-depth view concerning Culture and Cultural Transmission From Asa Hilliard who informs us in the following manner:

"No Community That Has Lost Its Intimate Connections To Its Wise Elders Can survive"

"Africans around the globe have faced oppression for more than 2000 years. This oppression has intensified in the last 400 years. Africans have faced the unique terror of oppression and have worked and fought to recreate and control their own socialization process. The mission of a quality, African controlled, socialization process is more than a basic response to oppression. It is also a fundamental path to promote healthy individual and collective development, while preventing cultural and national genocide.

"Africa is the Mother of civilization, and the land where the very foundations in socialization practices were laid; influencing cultures all over the world. When Europeans, Asians, and members of most major religions travelled to Africa, they found fully functioning cultures of people who were in control of their own destiny. Unfortunately, the mission of the outsiders was, typically, to steal the natural resources and/or people, to control the land, and to dominate and control the people. Up to the writing of this Hub, the mission of the descendants of these outsiders is the same. [Control and enslave the indigenous mentally, spiritually and economically.]

"To justify the brutal greedy, and inhumane behavior directed at Africans, oppressors instituted and fostered slanderous propaganda campaigns to paint a picture of Africans as cultureless, ignorant, and evil people. These campaigns included diverse international codes, messages and signals which were used to produce the same result; the full scale degradation of African people wherever they exist in the world.The goal was and is to encourage everyone, but especially Africans, to resist Africa and never speak about European Imperialism against Africans Around the world.(I have already had responses of this type on my response column)

"Fortunately, there are Africans around the world who act in defiance of the numerous institutions and individuals committed to suppressing all traces of African consciousness. These Africans stand tall and continue to teach speak and act in truth. Discourse and active organization strategies intended to lead African people to command their own socialization process, must build and improve upon distinct African indigenous traditions. Numerous documents and oral histories outline the vast traditions which were practiced by our African Ancestor and passed down through the generations. We must critique these traditions and, when needed, improve upon them so that they will address the contemporary challenges that Africans face around the world.

"We must also understand that our indigenous socialization practices can help us clarify our purpose and vision as an African family. Today, as we continue to face the culture wars against African people, we must not surrender or neglect our vision of an appropriate destiny that derives from who we are as a people. It is a vision that point to our survival and maps the steps that lead to a reclamation of our African culture and power.

There is no need to struggle to change the minds of those who make a personal choice function as an individual and not as a member of an ethnic family; with the obligations that family membership entails. But we do need to be clear about who chooses to be in the family and who prefers to be an individual or just 'happens to be Black.' Understanding this distinction will clarify the kinds of expectations or challenges which might be posed by certain people. It will help us to know who will be an advocate for African liberation versus who will be an opportunistic individual.

"One of the greatest obstacles to African people's clear vision and health growth as a people is the lack of unity. Africans were tortured and killed for practicing traditional religion, speaking traditional languages, using African names, and more. By the time africans had gained a semblance of freedom to reclaim traditional practices, anti-African propaganda machines had already succeeded in enforcing a mental disengagement between Africans and anything African. The lingering result has been metal and social confusion, which has prevented Africans from being themselves. The result has also been that Africans are unable to unite and work to achieve true freedom. This lack of unity is in direction rejection of indigenous African principles which promote a strong sense of community[unity, interdependence and togetherness].

"Restricting one's identity to physical characteristics is equal to acquiescing to the European domination strategy of ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide. People often confuse "race" with ethnic and cultural identity. When we see people who look like us, we assume that they all regard themselves as members of the African Ethnic family; in addition to being Black. Many Africans believe that our only real struggle is to join the mythical "mainstream" as individuals. While we, as Africans may have individual distinctions connected to religion, class, nationality, etc., we must be careful not to allow these distinctions to divide us in the name of service to oppressors.

"Who will make an unapologetic commitment to the Africa family? Even as oppressors work to represent Black or Darker skinned people of the world as being inhuman spirits in need of domination, sensible people know that we are all members of the human race. Still, the fact that many people prefer to pretend that 'darker' humans are not the ones who continue to catch the brunt of oppressive laws, behavior, and overall exploitation do not change the reality. Many of our detractors do not want us writing Hubs like the one above, because they must first approve it since they are involved and studying us!

"It is by design that today, many Black(African) people around the world, cry that they do not want to be culturally connected to Africans. "Color me human and do not separate me" is the shallow cry of those bent on perpetuating a mythical "colorless" yet firmly European orientation; as if to suggest that claiming, respecting, and using one's indigenous tradition is anti-human.

"As people play the shallow 'color' game, African people, on the continent, are in dire economic and political circumstances. Africans remain victims of foreign powers who operate only in their own self interest. Even as European nations unite to assist each other, African nations have an impaired position in the world. This powerlessness has a direct effect on all Africans in the Diaspora who often see no special relationship to continental Africans, and are not advocates for them. The alienation of Africans from other Africans has enormous consequences.

No matter where Africans are in the world, our circumstances are basically the same. Many of us are waiting for a magic program, a grant(Tender), a charismatic leader, or European institutions to lead us to the "promised land." The reality is that there is no chance that anyone other than Africans will act to move us from the bottom of the heap. But as we move in the direction of liberation, who will accept an identity with African people, without apology?

"Those who benefit from the oppression of Africans understand that cultural disorder and family disunity facilitate the process of domination and control. This approach is used around the world, and it represents the process where-by Africans adopt any means available to surrender their African culture."

The Nature Of Traditional African Socialization

Once we can begin to realize that we are African people and accept the fact that we are African people, we begin to deal with ourselves as we are what we accept we are and can be. We learn the following from Asa Hilliard:

"Once you determine that you are a member of the family they you must 'pull your weight.' There is no more serious work for us than to do our part to regain primary control of socialization over our children, and to base our design for contemporary African education in the best of our traditional structures.

An African education process is anchored in a nurturing process derived form an African view of the world, and a shared understanding of our environment and our existence in it. That worldview is itself derived from our African community's response to its challenges in our environment in general, and our response to political and economic challenges in particular.

We must study and try to understand the core elements of our indigenous systems which have thousands of years of independent development behind them. We need to take these elements, evaluate them, and utilize those that can be of value to us as we continue to develop and grow as a people.

"As we continue to our mission of socializing ourselves with the use of our own systems, we must begin with the understanding that African people laid the foundations for education and socialization. some of the principles and practices that were outlined thousands of years ago, continue to influence people today. later derived European systems diverged inn important ways from the African value based system, but key approaches were directly influenced by African Master Teachers from the past.[I have written an extensive Hub about Professor Hendrik Clarke posted onHubPages, recognizing him as an African History/Historiography Master teacher)

"The current negative and disrespectful view of African and /africans, by many, is very recent. For example, a careful review of Europeans records featuring reports of early contacts with African, shows that they were in awe of African intellect and creativities. This is not surprising as Nile Valley architecture, education, philosophy, science, mathematics, spirituality and more, influenced visitors and students from Europe. The students included Europe's finest,including many of it's, so-called, famous philosophers.

"In spite of centuries of attempts at ethnic cleansing and miseducation, there are ancient independent systems of indigenous african socialization that are still in operation today on the continent and in the diaspora. These systems are not familiar to most of us anymore. Some socialization retentions are watered down versions of what we once had, whole some have changed little since ancient times. These retentions provide opportunities to observe and learn about some of the indigenous socialization practices.

"The task of reclaiming even a portion of the best indigenous socialization practices in Africa is enormous. The continent of Africa is some 11,608,000 square miles; twenty percent of the earths land. Over 853.6 million(Censors as of July 29, 2012), African people populate the continent. Add Africans in the diaspora and that brings the total of Africans in the world to more than a billion and a half. Africans speak at least 1000 different languages, practice a variety of rituals and traditions, and foster distinct cultures.

"But even with the variety on the continent and in the Diaspora, African posses many basic cultural connections that extend beyond individual, tribal distinctions. They include similar socialization practices, rituals, and perceptions of community, the Ancestors, and God.


"Intergenerational Cultural Transmission"

We learn from Asa Hilliard"

"A core part of our mission today is to study and transfer the valuable information about our cultural traditions to our people. This will serve, in part, to reconnect many Africans who are far removed from our ancient and traditional intergenerational cultural transmission practices. Traditionally, our socialization was under the independent control of knowing and wise African elders transmission practices.

Traditionally, our socialization was under the independent control of knowing and wise African elders, who were legitimate representatives of the African community. While many people are exposed to all sorts of propaganda via television, radio, and to all sort of propaganda via television, radio, newspapers, few of us have been exposed to the wisdom of elders right in our own communities; let alone the wisdom of those who practiced our best traditions We have lost our understanding of the indispensable role that control of the socialization plays in our survival and destiny and thus, we have failed to ensure proper intergenerational cultural transmission.

"We have a vital responsibility to our children and to our community for intergenerational cultural transmission. Our survival and our enhancement as a people are dependent upon our embrace of this responsibility and our release of total dependency on european system. We must mobilize to think and to act to restore this vital function of intergenerational cultural transmission to all our communities.

"We must study our African indigenous traditions in order to understand and to evaluate our cultural, situation now. Many of us remain African at a deep structural level. A study of our traditions will reveal that they rival any tradition past or present, and that we have valid options for world view, values and practices, which are suitable for us today, with appropriate modification.

"We must be assertive in countering denigration and defamation, which charge that African people have no meaningful traditions to recall. We, as a community,must rescue and reconstruct the most viable elements of our powerful African indigenous socialization systems. We cannot avoid it. We cannot delegate it.

"Years ago, Carter Goodwin Woodson [1968] warned against an oppressor imposed miseducation. that alienated us from our people and traditions. W. E. B. DuBois skillfully outlined the details of the "double consciousness" that causes African people to see themselves through the eyes other people(1969).

He understood that European hegemony is established through miseducation and alien cultural socialization. Some oppressed people join with their oppressors to make the European system of oppression more efficient, becoming agents in the oppression of Africans, as was true of some of us during the slave trade, who betrayed their own people (Armah, 1979). As we see happening here in 'South Africa, the ANC has becoming very efficient at maximizing the Multi-corporation's and foreign government more high by oppressing their own people

"Africans must meet , study, write, and produce. THERE IS NO SHORT CUT! We must go through the Door of No Return, transforming it to the Door Of Return, reconnecting to our traditions and propelling ourselves forward in a direction of our own choosing. We must reclaim our continent, our Culture and Ourselves."

"While African culture has been stolen, Europeans have forced and infused a generally unhealthy culture upon Africans. As Africans have adopted this alien culture, it has had negative consequences for our mental power, cultural power, physical power, and for the natural resources in the land of our ancestors. In order to survive and keep a minority of people on the planet living a wealthy life, Europeans determined that Africans and the threat of African power had to neutralized at all cost. Cultural Terrorism was exercised to create disorder , confusion, and dependency among Africans.

"No matter where you live in the world you cannot escape the history and legacy of the oppression of Africans. The patterns of oppression are seen in every facet of our society. Oppression and its consequences are, in part, the result of our ignorance of the power of African socialization traditions. By falsifying African history, culture and records, and even claiming it as its own, Europeans have elevate themselves. This meant that African values, culture, philosophy, etc., had to be put down. This meant that anything African had to be attacked, and that Africans had to be socialized to resist anything African.

"With many Africans having left their culture, we have been tricked into using the European 'racial' identity model, a model that places all of the emphasis for defining identity on the contemplation of pigment and other aspects of phenotype. When we become preoccupied with our "racial" or phenotypic features, we fail to consider sufficiently our vast cultural wealth which connects us to Africans around the world.

The lasting challenge that we face is the absence of information and understanding of African culture. This has been by design. The enforcers of an oppressive system work to create cultural disorder among the oppressed. In particular, they suppress the value of t other cultures while glorifying and fabricating the history of themselves. They understand that the resulting disorder will make it impossible for the oppressed to be truly independent. Fanon made some interesting observations along these lines:

"The unilaterally decreed normative value of certain cultures deserves our careful attention....The enterprise of deculturation turns out to be the negative of a more gigantic work of economic, and even biological enslavement... The doctrine of cultural hierarchy is thus but one aspect of a systematized hierarchization implacably pursued. ...For its systems of reference have to be Broken. Expropriation, spoliation, raids, objective murder, are matched by the sacking of cultural patterns, or at least condition such sacking. The social panorama is destructed; values are flaunted, crushed and emptied.

"...The lines of force of force, having crumbled, no longer give direction. In their stead, a new system of values is imposed, not proposed but affirmed, by the heavy weight of cannons and sabers.

"...This culture, once living and open to the future, becomes closed, fixed in the colonial status, caught in the yoke of oppression. Both present and mummified, it testifies against its members. It defines them in fact without appeal. The cultural mummification leads to a mummification of individual thinking. The apathy so universally noted among colonial peoples is but the logical consequence of this operation. As though it were possible for a man to evolve otherwise than within the framework of a culture that recognizes him that he decides to assume.

"...Thus, we witness the setting up of archaic inert institutions, Functioning under the oppressor's supervision and patterned like a caricature of formerly fertile institutions."

Asa continues to add:

"Regardless of our understanding of the diverse ways in which European system of education typically failed African people, Africans continue to be dependent on the European approach; an approach that carries no high expectations of us. In fact, the european system is based largely on assumptions that we lack the intellectual and cultural capacity for high levels of achievement. Actually, Western education for the masses carries no high values and aims for anyone. European, African or others; not even excellence in basic skills.

"This is a very dangerous development for us. Miseducation continues to be a threat to our survival as a people. This particular form of miseducation strives to make us individuals, non-spiritual, materialistic, passive consumers, and even cravers of White supremacy ideas, contents, behaviors and values. In the final analysis, culturally dependent people will believe, internalize and utilize anything that they are socialized to believe is correct.

"The cultural dependency of African people and many other ethnic groups is due to years of miseducation and gradual loss of control of intergenerational cultural transmission. Most Africans are in deep debt. Most of us purchase goods and services from non-Africans. Even simple things like hair-care and nail maintenance are provided for many of us by others. Worst of all, there is an absence of a community controlled intergenerational cultural transmission process. The void is filled by propaganda of others. Gradually, we have lost the memory of our values, our history, and our creativity."

Cultural Synergy

We can only attain cultural independence if we utilize our culture, etc to uplift and edify ourselves. We have everything we need to do just that, but we need to begin to learn and know what our cultures are all about. It is about time we stopped aping and emulating useless and different cultures foreign to us(although we should understand foreign cultures) but we cannot be the people of foreign cultures because they are not ours and they are not us.

For us to recognize ourselves, is to take some serious lessons from the short histories, dance and music videos with the cultural dress in full display to be of one people, Us. We are not tribes nor have we ever been tribes, but we were indoctrinated by Apartheid to think and refer to ourselves as tribes-we helped the regime 'disappear' ourselves, nation and culture by using the jargon from the Master in talking and referring to ourselves and our culture in those demeaning and dehumanizing terms without us being aware what we are really doing to ourselves. One cannot listen to the cultural musical videos, the short history and observe the cultural performances with the jaundiced eye of our former oppressor and detractors.

We can have preferences of one culture over the other, but we cannot view them as separate-it's much more easier and empowering to see them as diverse, variegated, but the same and unified. The aesthetics of our culture so dictates to us, as we have seen them below, The fusion of our histories is one, but since we have been enslaved and colonized for so long, we never even had time and thought to begin to deal with and look at our culture the way I am saying.

I think Asa Hilliard tops it off within the article I cited from from. this will also help to put some more complex things and questions one may still have to understand, say, by only reading what I wrote, because we have not yet accepted the fact that we, as African people, are just as capable(and as I have been saying throughout the Hub, there are those foreigners who think that we are not capable of writing our African histories, if not better than the White folks, some of us who so revere and worship, at the expense of our cultures). I know and believe that we are better — because the music/history and Dance above attest to my belief and knowledge.

The projection of our culture above is paying tribute "to those who sought and continue to seek a clearer understanding of our cultural past in order to build a better and more secure and bright future for everyone". My trying very hard to reach ourselves and the present state of know that has been trifled with, is just only that, to make us(Africans) more knowledgeable and vigilant about what we already have in our hand-in our possession: our cultures, traditions, customs, languages, sacred rites and practices,music, dances, and traditional wear(The colors of our people are one indicator I did not delve enough into here-but will in the foreseeable future).

I hope and trust that this whole exercise helps us to be able to wrap our heads around the possibilities that we have, so long as we can act in tandem on all that we have at our disposal… Well… Here is our culture staring at us in our eyes of the mind and the physical/plain sight, so that, What Is Then Mzantsi/Africa/Africans To You? How can you Use What You Know Now To Change The Present Paradigm We Are Now Steeped And Immersed In With All Its Misery And Destruction? Well, The mind, once it learns, it never forgets, unless we impose, forcibly and knowingly on it, amnesia of and on the reality and possibility as to how we re or can be, come out of this cesspool and morass of social/cultural miasma...

We Are Much More Better Than This, Thus Far In Our Short Lives Here In Mzantsi.

Dr John Henrik Clarke, Dr Yosef Ben Jochannan - What will We Tell Our Children

IPI NTOMBI - Cape Town 1997

Iphi' Ntombi In Short...

I have just posted the Dramatical act of Iphi' Ntombi above. If the reader gets to watch the whole show, they will be rewarded and will also see what I mean when I say we have a very powerful and vibrant culture If we are to be told that we are backward, then I would rather spend the rest of my life in culture as projected and shown-off by the cast of Iphi' Ntombi. the captured our cultural essence and being. The incorporated all the many traditional, cultural, customary, musical, traditional dress, and dances into one explosive extravaganza for the world to see.

The people of the world who will view this video, will have to say if what I have talking about is not true or not. The only sad thing is that our own people have not yet caught up to the idea that our culture is as powerful as made out by the cast of Iphi' Ntombi above.

It is a fact that we are a rural and village people; we are also a city folk, too. We are having many problems balancing both, and we have even gone to the extent of morphing our village culture with the city culture. We have not yet produced people who can synthesize both in a way that Iphi' Ntombi, dramatized. Chroniclers like me I busy working on this synergy by writing our story, drama, history, culture, traditions, customs, languages, playing our musical and giving/showing the world our dances and music and some sacred rites through Sangomas and spiritualists.

What I have been saying above has been drastically captured by Iphi' Ntombi. they used and fused all the elements of our culture, modern and tradition customary cultures of Africans and gave us what our culture here in Mzantsi can achieve and what we can do with it, should we choose to work hard on developing and manifesting our cultures here in Mzantsi.

For me, Iphi' Ntombi is the epitome of our culture as we can present and project it to ourselves, and the World. The world should see why I write the impassioned articles about our culture, because I say so knowing our potential is unlimited and boundlessly endless… This is but one of the ways that the world sees our culture, I have, above, given another sense and variety of our variegated and diverse culture, that, if we put our minds to it, learn our culture for ourselves, and show the world from that understanding, we will make our ancestors proud, and they will make sure we succeed.

The Miriam Makeba - Apartheid Years

Apartheid in South Africa (1957) Documentary

Big Debate on Corruption (ANC Government-Created Corruption)

More About "Intergenerational Cultural Transmission"

Asa Hilliard writes:

"Many Africans have never made the choice to 'disappear,' and to be merely 'mainstream,' and never will. For these Africans who are not alienated from family traditions, it is time to restore our structures for socialization. It is time to mobilize and to rescue our people, before they are lost in utter and irreversible identity confusion. We may not always understand that the consequences of that identity confusion are economic, political, social, esthetic and spiritual. [It is to these Africans that this article above is directed to.]

"Truly, there is no valid way for Africans to be, to exist as an ethnic family, in ignorance of our own traditions. We simply must not be ignorant of our rich heritage. The cost is too high We have a basic decision to make, "To be African or not to be." Is there an ethnic group family, or is there only a shared phenotype? If it is the latter, then there really is nothing left for us to do. We then exist only as individuals who 'just happen to black.'

"On the other hand, if we choose family, then we have immediate and essential work to do. Our unity and solidarity is based on our shared [values] and culture, not merely on our pigment and hair texture, or other aspects of our phenotype. Otherwise, we are playing Ping-Pong while others are playing "Hardball."

"Our traditions have made a profound impact on world civilization. They still do. But today, we must reclaim these traditions, and where appropriate, utilize them to help us to address the many issues that plague our communities. We live in dangerous times. The same propaganda and calculated manipulation of information about Africans that has existed since the start of the Maafa is prevalent today.

"Mass media send messages to us and about us that are beyond our control. Schools have nothing to engage our students in African Cultural Traditions or in support of African Communities. Our Communities rarely acknowledges our Traditions and they fail to create adequate structures to guarantee "Intergenerational Cultural Transmission". We are culturally lazy and our ancestors are not pleased. History will not be kind to this of us who forget. Shame, disintegration and dependency on others, or worse, will be the outcome.

Well,.. This is why I post Dr. Asa aphorism and wirings, and I think many people have to come around to reading him, or some short and truncated posters above. Many of us either do not read anything or just don't take it seriously. there are many of us, here on FB, who just dislike our African culture etc., but are quick to jump to posts that depict Europeanize paradigms and cultural artifacts.

Many of us are Afraid when they look at the mirror and see what's starring them back. A lot of us use the examples of Black children 'liking' White Dolls rather than Black ones, but we have never examined ourselves as grown-ups how we still carry on the 'liking' of Imperial Cultural values, languages, behaviors, mannerism, and these same people, push back, very hard, on many of the posts I post here on my Timeline, and throughout FB-in many ways.

Our selective cultural Amnesiac choices are embedded/embodied,in many of us, which a pre-built in into the system that is oppressing us and keeping us down. It is like, many of us, cannot afford to forego the crumbs we imbibe from the World Financial potentates tables, and instead, choose to reject, ignore and not give credence and credibility to our own original indigenous cultural flavor.

The point you have raised above is what I am trying to coax out of our people, to either begin to consciously look at themselves anew and progressively… The thing is, what is staring back at them in their mirrors, is what they do not want, hate, dislike and so on. How then different are we as adults if we do what our children do with the white and black dolls, and we are doing it with our own Indigenous Culture- and falling all over ourselves for European ways of seeing and being. This is the cultural conundrum you are addressing. This is what I am doing infusing anything and everything African to try and keep on goading and needling our people's Cultural Consciousness: Globally…

Some of us are at loss as to what to do and say given the seemingly overwhelming reality we are immersed into. Many of us,Africans here in Mzantsi, opt-out of our responsibilities to stud, learn and act upon our acquired knowledge. We are simply happy to cost our artificial posts in life, and pass on the responsibility of learning about ourselves to others. We even use and quote them(Our African Master Teachers and Master Writers) extensively. We are charged with writing our story, and we will have to do it diligently and thoroughly.

Between A Rock And A Hard Place: Apartheid And ANC-led Government

The two videos are both apart two systems,not dissimilar, that are less interested in the development and authentic African South African politics, culture, history, customs, traditions, music, dances.

Apartheid was based on separate development of different races and the enslavement of the African population; the ANC is a supposedly african elected and African-led government that separates people based on class, income, cronyism, nepotism and blatant greedy-opportunistic separation of its people; creates a chasm between Africans from the North of Africa and those in south Africa; replacing Bantu Education with Education of Confusion; also, impoverishing and crating a permanent state of ignorance amongst its electorate and thinking nothing of it.

With the ANC, unlike Apartheid, they have managed to rule now for half the time Apartheid ruled, and they have really bungled this opportunity. When it comes to matters of culture, ANC has been more dangerous, because they changed names of places and national events that were as a result of the sacrifice of many unknown Africans, they flaunt culture when it is politically expedient to do so. They opportunistically fill their ranks in government and their parastatals with ignoramuses badly or unqualified for many high and sensitive positions.

They are worse, the ANC, because it is people like us: Africans. I have written a length about this motley crew of cabals that dominate the ANC, and the 'Corruption Debate'?! above, is more like watching the ANC spokesman's mealy mouthing his way out of the shenanigans of the ANC, lying, obfuscating, distorting and seamlessly trying to present the ANC as a viable Government body.The Other Tape on Apartheid, is covering Apartheid from the 1950s just to get a flavor of what do we means by Apartheid.

We know about Apartheid, and some of us have bought it. The fight for now is against a very dangerous animal-Our presently African-led government, just recently re-elected. For the African electorate, it is back to the vinegar bottle-business as usual as it has been for the past 20 years, is the present-day modus operandi. This is what We are going to have to deal wit: Tow timelines that give no respite nor allow the African people to be autonomously and authentically free.

Racial Matters And Identity

Let's Talk Sharp With One Another!

Murmurs and Vibes From the Grapevine...

A lot of us are calling for an honest assessment of our country and existential conditions of ourselves and our people. Well, this is true, and we need then to read one another's posts and talk from how we have learned and learn to dissipate firm ideas about what concrete conditions prevail in our midst and identify them carefully and fully… If we were able to pass information by word of mouth in the sixties and seventies, then we can surely exploit and explore this social media as an environment to facilitate for the meeting of the African communal minds.

For the past 18 years we have gone from the euphoria of imagining that we are free, to the hope that at last all of us are going to get our just desserts with the 'Fall'(or morphing?) Of Apartheid, to the coming of ANC's "Ngangaras" and potentates who colonized us with the effect akin to the novocaine used in dulling the pain to extract the tooth. We bought their whole game hook and sink. We were Took!

Meanwhile, everyone was clamoring and climbing onto the Gravy Train, a period where the poor masses watched in stunned disbelief and awe as our elected officials greedily vacuum sucked everything they could lay their soulless mitts upon. Nobodies and none-entities became the fashion and manifestation of a reality that the poor could nothing about, but spectate.

The mantra for the season of looting was "Dog-Eats-Dog" world and "Everybody for Himself/Herself" Children were yanked from their Ghetto schools in to private schools run by whites-into what came to be known as Model C schools. The owners of companies and jobs have refined the technique of pitying incoming foreign workers against the local workers.

This has created devastating joblessness; those of us who could create companies, did so with the collusion of local capitalist and international Multi-national Corporation's ogres, thus becoming fixture and props and African front-faces of these Conglomerates. Educating our children and the communities was relegated to the rubbish can of post Apartheid South Africa, where it is marinating, and miseducating the African masses worse than under Apartheid.

It is incumbent on us that whenever we begin a yarn about our history, we should make do with what we have and are experiencing, than try too hard to become irrelevant even to our intended audience: The African masses. At the same time, we need to take a hard and critical look at the present conditions of the masses and rights in such a way that it educes the masses, as it also helps them learn about themselves and their state in the affairs of their own country. This is important.

The general masses have had foisted upon them propaganda which sets them up for their present state of coping and existing in a world that is allayed and arrayed against them on all fronts. Take your pick-for whatever I say here or write about and is never good enough to and for ourselves then we are really in untangle type of a conundrum. There are many interests that are not directly involved nor linked with the interests of the people.

If we see the Marikana shootings, and other violent and spurious uprising, these are the embers before the big fiery storm stacked with all types of grievances that the people are decrying. If you look at it as to the improvements made for the tourist on the roads into the hinterland of Mzantsi, one can say some work has been done.

But if one ferrets-out the conditions of the people on the ground, there is a shocking reality as to the neglect the poor have been subjected to; the apathy is devastating; poverty ravaging the jobless and penniless; disease devouring our communities core; crime and insecurity run rampant in the Mekhukhus, homes and streets of the suburbs and ghettoes of the poor people's abode.

Ignorance is the norm, corruption and opportunism the rule and law of the land. Drugs are ripping communities, families and the whole nation apart; politicians are filling their deep pockets along with their side-kicks, cronies and minions. Greed and callousness, along with arrogance and cold-heartedness which is beguiling and akin to the Apartheid era, if not outdoing the Boers during their prime.

It is truly have been two decades of rot, corruption and oppression that is new to the Africans because, in this case,it is their own that are carrying out this genocide in service on big Capital and Multi-corporation.

Our leaders are running pell-mell in trying to please and appease the monied interest and are working particularly hard to outdo each other and receive confirmation from their deep pocketed Capitalist ogres. You can see them in newspapers and TV Newsreels, these fumigating handkerchief-heads frothing at their mouths in great anticipation of a hefty payday from their Imperialist masters at the expense of the poor.

Some of them have three chins, double potbellies, hat-doffing attitudes, and fat-asses to go with that whenever they are addressing their masters and trying to convince them that they have the situation of the army of the poor under control on the behalf of the Imperial foreign potentates.

National Psychiatric Healing

One thing is certain, we cannot consume our way into equality. Another thing is that we are suffering a 'manipulation of our desires'. It is through the use of this technique that we find ourselves perpetual slaves and underdogs. This enables 'other' people to fleece us. We have been manipulated in such that our interest are used against us.

This has been happening over and over in historical time and in our existential realities. This works for the masters against the interests of the subjugated. This has led to the introjection of 'self-hatred' onto the African Psyche. We need to study and know this inducement of the psychology of 'self hatred' in order to begin to steer our dysfunctional existence in the right direction of self-sufficiency.

The reality of racism is our Achilles heel, and we need to understand that we need to fight for what we get and for our survival. We have to also begin to create our own jobs within our own milieu without going with the 'culture of dependency' orchestrated by our detractors and oppressors. So long as we think that loving and knowing and understanding our enemies will help us in turn learn to love and understand is bogus and a fiction.

So long as we send our children to be educated by the enemy, whom we think will educate our children more than theirs, feed our children instead of theirs, make their children to be governed and ruled by our children just because we send them to their school of our former enemies is not only dumb, but shows that we have a serious problem dealing with our own.

We cannot hope and wish that we should be accepted by our enemies as just human beings without our identity of being African always the first thing the enemy sees. We cannot wish for acceptance into a culture of consuming, of going to their churches, of imbibing their culture by merely stating that we do not see color, nor acknowledge color.

Whereas the very enemy we are protecting is clearly seeing our color and knows our culture and history, and is working assiduously to control, suppress and do away with it , inculcate his onto you, and at the same time make a profit at the expense of you and your abilities of denying and forgetting your culture, history, traditions, cultures and language.

We have to base our existence on the real world we live in, not the one of dreams, distortion and hope that is non-existent. It does not matter how much pain we have and have been and continually been discouraged, we need to implant the legacy of "self knowledge" Knowing the self is one of the keys according to the aphorism 'know thyself'(a la-Garvey) The amnesia of who we are is pathological.

A people who suffer from amnesia are people who are unconscious about themselves. Knowledge of our African history culture is important so that even if it is stolen and taken, we should not allow ourselves to loose our identity that is being taken from us by another people. A lack of self awareness in an insensitivity to our reality and our outside world through lack of understanding the concept of self-knowledge.

We cannot get to know ourselves deeply we have to know others-we have to move beyond ourselves and see things in the sense of a universalism. If we are to regain our African selves, we must develop and grow self-knowledge. We should not be always be puzzled by our self behavior which we have little or no control; our escape from self and reality we have given of our being into the hands of the others who tend to control our behavior.

If we are to control our destiny, we must control ourselves; our control of our behavior should come under the control and domination of our will. We can then our control of our emotions under our own will by not allowing feelings and impulses to take hold of us and us not in control of such (I am recalling Garvey's psychotherapy here). Everything should be under our will, rule, command and dictation as much as we can. Pathology is lack on knowledge of ones reality...

We must look reality in the face and use it as the basis of our behavior. Amnesia is a pathological state of mind and suffering a lack of knowledge of one-selves, loss of identity is deliberately induced. We should not forget that everything is everything; and all things are interlinked and inter/intra connected.

While we might be discussingHistory and culture, we should not forget that the media, technology, all the other things would imagine not to be related to ones existence and concerns and beingness-They are! Our understanding of holistically dealing with the African matters should include everything and anything. If we have a problem with our identities and images, we should know that they are not only historical, but are al else I have mentioned above and then some.

If we all agree that humans being originated in Africa, why should we fall into the trap of lack of self-identity and image? There is only but one man, and that human being is African-all else flows from that. We have the present problems mushrooming in all sectors and far-fetched hovels of human existence in South Africa, we should pay attention that it is a passing phase, albeit slow, into another dimension of man's existence on this planet and the cosmos.

The healing of ourselves is to begin to anchor and sharpen our understanding of our selves and believe and stick to it. The shenanigans that are foisted on our day-to-day functioning by the depressors and oppressors, should be understood to come from a place which we can wrap our brains around and continue to upgrade our state of being African people to be able to walk in the sun again. There is definitely no shame in being African; there's a whole lot of destruction in being ashamed of who was one was born as, and lives with and are: African! The saga will continue-unabated and unstoppable... Let's Get Real!

Solomon Plaatjie..

Black Fear and the Failure of African Analytical(ideological) Commitment:

The Road Going forward Is Asked from Those Who have Travelled it Many Moons Before...

Most of us are working very hard to recoup our losses through the ages of serious and deep oppression. What I am talking about here, is that, whenever all of us who are fighting against a system we all grew up under(Apartheid), we do not forget its intentions and outcomes on Africans, but then, there are those Africans here on Facebook maybe from some other countries in Africa, who are quick to castigate, put down, or look down on the fight that is still ongoing amongst Africans of South Africa.

So that, whenever some of us use other people's or writer;s adages, we are assailed for it, incoherently, by the detractors of our struggle, and we are supposed to say nothing! My take is that I will assail anyone who downgrades or is a detractor of what is the struggle of the people of Mzantsi.
On one occasion, in a post I made on one of the Various Walls dealing with African concerns, wherein I posted a historical article personally written by the Master teacher himself, Prof. John Hendrik Clarke, and one can go and read the back-and-forth I had with a Samuel X. The Title of Prof. Clarke's topic was "Columbus And The African Slave Trade".

Samuel X:

An interesting thesis but man is a product of his thoughts. Slaves can choose a comfort mind-set into slavery and regard it : "just a part of it". You dare win or loose.

Me:

Yah! Samuel Sithole, the piece above in not merely a thesis, but an African historiographical fact.. In-as-much as you say that, 'man is a product of his thoughts'; that, 'slaves can choose a comfort mind-set into slavery and regard' it(?!)-Seriously, the last sentence makes no sense and is ahistorical. If you do not understand your history as an African, then you become irrelevant and reactionary.

Because, by now you should know that, Africans, having been educated into being servants by the Europeans, we know clearly that the intentions of the Europeans was that Africans never escape their condition of servitude. A higher education, as it is the case with most of us in Mzantsi, means that we will just be 'edumacated' servants.

So, how can a conditioned slave have options which are not there for him to choose from or as you say, 'Choose a comfort mind-set[which still is a rickety postulation], and of course, worse still, the last sentence in which you state 'You dare win or loose,' is seriously flawed and vague and incredulous. Wilson says: "People who are ahistorical, who have little knowledge of history, are people who are more gullible, more easily manipulated and people who can be more easily adapted to the capitalist machine than people who are historically knowledgeable".

History can become a basis for self-criticism, a basis for self-understanding, and more importantly, the basis for the understanding of the motives and the psychology of others. We must recognize that history is at the very center of life. ... In every discipline we study in the college, university/school we're going to run into European history: it is intimately intertwined with all disciplines. It is inextricably linked and wrapped into every situation, circumstance and events of life.

If we are to prevent ourselves from being created by another people and to engage in the act of self-creation, then we must change the power relations. We need to talk sense and make sense of our contemporary reality, and articulate it succinctly to avoid being caught up in not being able to recognize the value and importance of our history even if it stares us in the face.

Finally, Wilson says that, "We must be instructed by history and should transform history into concrete reality, into planning and development, into construction of power and the ability to ensure our survival as a people." We must understand the tremendous value of the study of history for the re-gaining of power. If our education is not about gaining real power, we are being miseducated and misled and we will die "Educated( Edumacated') and misled...

You are really out of it and making no sense at all. I have said my piece, and Prof. Clarke wrote his. Bro, you have a problem, and you have nothing to contribute to this article nor to my response... So, reading is fundamental, and that's what you need, seriously READ!... Ignorance is our downfall, and you are exacerbating it here on the FB...

Haai, wena, go back to school! Or at least write in your own language, because thus far you really do not know what you are talking about nor make no sense in your last response-nor the one before. Please, read Clarke above and respond to his article, not all the confusion your regurgitating here.

Samuel Sithole:

Mature mind and personality doesn't act like a little rascal, if you know and sure that you are well-versed you don't boast but humbleness is part of my Afrikanness and up-bringing no matter how good I feel about my little knowledge I remain humble. Get me correct. Self-praise has no recommendation, so does pride which goes before a fall.

I don't just read History but analyze and criticize. History is not inert but written by man for a reason so in my right mind-set I approach it: with why, who when and the intention of the writer. Amen

Me"

Yeah, right! ...

Then just below the discourses above, Mr. X went on to post the following:

Mr. X's' Post, I think was directly posted for my posterity about his bio and whatever...

I interact with Africans from all levels political leaders, professors and a common AFRICAN in the street, you name it. Answers to Africa's woes are in within so does a statement from one of my African intellects who said in kiSwahili: "~Nakk Pexe, Pexe la!". You may quote from all African greats, African Historians in the understanding we are not aware of those quotes. Rethink my brother, Africans need ideal action to meeting today's challenges.

During enslavement of Africans, we not captured like wild game by slave-masters but it was just like in the status-quo when I raise and mobilize those Africans whom I share a language or nationality and kill my fellow Africans in what I name African-on-African systematical hostility.

Instead of accepting negative impacts of our multiple-ethnicity that we protect at our detrimental we play the blame-game and stick to a victim-mentality Most Africans know their past but it does not affect their action or how they relate to each other in their difference in languages. I regard all the Bantu (the so-called black as African) regardless of their nationality, creed or political affiliation. 'Pliz',misinterpreting my word, right.

I did not answer this last post because I think I have made my point. I have never been in the habit of spilling my guts about myself on Facebook, neither will I be now, I prefer to let history(the one I compose) and history from those who know how best to tell it, so that I learn and those I disseminate it (from the Master Teachers) be able to help others to learn…

But, what is amazing,too, about X's last post, is how incoherent and senseless he is in his decrepit analysis. The reader can make their informed decision as to his convoluted diatribe. Rather than go on the total offensive against Mr. X, who is just a good target for such, I will let Dr.Frances-Cress Welsing clarify a few thing for us, so that we can learn:

"It is known that extremely high level of fear and a profound sense of vulnerability of existence can lead the human-brain computer into ineffectual pattern of 'circular thought.' In such cases, problems perceived are 'avoided' and 'never' solved. This is in direct contrast to effective patterns of direct linear thought that move continuously forward in straight line progress,form problem perception and depth analysis to proposed conclusive modes of problem solutions.

"This holds true for individuals as well as collectives. The sense of powerlessness evolves out of fear and vulnerability and, with its imposed patterns of circular (as opposed to 'linear') thought, sets the stage for mental (behavioral) and emotional illness, which is seen at levels of increased incidence amongst oppressed populations.

"Circular Thought" means moving from problem to perception, 'away' from problem solution (down a diversionary path), and back again to problem perception. This may then be followed by worrying obsessively complaining. There is never consistent motion towards problem 'solution' because to do so would challenge and alter the power dynamic of oppression. Thus, high-level fear is set in motion. Circular thought describes the short-circuiting of logic networks in the brain-computer, an organ which has evolved by nature as a problem-solving instrument.

"Linear Thought" suggests movement from problem perception progressively 'towards' problem solution, changing step-by-step whatever needs to be altered to achieve total problem solution — utilizing whatever means necessary to achieve this end. This form of thought is consistent with the function and structure of the brain as a problem-solving organ in the human organism.

"Black(African) people throughout the world, live under the power of White supremacy system of total oppression and domination, implying the absence of any true power to determine ultimately what happens to their individual collective lives. This is the major and only 'problem' facing Black(African) and all other non-white peoples throughout the world.

"This is precisely why they are called and classified as 'Black' and 'non-white,' to set them specifically in oppositional contrast to, and in conflict with, the genetic reality of 'white'. But because this is a frightening and painful reality upon which to focus Black(African) and other non-white attention, we as Blacks(Africans), [under all colonized countries], and particularly in the US, succumb to circular thought. Likewise, there is not only a failure to approach problem solution, but there is a stubborn even to look directly at 'the problem'.

"Ultimately, there is a disturbance in problem perception. Therefore, Black(African) people in he US and Africa/Diaspora reject the conscious rejection of the global White supremacy system, its absolute necessity of non-white oppression and its very specific implications of a continuing powerlessness and potential destruction — as opposed to a natural death — for Blacks(Africans) and other designated non-whites.

"... Thus, we are witnessing a collective Black[African floundering and an 'ideological' vacuum and disorientation. All that remains is for Blacks(Africans) to escalate tragically tier activity of powerless arguing and squabbling amongst themselves and to compete with one another for White supremacy jobs and grant crumbs. Or, Blacks(Africans) can pretend, as a diversionary thought strategy, that the Real" struggle exists between imagined Black(African) classes or between Black(African) and Females(Africans)

"Every energy and psychological effort is expanded, at both the individual and collective levels, to 'black-out' and avoid focusing on the true problem or White/Black(African) confrontation - White supremacy. All Blacks(Africans) realize, consciously and/or consciously an/or unconsciously, that to engage in such a realistic focus can mean certain death at the hand of white supremacists.

"If we do not have confidence in our ability to make independent Black(African) observations, Black(African) analyses and Black(African) plans for Black(African) action, why should we talk about or seek Black(African) liberation? One should seek independence from those upon whom one feel permanently dependent, for that would be an act of suicide.

"Furthermore,if we believe that we are intellectually inferior to White people, as our distrust of our capacity to observe and make correlations would strongly imply, we simply should say this out loud for all the world to hear: "Blacks are genetically inferior in terms of the intellectual capacity as compared to their white counterparts." Then we should content ourselves quietly and politely to be totally and permanently dependent upon the White collective for all that we 'need,' 'do,' 'think' and 'say'.

"If Black(African) behavioral, social and political scientists are supposed to be incapable of making accurate analyses of behavioral, social and political situations [local and world-wide] , then Black(African) physicians are also incapable of making accurate medical diagnoses, and all Black(African) patients should seek White doctors. This would imply similarly that Black(African) lawyers are incapable of successfully handling legal cases, and all Black(African) law clients should seek White Lawyers.

"Likewise, all Black(African) students should seek White lawyers. Likewise, all Black students should seek White teachers. Furthermore, All Black(African) women seeking husbands should seek White husbands, and all black[African men seeking wives should seek White wives]. This activity would carry such reasoning to its logical though absurd conclusions.

"If we do not wish to imply all the above, let us get about the business of Black [African problem-solving], beginning with the problem of Black(african) oppression, beginning with the problem of Black oppression under White supremacy.

"First and foremost, let it be the responsibility of every Black(African) person to know and understand how the dynamic of White supremacy domination is expressed in all areas o people activity: economics, education, entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex, war, [languages, customs, traditions, cultures, practices, rites and the whole bit [my two cents] (Frances-Cress Welsing)

In fact, Black people seeking a scientific approach to the problems afflicting and facing African people, and Africans must begin acting and being Historians, scientists, observing their situation, recording their own data and following up with their own analysis of the their observations, experience and data. Their own analysis will then inform them of what it is that they, as Africans people, need to do to achieve their goal objectives.

I present below, the picture of our foremost historical and literary genius, Sol Plaatjie, for the respect and posterity he represent as to the article above. Although I have not used his works to elaborate my point, which he does better than most of us. He is the best we are of ourselves the best we can be, if not better about and on behalf of ourselves.... (especially Mr.Sithole), would ever imagine nor reach... Backwards never, forward ever... Each one teach one; each one reach one....

Stokley Carmichael

WHITE DOMINATION IS A CESSPOOL OF FILTH . AND TOO MANY OF US INDULGE INTO IT FOR LACK OF DIGNITY AND COURAGE
WHITE DOMINATION IS A CESSPOOL OF FILTH . AND TOO MANY OF US INDULGE INTO IT FOR LACK OF DIGNITY AND COURAGE

Talking About Music And Culture Of Mzantsi(South Africa)

When I was younger, and growing up, I quickly became aware that knowing and understanding my environment was key to my survival. I say this to my family friends and community. These functioned as one I am talking here about the time-period 1950s to the 1976 Revolution. Known as the June 16, 1976, Revolt/Revolution The beginning and up to the petering of this revolution, was precipitated by many events. Key among these was the music arts and drama. These were subjected to rigorous and constant Apartheid adjustment, repression and other such evil intents.

So, having been born in Soweto, I grew up in an atmosphere that aggressively dictated to us how to survive in many ways than one. When it came to music, this was one section of our culturization that now, under the streaming Viral Web, it becomes ever more important that we know what this is and how to use. We have a lot of music posted on the YouTube and other Internet outlets that make it possible to get our own music uploaded onto the Web-by us.

I have just made note of the fact that in the Township I grew up in, one was required to "know" what you "know," "Think" and "Do".You had to know, very well whatever it is one was doing. Whether this be in Sports, Arts, Music, Dances, School and so forth This was ingrained in us, and the whole community judged and expected us to know and do and perform as expected. We had to know our school work(our teachers were no joke); we had to perform in our individual sports-failure was not an option; Our communities etched into our mind and consciousness "excellence" and "Dedication" to whatever we did.

So that, when it came to music, which was one of the things one did as one grew up, I have already stated elsewhere, we were fortunate to be born into a very vibrant and lively milieu. The enclave I was raised in was full of music, by the time one realized that this was the case. In my grandma's home, there was an old Piano, the one you had to pump first before you can play, and begin to learn the timing of constantly pumping as you played along. My Uncles belonged to the early 1940s burgeoning street band, and my other uncle was a DJ of the late forties, using his Gramophone, and he would occasionally put the speakers on the roof of the house, and they would blare throughout the Township with everyone coming by to drop something, music, food, and for hangout.

The had shelves of 78 rpm neatly shelved and kept in pristine condition. My uncles had rigged their gramophone to be able to connect some home made powerful speakers, and we the kids, at that time, got to listen to and jig to the vibe, as we saw them do. We were taught how to handle the 'breakable' records so's not to break them when we steal time on the machine whilst they were away. There was a huge collection of Zulu 'Scathamiya/Ngom'busku' music that was collected by my grandfather. There was Jazz and many other forms of local music, both traditional and township spun.

So onwards to the sixties, there was an introduction of Pilot Radios, which were huge boxes, or cabinets with one big foo opening downwards. These were a marked improvement from the gramophone of the past. Inside these boxes or cabins, were components for FM, MW and SW, there was a turntable where one could stack the records which after one was through, the head of the turntable with the needle would move askance, and the next LP would fall into place, and the head would swing back, and lower itself down to the LP, and continue playing. By this time, Plastic vinyl was replacing the 78s. And the introduction of the 45rpm was taking place. So that, the Pilot and Blaukpunkt machines were fitted with the 331/3, 78rpm and 45 rpm speeds to according to the emerging tech changes in the sound machines and music systems.

As we headed towards the mid and late sixties, we were then introduce or sold what we called then Hi-fi sets… whose components were movable and independent from each other. We then graduated from then on to the more sophisticated and much more powerful sound system like the Bang & Oelelfsoen, Marantz, Pioneer, Sony, Samsun, Technics and the whole bit. These came with even more revolutionary speakers(not the present day Surround Sound), but speakers made by those companies, and we mixed the, One could insert 4 - 8 speakers, with Graphic Equalizers and other such new techniques and components of sound production.

As these musical components, so was music evolving, very fast. It was very exciting times of Soul music. There were the dances and dress code to go with that. We were exploring Jazz as it came through stores like Kohinoor and Turntable, and other good Record/Vinyl stores. There were plenty of Festivals, and African Americans like Lavern Baker, Percy Sledge, Betty Wright, Ray Charles, The O'Jays, and so forth. This was the time moving from the late sixties to the 70s and beyond begun Showing up over the Years; there were local jazz festivals; regional musical appreciation, from Port Elizabeth and Cape Town to Johannesburg via Pretoria(Tshwane today).

As I have already stated above, the Township of Soweto where I grew, one was required to know anything,very well. On this part of this article, I would like to discuss:

The Principles And Fundamentals Of African Traditional Music In Mzantsi

. this analysis is based on how these are performed today, and will be the baseline in the analysis of urban stylistic changes. Ethnohistorical evidence shows stylistic and textual continuity in traditional music; its fundamental principles have not changed and have continued to operate uniformly in examples recorded over the past two centuries. this persistence suggests their existence before that time. These principles apply equally to the structure of goal and instrumental performance and, with some variation, to all the indigenous African musical cultures of the Region, specifically in Mzantsi.

Unlike Central and West Africa, communal music in the South of the African continent, was basically vocal, without drumming or other instrumental accompaniment, though solo performance often invoked dancing or gesture or work movements by the singers themselves. There were at least two voice parts in antiphonal, leader-and-chorus relationship to each other, and the parts frequently overlapped, producing polyphony. An essential feature was that the two basic parts never entered or ended simultaneously.

Additional counter melodies were often added, and the leading part was frequently varied through extemporization. With Single stringed mouth-resonated instruments such as the Sotho "Lesiba"(Feather) and Setotlotolo(Mouth Harp), vocal melody could be simulated, against which the player could sing an antiphonal leader's part, and coral music was often composed in this way.

So interrelated are instrumental and vocal traditions that it is uncertain which is more basic to traditional musical development. It is also known that about a hundred years ago that pentatonic multipart structures in traditional south African choral music derived from the harmonics of stretched strings in instrumental playing. Others amongst us know that the use of instruments among the Zulus and other 10 African groups of South Africa, is an indirect extension extension of the principles of vocal music. Sotho migrants produced neo-traditional music with the concertina, guitar and voice through the polyphonic movement of parallel fourths and fifths with the structure of the western 'three cord' (tonic-dominant-subdominant) system.

Retired miners recall this music, called "Focho"(Disorder) being played in Johannesburg as ear;y as the decades preceding World War I. the guitar and concertina, along with the autoharp, harmonica, and violin(the Zulu people played this one walking up and down the mountains), were available in compound stores and rural trade stores even long before that. These instruments became popular with Africans in part because they could achieve 'an expression of indigenous principles which in some can be more effectively realized through these new media than could be done on the traditional instruments they have replace[Although Amampondo disproved this notion by playing non-electric traditional instruments in their performances].

The Sotho people, for example, have favored the concertina because it allows the performer to play two or three voice parts fully and at far greater volume than is possible with traditional instruments, while at the same time allowing the players or the danders to sing their own accompanying melodies. The sound of the concertina has a dense texture that resembles the broad sonority of a Sotho male voice chorus.

It has also enabled players to set the obstinate to a lively African or Colored-Afrikaans urban dance rhythm. Furthermore, it was uniquely suited for self-accompaniment on the long journeys by foot or train to and from the mines since it did not involve the use of the moth or lungs, and could be even be played beneath a blanket to generate warmth, while traveling in cold Mountain Weather(As I indicated about the Zulus above). In the city, traditional instruments had a strongly negative image and were quickly abandoned.(This will be discussed further in some upcoming article)

We shall have to delve even much more deeper into the history and evolution of African Music in Mzantsi. Our problem nowadays is that we know nothing about ourselves. We have no stories from which we can begin to think and build ourselves. We depend on stories and histories of out music and other people. But when it comes to our own, we know nothing, and are not even aware there so much that concerns such fields as the history of African music in South Africa, and its evolution, thereof.

In this section, I will dig deeper into the story of the music of Africans in south Africa and give ourselves a chance, if we begin to know it, to start the heavy uplifting of Cultural Retention And Cultural Transmission. Before we know our Story/History, we cannot talk about revolution, cultural transmission and cultural retention. We have to transmit and retain something that we know more about. If not, we will always remain poor copies of other's' culture and music.

African students studying traditional music, often find that melodic lines and polyrhythms are less clearly articulated and tonal contrasts less subtle in the Sotho concertina than in more delicate sounds of the "Lesiba" or "Setolotolo".It's true that western instruments with urban culture and status and the flexibility of these instruments both for creating and performing syncretic styles and for providing lively music for city dances made their adoption inevitable.

But Basotho musicians were highly conscious of the contrasting properties of various instruments; they insisted that their favorite instrument today, the piano-accordion (Sotho:"Koriana"), allows for greater melodic and tonal variety, and solo improvisation than does the concertina.

Both fully urban and migrant performers transformed and combined traditional and foreign musical materials in response to changed conditions and expressive needs. Western instruments provided new means and possibilities for the elaboration of traditional music principles. The new instruments also offered a medium for the creation of new musical forms and practices as part of the process of developing urban rural models through performance.

Xhosa-speaking Mpondo miners were present in large numbers in Kimberley, where they adapted their young men's in initiation dances("Amakhwenkhwe") to the space and time restrictions of compound recreation as organized by the management. Like the Sotho, they developed an affinity with the concertina. New concertina dances integrated rhythms and steps developed by migrants in urban areas into a framework of traditional dances and spread throughout the Cape reserves.

With few indigenous instrumental traditions their own, Cape migrants were most strongly influenced by the music that their "dressed" fellow-Xhosa were making in the city's canteens(Shebeens) and dance halls. Mpondo players depended more on European and Cape Colored folk rhythms and melodies that the Sotho were playing, although the latter were by no means immune to Afrikaans "Vastra'" rhythms; Cape Melodies and the 'three cord vamp' which have since become characteristic of syncretic

African Music in South Africa.

Many miners carried Western folk instruments back to the countryside(villages) as a prestigious element emblem of their urban experience. These migrants enjoyed performing their new dances and instrumental music while in their villages/homesteads, that is, they influenced their rural performance culture with their newly found styles and music.

During the late 1900s, the Cape Nguni(Xhosa and Mfengu) musicians predominated not only in the urban dance halls, but also in the mission schools, whee they led the development of African hymnody, secular choral music, and westernized social dancing. Because of the close proximity of the Xhosa-speaking 'chiefdoms' to the expanding European settlement in the Cape;and the growing Cape Town cosmopolitan and its outlying towns of the Eastern Cape, this gave the Xhosa people a head start in the process of Westernization that eventually affected African South Africans to some degree.

Those Cape Africans who travelled to the Diamond and Gold Fields already possessed an acculturated background which enabled them to assume a special positions of leadership amongst the urbanizing Africans of Mzantsi… These Africans in Kimberley and Johannesburg illustrated the impact of European missionization on and of African Culture and Music. Although the missionaries thought that they were having an impact on the local Africans in stamping out the 'heathen' tendencies amongst them, they were surprised and dismayed to discover that Christianity had little appeal for and to the people, and that in fact, the local clans/African enclaves, were firmly located/steeped-in strong traditional African communities.

With this in mind and experienced reality, the missionaries set out or conceived of a view to destroy African institution, especially in the Cape, Transkei and Natal, and they viewed such dastardly deeds as a prerequisite to their success. Whilst this war was ongoing against African culture and music, the missionary, Rev. Barret reported in 1871 that among the African people of Mzantsi,"The only people inclined to be Christians are those who despair of their own nation(people) ever becoming anything by itself". This is what is really happening to us as we appreciate Jazz Music… We have many of us who believe that we cannot achieve anything by ourselves and for ourselves, musically, without the music from Overseas of that played for us by White people.

When I post on The Jazz Wall, and I post American Jazz, or some White artists, I get reposes, but say I post music and Jazz from South Africa, but South African artists, I get no responses, albeit for a paltry few. I have included a membership of African Americans, Asians, Europeans, and people from African in the Jazz Wall, but what is transpiring is that the music of the people of south Africa is ignored nor listened to, but music from America, has many enthusiasts, and may post that only.

So that, our lack of knowledge and our skimpy understanding of the evolution of our History and Story of music amongst 'US" Africans handicaps our understanding and ability to appreciate our own original sounds/songs. there has been a long and steady manipulation of this distorted and false like we are now displaying, and we do it outside our understanding as to what happened to us in some time period; in the time when the music was taking shape using Western instruments, and how that struggle there was interfered with and whipped out of shape that we ended up hating and disliking our own music and culture.

Our Authentic Images: Looking Into The Mirror, What Do We See: Us....

This is a response to Playthell's article Posted below this article, and has a link where one can read-up what Playthell was saying… I could not post it all on the answer column of Playthell's post below.. So this is what I wrote...

Hola! Playthell... Ha! This time you done it! You are right down my alley: Images or photography of African people under All types of Apartheid-Globally. For me, your article makes my response to be fine-tuned for South Africa. I grew up and was raised by my grandma-and I also lived with her. In the room we called the dining room, of a three roomed house with the Lavatory outside — she hung pictures of my great-great-great parents(Pictures in that order) spanning three or four generations. Those were well preserved and encased in oval shape wooden frame covered on the front with glass. These ancestors of mine on the Wall, clad in the most fine line clothes of the day. These go back as far as the late 1800s.

As was the dress of the day in America of the time, so were my ancestors on the wall dressed in garb that made one pause: Who are these folks?-What were they and why did they have such fine clothes? I am not from a rich family by any stretch, but seriously… these pictures was from where I cut my teeth in having positive images of my own people, and seeing their wear as positive, which was what was the fad in our past and present enclaves and milieus. I am not really writing much because the sad fact our people do not want to read. I blog now mostly my ideas, because here on FB, people are not really interested in reading, in many timelines I am onto.

But, What I have been writing, posting and composing as it relates to the positive images of our people here in South Africa, I think many people have become disinterested. I have posted some serious cultural photos of our 10 peoples of south Africa in their original garb and colors of the cultural wear. I posted their traditional music and dances to go with their traditional garb… I made sure I wrote lengthy articles about the Cultural wars we are faced with… These are some of the things I did here on FB… I stick to music a bit, because I get a semblance of connection and communication with my own people of South Africa… Although they are still wary and just peep in.

The cause is the rigid and stiff ANC Press Bill and such like legislation that has kept the Internet into very greedy and foreign control, and in this way, through distorted globalization and selling off of everything to foreign owners, they rig the whole communications system-and Dumb Us Down. I am on the fringes of those building up our image using/projecting photography and art, sculpture to bring awareness and consciousness about the power and technique of images and how to present them… Now, when it comes to photography, images, art and sculpture of Here in Mzantsi, Apartheid has affected our aesthetics of the image of ourselves.

Photographers like Peter Magubane, and Ernest Cole are at the top of the echelon in capturing and disseminating these images. These were very harsh and realistic depiction of our decrepit state under Apartheid in all fronts-Photographically. Ernest Cole's book, "House Of Bondage," was published in the States after he took the pics/smuggled them out of the country, he skipped the country, but died a pauper on one of the Park branches in New York… Peter Magubane's books, for those who can have them, are images in gold. There are many other photographers that I could mention, but the two above are at least easy to get.

The Apartheid goons did a good job of destroying so much information when the ANC was taking over, that I have begun my own way of gathering all types of images about Africans here in Mzantsi… I have, as I stated early, begun collating cultural photos. I have not yet gotten to the fashionistas of Mzantsi, as yet. The images of the greats you talk about from Frederick Douglas to everybody in-between, is the same here. I once talked about Mpanza, and if you check out his photo, even riding his horse, he was immaculately dressed. So that, what I am saying to you is that, we, under Apartheid suffered a distorted, disfigured and ugly image about ourselves bandied by the White intelligentsia.

These are easy photos to find on the Web-Of Africans looking like savage and barbaric-like, next to their masters clad in Bush boots, safari hats, smoking pipes and carrying a cane, with one-eyed glass for effective measure… Us, our backs bent, practically naked and having on our back the Master's whole load. These are the images the world sees about us. Whenever cultural videos are played, many people from the West see "Tities" when women are bare-chested, with beads draped pall over them-They look at women's behind, when women are wearing their cultural skirts-All is porn that which is our culture to us.

Images that have long been and are still disseminated and interpreted for the world, not by us — as what to do as a way of seeing and viewing our women and us(South Africans) [Un]dressed in cultural gabardine-and what that means]. It is these images I am now using and addressing them to the world as I am of that culture understand and want them(Africans) to be viewed as. Get My drift?-What to us is cultural images, to many in the world is savages and backward "Tribes" and also as Porno.

It's still the same experience here in Mzantsi just as it is in the US… How? Well, for one, we are all subjected to the same TV Programming as the US… Music is controlled by big PR US Firms like "Clear Channel"; how we shop, our Malls, our cars, dress, speak, which is aping all that the foisted and dumped on us-itself alters and distorts our image or ourselves. Our image of our cultural image is a put-down amongst many of us(Africans) — we the culturally imperialized Africans in South Africa. It hip to be American… It's backward and underdeveloped/Traditionally?/culturally? To be authentically African South African.

We twist and roll our tongues and fake our accents to be accepted as and to just sound like the Americans. We vie, wish and pine to go to America-it's liken, for many, going on a pilgrim… We pay less attention to our 'barbaric' and 'savage' African traditional looks, dress, language, music, dress, food, socialization, politics, religion… the whole enchilada… But at night, many of these upwardly mobile modern Africans, creep in the shadows and go to carry-out their African traditional practices, rituals and the like-with Herbs Man(Zangomas and Nyangas-African Doctors).

Many of these Africans speak a lot of English with their own people, but when they come here on Facebook, they want to sound African by speaking African languages wrongly, too. What am I saying? Our image of ourselves as Africans of South Africa has been effected/effected/distorted and falsified-Same Sh*t.... I say so in strong terms for my own people know I am stating the truth here. Our children are lost, and are schooled, many of them now, in the white private schools, which they leave without being able to speak their African languages, nor know their culture.

Their images and view of African people is warped. Their parents think that if their children are seen as talking English, going to English schools, that will enhance their stature and standing in the community as-like White people... Speaking English makes them equal with White children. They overtly boast about things their children tell them, that they, the parents do not understand, and do not know... but proudly prattle about these issues as if they are great achievements…

Bantu Biko addressed this long time ago. Handing over African children to White Teachers/Ministers and expect them to edumacate them will instead turn them against us... This affected the image we have of ourselves. We do not like what is staring back at us from our mirrors. Many use skin lightening Creams; others adjust their walking patterns as to what they see on the movies; a lot of people pretend like they are dressed like Americans; many do not even want to speak in their mother-tongue, and neither know it…

Many women are preoccupied with their hair, latest fashions(like men). Imported clothes and other accoutrements, We are in reality running away from our own images and ourselves as fast as we can.To be us to ourselves is an abomination… Apartheid goons made sure of that...We saw ourselves as 'better' when we look chick and overdressed-western-style.

We dressed to restore our dignity, as Playthell states about Douglas… "Watching this film I learned where the tradition of Black male elegance in America originated; a tradition I inherited from the men in my family, my mother’s exquisite taste, other men in the community who were sharp dressers or “sports” and famous entertainers and athletes like Duke Ellington, Nat King Cole, Mile Davis, Sugar Ray Robinson, Joe Louis, Jackie Robinson, fashion plates all. These were the men who set the standard of sartorial elegance for all males in America." I can relate because that's what it was with us and for us… And like Playthell says, "And the brother ragged his ass off; he was always 'clean as the board of health' as we used to say back in the day. Check out the photograph above."

We say 'one is smart'(not as in intelligence, only, but in 'ragging sense'(a la Playthell")… And as Playthell concludes… "However I learned from viewing this film that the love of elegance among earlier generations of black men was no accident;it was a deliberate attempt to counteract the Slave/Sambo image that white America projected of us in an unending campaign of psychological warfare to convince us that we were inferior to whites.Alas, this consciousness has been lost on young black males who ushered in the fashion disaster of the Hip Hop era."

The same has happened to us… Our youth do not know any better... Those who can buy clothes show off and talk about that fact that they are sharply dressed from a such and such shop in another continent. Like I said above, I grew up in a household that projected images of my ancestors, not as show off, but to give me a sense of our dignity, style and ability to be better than what our Masters said and projected us to be. As the Whites of America, narrated by Playthell, worked assiduously hard "to prove that Afro-Americans were sub-human and therefore unfit to live as free citizens in American society." We know that as a fact and reality here in South Africa…

Our self-image on the Web, social media, YouTube and so forth, has been desecrated and distorted by the Whites of South Africa in order to convince our weaker African aspirant lot that we ain't sh*t.(Pardon my ...) What the White people did in America, is what they are still doing to us here in South Africa… Reading the following quote from Playthell, makes me see myself and our people today in South Africa: "The film brilliantly shows how one of the most effective strategies in this reactionary program was to obliterate the heroic images of black men who fought for and won their freedom by defeating the southern slave masters as soldiers in the Union army. In their place they substituted racist images, which were already well established in the blackface minstrel show where white men “blacked up” to perform degrading parodies of black life and character."

In our case, they used their ability to be online/better having better Internet access and project us to be the stereotype that of savages, and lazy, shiftless layabouts, criminals, monkeys or baboons, "Tribes", backward, making many babies, drinking a lot of liquor and beer, and they use images of our down-and-out people because of the vicissitudes of apartheid-on the Viral Soup-showing and telling the world that we are still savages.

By learning and studying the techniques used by Du Bois in countering negative stereotypes of his people from the racist movie,"Birth Of A Nation", learning about other biases used against Africans in the Diaspora, and looking much closer at what Washington did to put him on the side of his people against their detractors' Images and so forth negatively cast about them; I think and hope, using already existing images, collating them for our people to see themselves, though we are 9[nine] variegated people, we are One Nation with an energetic, colorful, bright and lively culture of the Nguni/Bakone.

When I say so, we are still having problems amongst our own people in each of the 10 groups believing what the Boers said about us being different from each other. The fight of convincing our people that it is not true, is not so easy, it is very difficult… So that, I use the Web and images from our cultures and our present state as a people, our images, I try and drop those that will convey a positive message on Oneness, and this too is difficult, because when my South African African people respond here on FB, they choose their group-respond only to it-the rest they ignore or post negative comments-same people these…

They miss the point of unity and oneness conveyed but the images, music, etc., as of "One People" which is what I want to show… They do not read what I wrote about other groups. It is so hard, that at times, I just go into music, because, even when they are educated, my people still cannot get over the "Tribal" mindset/indoctrination, and many are referring to themselves as "Zulu" Tribe, "Sotho" Tribe, "Xhosa" Tribe… etc.. .. They have been conditioned to see ourselves as a different people constituting "Tribes" and not a "Nation".

This has even deeper consequences when we come to talk about African Images. The very image of 'tribe' and collective as a 'Tribe," which our people defend to death, is the very selfsame image they detest and do not want to be associated with… What a contradictory conundrum…

So that, Playthel's observations, "The film shows how the tradition of employing photography to counter the racist imagery of white America carried over into the twentieth century as black photographers developed all over the country, and it tells us to take the time to search through our family albums to observe this rich visual record of our people.

The producers select photographs by known and unknown photographers and the narrator instructs us to examine their poses, which is visual evidence of what they thought of themselves. What we see is not a defeated people, but a people filled with pride and self-confidence, without the slightest doubt that they were looking good. It is evidence that Albert Murray, not Malcolm X was right":

"Malcolm preached that the white man had persuaded us to hate ourselves. Mr. Murray said that was nonsense in his book “The Omni-Americans"; he said that all one need do is to look at the elegance with which we decorated ourselves and our unequalled grace on the dance floor to see that we recognized our beauty despite the “fakelore of white supremacy.” The evidence for his argument is in these photographs." Ever since Playthell introduced me to the presence and intellect, etc., of Mr. Murray… I have found him to be a genius who has made me re-think many ways I have viewed ourselves, and also, know for a fact we are just as bad/as in great… all things considered.

This line, Playthell cites of Murray, resonates with what I have trying to say in my diatribe above… "Murray said that all one need do is to look at the elegance with which we decorated ourselves and our unequalled grace on the dance floor to see that we recognized our beauty despite the 'fake lore of white supremacy.' I got all that from growing up in my Grandma's house… Today, I am deeply involved in working on 'correcting' the World's perception of our culture… In the company of stalwarts like Plyathell, and what I am working very hard to learn and know, I think I am at appoint that I will have to revisit what I was doing on the FB, although I have work it in my other writings, I will keep on posting images of Africans in Africa, South Africa, and the Diaspora…

Some on the Jazz Wall think I am posting younger pictures of our Old Jazz Musicians… Well, I would like to show them in a good light. Images are for me what shapes our behavior and self-presentation… I take that seriously. Although many of my people, they do not really understand the effects and affects of our own photographed image as Playthell puts it: "Every element of Afro-American society was influenced by the zeitgeist of the “New Negro.”

The world acknowledges South Africa because of our African culture which we are running away from… The South African Zeitgeist is premised upon African South Africa Cultures, traditions, custom, music, dance, etc.... Playthell is spot on, about Parks: "The personal story and artistic influence of Gordon Parks – a twentieth century version of the Renaissance Man – is the stuff of legend, which is why there is a major prize presented in his name. Although his storied career included much coveted and glamorous assignments like photographing fashion shows in Paris for a prestigious national magazine, Parks often said that the camera was his choice of weapon in the struggle for justice and human dignity. His images of the poverty stricken and oppressed move the conscience of people around the world."

What Playthell is saying, to me, it sounds like he was talking about Ernest Cole… His Book "House Of Bondage is what the last sentence cited above is stating, but Cole did in South Africa[He is originally Ernest Kole], and Africa, despite the anglicized name-was give us a slice of our images under real and harsh apartheid. His Book of photos about our lives since the 1950s and up to his flight in the '60s, is enough to give people a seriously deep and haunting look at what were going through under Apartheid...

I agreed with Decavara as talked about by Playthell… "In 1982, Decavara clarified his mission succinctly in a New York Times interview: 'One of the things that got to me, was that I felt that black people were not being portrayed in a serious and in an artistic way." Magubane and especially Ernest Cole, did what Playthell says Decavara did: "He was looking at everyday life in Harlem from the inside, not as a sociological or political vehicle. No photographer black or white before him had really shown ordinary domestic life so perceptively and tenderly, so persuasively.”

Our aforementioned South African photographers did not do any less, in-as-much and they plenty and then some. We have a lot of White ignoramuses who have convinced our African people that they will only be recognized in anything they do if it gets approved by Whites of South Africa. Our people still are struggling with the fact that they can write, sing, talk about their history, etc-on their own without any White help…

Many still need the affirmation of their white contemporaries to be writers or whatever… We have these types of White authorities who dictate to our African elite, and the African bourgeoisie(and they are called so today in south Africa), are too eager and ready to please and comply with the dictates of their Masters-and be accepted as being the same as the Master-even if they will remain the underdogs.

I hang out in the Jazz Wall because for me to talk as I do, I need to have someone like Playthell to nudge me… I talk less politics because many of the South Africans on FB are apolitical or really do not know what they are talking about… and lastly, a vast majority of them are lazy to read.

I respond to your posts because I read them carefully and in their entirety, then I get a sense of what and or how I should respond… Playthell… I only come alive when I read your post, of which some I cite wholly into my writing…

I write, people do not respond, and yet I have a following of 500+ people on my Wall… I can hardly get 10 to respond to my originally written pieces on various subject… I get bored and hang our with the Musical appreciators… At least, even if they too(majority from South Africa) do not respond by talking, they do come and view my posts, occasionally comment, Maybe... but for now-not much.

Our Hi-jacked Images here in Mzantsi and the Diaspora, that are my line of interest and I am working assiduously to correcting them, and for South Africans, present them in a good light and positively… This is the hardest fight of all the ones I have been involved in: Convincing My African South African People That The Images Of Our 10 People, Are Of One People… One Nation.... United.... I am lifted by this article to see the work that has been done thus far.. I will try and see the Film/documentary…

Cultural Gyroscope: Each One Teach One-Each One Reach One...

Everything Is Everything With Cultural Transmission..

One thing about the cultural festivities and dress of Africans of South Africa, this includes Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland. These cultural societies have their brand of culture represented fully in South Africa. So that, like the Swazi festivities of the Reeds, the traditional dress of the women is part of the showcasing of the culture-you also find this amongst the Zulus, Vendas and so on. This about the cultural dress of women which ma be seen differently by different people, globally, once posted on the Web.

Now, in countries like America, there is a segregated perception and ways of seeing others' and their cultures. So that, the photo below may been seen by Africans as cultural presentation and the beauty/colors and youthfulness of our little girls-this is seen as "nakedness" and "Porn" by many around the world. The Boers did a good job of projecting and presenting us to the world, without our consent/knowledge, and described us as backward, savages, and unclad which just shows how barbaric we are. This is a fact, and is still proliferating throughout the Web, today

The Boers also made it a point in implementing their Apartheid strategies, so that they divided and conquered us. They convinced us that we were and are a '"Tribal" people. This was done not to reinforce our cultural force and cohesion, but to break it down-divide us amongst ourselves and so that we should end up seeing each as different. The Apartheid regime build/ or should I say-created/forced upon us the 'tribal' ideas, like when the Townships of Soweto were built, they created what they called 'sections' throughout the Ghetto: The Sotho sections, Tswana, Shangaan and Zulu's, Xhosa sections in one big Township.

So they ingrained into our psyches that we are a different people, not the same, are 'tribes' which never got along, and are not the same-be it Zulu, Pedi, Sotho, Tswana Swazi and so forth. Today, those of us ignorant and opportunistic of this act, want to reinforce that belief that we are "TRIBES" and we must accept it for it identifies us originally. Balderdash!

This is a flawed and distorted way of Seeing Ourselves and prohibits/inhibits us from seeing Ourselves as A United Nation with One Unique and diverse Culture. Some of us today cringe when we see photos like the ones I have posted below of the Swazi lasses in their cultural element below, etc. I have so far been showcasing the posts of the Xhosas, Pedi, Tsongas, and so on. I decided to add other diverse cultural manifestations of the People of Mzantsi. It is better when we begin to See Ourselves in Diverse Cultural Mode. Some of us truly believe the myth that if we see and think, act and acknowledge ourselves as a Nation we will lose our "Tribalness". What Hogwash!

Cultural Transmission And Retention

So far that is fiction, and bogus perceptions and perspectives implanted in our minds. I reiterate: South African African Culture, History, Traditions, Customs, Languages, Music, Dances, Cultural Rites and Practices along with Cultural Dress, are but of One diverse People with not much differences if any. We are presenting and showing off our identities as distinct but of a similarly varied and diverse people, and We are a Nation that is able to have such elements as part of its Nationess/Nationhood.
But Since we have just emerged from the debilitating and grueling slave/concentration-camp mentality and lives under Apartheid, we still have to coalesce our beliefs and ways of understanding and seeing ourselves as a cultural diverse but one people-to that of a United Nation with a diverse culture. Those who oppose this, are comfortable in their slave-mind incarcerated conditioned and low-self-esteem subjected self-confidence-that they are in effect confirming what Apartheid has long tried to engorge in our minds of past dictates of divide and conquer and crass Apartheid regime and enforced slavery.

This comes with an arrogant chauvinism, in many personalities in our midst, that further dividers and shatters families and all times of relationships in the collective of African people-just because the man maintains their 'triblalness' and can only see as far as the their nose. The clinging to this 'tribalist' mythology is a self-defeating endeavor for our people to be in a position to envision themselves as a Nation. So that, by posting our various groups and elaborating on some, is one way of the African viewers of Mzantsi to see their culture with diverse as one Culture: in our case this means a heightened our prolific culture manifesting itself as of the Nation of Africans in Mzantsi.

It is the same cults, traditions, customs, music, dance and multi-colored traditional dress and very pity and efficient languages. We dance with cowrie shells or whatever percussion we can attach to our bodies, we gyrate, stomp and stomp the ground, we all clap rhythmically to dance and song, we roll, and sit flat hitting the ground; we all sing together in groups and so forth; the dances are the same, 'Mtjitjimbo" for we''s say, Amaxhosa, "Mokgibo" in Sesotho; theres the "Domba" snake Dance in the Ndebele, as found in the Zulus; We all dance and sing accompanied by the Drum-drums of all sizes and kinds.

If we see us as different and as 'tribes', other Nations will take our everything because we are too busy outdoing, out besting, pulling each other down like crabs in a barrel, they will own our everything, whilst we look on in puzzlement as to who the authorities about our culture are-but it will not be us the indigenous of South Africa. If one gets to have a holistic look at our cultural photographs or listen to our music and watch our dances, one is awestruck by this magnificent culture, so variable, and yet uniquely similar and the same-One Nation Of Africans In South Africa dotting the whole landscape of Mzantsi-like tentacles-interconnected.
1. Swazi Girl In formation in the celebration of the "Reeds" Festivities..
2. Bapedi women In A A Cultural Vibe...
3. Venda Girls in Traditonal Dress Mode and traditional accessories..
4. Xhosa Women Breastfeeding her infant...
5. Zulu Youth perfuming Zulu Traditional Warrior's Dance...

Cultural Images In Focus

Swazi Girl In formation in the celebration of the "Reeds" Festivities..
Swazi Girl In formation in the celebration of the "Reeds" Festivities..
Bapedi women In A A Cultural Vibe...
Bapedi women In A A Cultural Vibe...
Venda Girls in Traditonal Dress Mode and traditional accessories..
Venda Girls in Traditonal Dress Mode and traditional accessories..
Xhosa Women Breastfeeding her infant...
Xhosa Women Breastfeeding her infant...
Zulu Youth perfuming Zulu Traditional Warrior's Dance...
Zulu Youth perfuming Zulu Traditional Warrior's Dance...

Mzantsi's Culture En Vogue

If we are saying to ourselves let's Talk About culture… Okay, Let's show what we talking about and look at it holistically, and not 'tribally'. We cannot 'claim' to be African people of Mzantsi and then we know less or nothing about our other 'selves'. It's not only seeing others in our culture and tribes, but as part of a larger Nation, which is diverse.

The ways of looking at ourselves cannot be confined to our 'tribal' localities, as some would stubbornly intone. It is these groups as seen together that is the main point here. If the Boers wished to divide and conquer us but making us believe that we are different, we might as well begin to see ourselves as a nation of African people, despite all our perceived differences foisted on us by our being Apartheidized.

I have collected a smidgen of our photographs of all the 11(eleven) nations of Mzantsi. I choose to see ourselves as a collectives of nations that are part of one Untied Nation of Mzantsi. for us to even think along these terms is a stretch for many of us. Cultural education and transmission should take place in ever lesson or information we impart to ourselves. We are One People, and that is a fact many will have a tough time trying to dislodge.

The pictures of the eleven people I have used is to orientate ourselves to the fact that we are One people. This is important that I keep on reiterating it. We cannot move forward from our "Past"(Apartheidization), so that the complete indoctrination of our entire people, is what needs to be overturned here.

Not only must we see ourselves as presented here, we have to begin to learn and know well the ways of others, which, many-a-times, is the same or one with the rest-and how to use all this tour own advantage. This we will discover when we interact amongst each other with each-respectfully(Hlompho/Inhlonipho), and we consciously work hard understanding and knowing each other, and in many ways than one; thus when we will more in common than differences in our cultures, custom, tradition and so forth.

When we use the collage above, go through it, see others as we see ourselves, for that is evident and eminent, that one comes to that point of self recognition and recognition of the others(Ubuntu/Botho) — so that, what has been denied us from becoming a being a nation, can come from us being and making a nation by knowing more about ourselves as a diverse collective and authentic nation.

Self appreciation bears self knowledge-we can divide how we want to propagate that knowledge to the world and amongst ourselves. We cannot keep on citing other people when we can do ourselves a favor and studying, knowing and understanding ourselves collectively; be ourselves for ourselves and act and talk about ourselves, and present or cultural manifestations our rudder bearing and also anchoring our moorings to what we dictate, propagate and project.

It's easy to dismiss what I have just said, but one is more respected for being what and who they are, than faked selves. We cannot run away from ourselves, so, we might as well deal with ourselves.

The presentation above is one of the attempt I have been working on of many decades, and it is not getting any easier-that of asserting that we are Unified ad Diverse Nation. How we see, can be 'reset' to what we what to see about ourselves and our culture. We wonder why our education is in crisis…

It is so because we control and own nothing. We depend on imports and we export nothing. We have culture, music, dance, languages, etc., and these are being controlled and taken from us by people who are not us and they profit on them and so forth.

I am not saying anything new here, but the discourse needs to broadened, the ways of looking and seeing need to be adjusted from the past to the present, our modus operandi is to resuscitate this African culture and redress our lack of understanding and knowing it, and practice new ways of applying, manifesting and celebrating it, for that is what we can recoup from our lost treasures/land/wealth/history/dance/music/languages and culture.

If we keep on going the way of the 'herd' mentality-modernism and all its accoutrements/assortments to be our final goal, we will forever be slaves, cutters of wood and hewers of water-if not worse-in the land of our birth. I am nationalistic is that's what I am to be termed.

It is important that one is, for we still have yet to address our inability that has been embedded in our African psyches that we cannot up to this point see sand say to ourselves that we are a Nation of African people of Mzantsi, without making excuses to any one of attempting obfuscation/confusing the issues.

I cannot see myself as a 'tribesman' when I have lived and been nurtured by all the 11 people I have posted above. I cannot wrap my mind around that unreality that I belong to a 'Tribe'. I am more conversant and seriously belonging to a Nation of African people of Mzantsi, and that if it's an obsession, so be it, for in my reality, "One For All And All For One" is my mantra-We are stronger And Cannot Be Moved Bundled-unless we so wish, and that there is Power…

So that as we transmit our culture to each other, its "Each One Teach One-Each One Reach One". If there is something and one thing with the other people within the variegated nations that form our Nation in Mzantsi: It has more common with one another than would any culture be comparatively and seriously speaking.

Some may be lax about this issue because we have been taught that matters that concern Africans are of no use-That we are childish in our bearing and mentality; that we drink beer and make many children; that are lazy and cannot even think or learn-all this was practiced and we were constantly reminded by our Boer tormentors that to be a fact and the undisputed truth about us…

They have used this ruse to indoctrinate many of us to the present generation in our midst. The never forsook their 'divide and conquer strategy' it is still in full use as we speak. The sad thing is that many of us do not need Boer enforces, we, Africans, many of us, have taken this opportunity to try and claim being belonging to the 'tribe,' and the rest can go to Hades…

You can't cement a nation with disparate and separated cultures as in our case. You can glue the foundation of a Nation based on the knowledge and commonalities in each and every culture to each other. Ubuntu also means self empowerment and Power in a real sense.

We should be able to speak with authority when it comes to our own clan culture, but have strong convictions in the similarities and sameness of al these cultures, as one diverse culture, then we might be on our way to unchaining our Apartheidized minds and consciousnesses. We also need to be very knowledgeable and articulate eruditely about our own culture and its everything… Clearly and Authoritatively./Authentically.

This is why I have tried to make this article come to light, because many people are busy with other things, I will stick to culture and its everything about Africans of South Africa to whirl us around from the focus and negatives forces of the past.

Cultural transmission and propagation should be done by us, and we should know each's culture very well and solidly. If we can operate from the fusion of all these cultural boons of a nation of Mzantsi, that would shift the old paradigm, and introduce a new way of communication and cooperating with one another based on culture.

Customs, traditions, history, music, dances, languages, sacred cultural and customary and traditional practices, with us at the helm, and being the mind force behind it, we shall then be functioning as a nation from a position of unified strength built upon and based on what is relevant and real to all… of the Africans of Mzantsi...

6. Ndebele girls in their traditional clothing and sitting next to their house they decorated themselves, with the help of their mothers...
7. Basotho Men Wearing their Animal skins and traditional hats sitting next to their house…
8. Batswana Dancers clad in their traditional Tswana dress…
9. Tsonga woman in a trance doing a traditional dance...
10. The Khoisan family...
11. The Cape Coloreds. Celebrating The Minstrel and Coon Festivals.

12.Basotho Women In The traditional gear…

Rear-View Mirroring Our Culture- The Past, Present And Present Future... Pictorially..

Ndebele Woman Infront of her art decr=orated House, and holding an African Calabash decorate, adorning her cultural Garb... Culture Galore...
Ndebele Woman Infront of her art decr=orated House, and holding an African Calabash decorate, adorning her cultural Garb... Culture Galore...
Two Basotho men sitted next to their house wearing anBasotho Blanket, Basotho Hats, and one is wearing an animal skin-next to their house...
Two Basotho men sitted next to their house wearing anBasotho Blanket, Basotho Hats, and one is wearing an animal skin-next to their house...
Batswana Dances perfoming the Batswana dance clad in Tswana traditional dress...
Batswana Dances perfoming the Batswana dance clad in Tswana traditional dress...
Tsosnga women dressed in their colorful traditional clothes..
Tsosnga women dressed in their colorful traditional clothes..
Namibia KhoisSan women sitting around the fire in their village
Namibia KhoisSan women sitting around the fire in their village
Cape Coloreds wearing their coon festival garb....
Cape Coloreds wearing their coon festival garb....
The mix of the New and the Old: Basotho women dressed in their traditional hats, blankets and dresses...
The mix of the New and the Old: Basotho women dressed in their traditional hats, blankets and dresses...

Civilized Africans And the Civilizing Of Humanity: Understanding Our Common History As Africans Globally...

In our histories and stories as a people of African descent here in Mzantsi and in the Diaspora, there are too many gaps that need to be filled and clarified. One of the most important thing, if we are to free our African minds, we must delete all the foreign influences. This does not mean we will automatically go back to the Homo-Sapien times and age, but we shall have to add our modern influence in today's civilization of the techno age, but should not be afraid to say that we are African, and contribute our additions to the advancement of man.

But this goes then to the hurt of our decrepit existence, that is, we are going to have to come to a point in our present lives to acknowledge and recognize the truth about our state, and what caused it, and what are we going to do about it in trying to ameliorate the situation. Many of us still cling and hang on to the way we have been edumacated, and do not really have the temerity to further look into our foisted and embedded understanding of our real existence, and truthfully deal with it to the best of our effort to rid ourselves of it(The Colonial mindset).

Africans globally know of this truism: We have all been enslaved and colonized at different degrees, but in the same manner wherever we are. This is a very deep and serious charge. Many of us have not been able to wrap our minds, honestly and with a serious aim of changing our decrepit condition. Whether we are edumacated by the very detractors of our being, or not, we are all in the same vinegar bottle.

The thing about us being in the state we are in, is that we have, many of us, internalized and do not want to change from what we have been made to be. There are those of us who are scared to stop being a poor copy of other people, because it enhances our status and importance in our communities. In my country, many of us have even become encrusted by the very under-developing education we have all been subjected to, and refuse any new or even old ideas towards change.

African history has been be downgraded to exotic studies on a people who have never ever been not enslaved for the past 500+ years of colonial, slavery, and imperial dominance of our world. One can see in many Africanists citations and other historical, archeological, and whatever FB Walls, these posts, that many of \which are just a mere regurgitation of what we have imbibed.

By writing that we need to add to the present civilization, does not mean presenting our views as poor copycats of what we still are: colonized, and enslaved and imperialized Africans… Instead, some of us fight assiduously very hard to maintain the present and unequal status quo that we all are under forced labor and incarcerated by.

This is important, the fact that many of us, former and presently colonized, imperialized and enslaved in a modern Tech way by our detractors, want to maintain, service and keep this system of debasement and dehumanization we seem to find as a normal way of life. A messed-up culture of making humans non-humans, and we must now try to fight, and for the past five centuries plus, had been fighting, and still, in the 21 century, are hard at it, and there is no end in sight.

Adding to the present social reality and its technological enabling gizmos and techniques, we need to look at many things anew. From the past, try to understand the present, and with the hope that this will spawn a new Modern African man. Not from the leftovers shoveled the way of the quislings in our midst, but as autonomous and fully free people. Sometimes we blame what happened to us in the past, but are not as of yet critiquing the present that we find ourselves immersed in and unable to unshackle.

When we begin to write about ourselves, and trying to elucidate the many conundrums and contractions that are unresolved in all our existence, we are going to have to talk 'sharp' with one another. This means, we better begin to interrogate our intelligentsia and their creating of a future that is beholden to their handlers for the rest of us.

Another thing we need to talk about, clearly and eruditely, is our own cultures, traditions, customs, sacred rites and practices, languages, music, dances, African garb, philosophies, psychology, I mean, the whole schtick about ourselves, before we can even try and explaining or try to teach our own people about other foreign cultures, customs, traditions, etc, which merely confuse and make our people dysfunctional.

We do speak about and mention our culture, but being ignorant as to what it 'really is,' and much more concretely and realistically. For instance, our year, according to our cultural and traditional lore, starts in August... But this has been annexed to January. Already, at that point, we are out of sorts, and many of us, even as I write this part, do not really 'get it' or understand what I mean. Very few can relate or remember some parts of what I have just said, as true, but we have been edumacated to regard it not as meaningful, to forget it and disregard our culture, to our own detriment. This is picayune compared to many other means and ways we have been cultural and traditionally gutted down.

Some people pretend nor neither care about what I am writing about, well, it so happens that the path to being ourselves, will begin with us resetting the deck in our favor, in our own thought, languages and realities, as we see fit. We have acquired many other cultural traits which are foreign to us, but this should not be at the expense of us not understanding and knowing/applying our cultures, traditions, languages, music, dances and so on-for ourselves.

We are not worse-off than other Africans in Africa or the Diaspora. It is important to all of us in these geographic regions write to and for each other, our stories, experiences, realities, and compare notes. We are the same, and that is it. What we see today in Mzantsi, is nothing new, but has been an ongoing thing from let's say, the 1930s. We, as an oppressed people, needed something that told and showed us that we are better than backward or very tribal and backward.

We have now come to a time when we can even write, and elaborate our histories, stories, cultures, custom, traditions, music, languages, cultural dresses, sacred rites and practices, philosophies, and the whole bit on the Web... The only thing required is a determined and honest will to carry out our roles and duties to our people. I simply write such articles, post art, aphorism, short pieces on various subjects, information I know that will open the hearts and minds of our African people in Mzantsi, Africa and the Diaspora.

Our culture has many important messages, information and solutions to our present plight, but we ignore it. We have had influences from the US, primarily, and the West, generally, that we need to see these as such. The important thing for us to do now, is to get to know ourselves, and appreciate and respect ourselves-put ourselves first, in anything we do. This is important, for no one needs to forego this initial of nation building baby steps.

At this juncture, I would like to post a historical piece by Copland regarding the influences of Americans in the tortoise and forties and how we got off track in regard to our cultures, histories, customs and so on. I will take the musical tack, and through it try and relay the message I have bee addressing above. I wish I could really go fully into this mindset we see today, but due to space, I will cull from the following piece by Coplan who informs us that:

"... Recordings became a widespread source of entertainment and status for urban African families. Imports were scarce during the early 1940s due to the war and an American musicians' strike. Local performers were encouraged to fill the gap with their own versions of american hits in the hope of recapturing a greater share of the record market.

"American and British magazines and Wilfred Sentso's local publication 'African Sunrise' kept African Jazz enthusiasts informed about overseas trends and personalities. They could see and hear African American performers like Lena Horne, Bill Robinson, Cab Calloway, Ethel Waters, Johnny Hodges and Duke Ellington. They could some of these musicians in films such as "Stormy Weather, 'Cabin In The Sky' and 'Black Velvet'.

"These productions electrified the cultural atmosphere of Africans in Johannesburg and other outlying regions within South Africa. This had an effect of permanently influencing local speech, dress, and stage shows. Impressed by these films, Zuluboy Cele hired Emily Koenane as the first female vocalist to front a major African orchestra, The Jazz Maniacs.

"The 'Pitch Black Follies,' and 'Merry Blackbirds' followed suit with Snowy Radebe and Marjorie Pretorius. By the end o f the 1940s, Sophiatown's Dolly Rather and Bulawayo's Dorothy Masuku were most popular than most Male vocal quartets and specialized in African cover versions of American Jazz favorites. African men readily adopted 'foot suits' and American African American Slang, and English-speaking Sophiatown[With a tinge of Afrikaans and local palaver to go with], whose residents referred to their community as "Little Harlem".

A contributor to 'Inkundla ya Bantu'([African]Bantu[African] Forum criticized the adoption of European culture as a movement away from an "Africa that is ours, into an 'Africa' that is of the Whitman's making."

He further argued that: 'we deny our music the opportunity to speak to the Outside World in its own language(Our Mother tongues)

Cultural Politics was not the only reason why urban Africans performed American music and dance. Jazz had become part of their musical diet of Africans in south Africa because it reproduces many performance principles of African Traditional Music.

South African music ... tends towards rhythmic complexity of singing voices over regular beat-African Accentuated. This is remarkably like Jazz, especially in the 1930s and 1940s music of Count Basie and others, who riffed and slowed against a rock solid four-four beat.

This remarkable similarity has roused some interesting debates over time. While not too many of the slaves originated in Southern Africa(except for the fact that there are many from Angola in Brazil, and Caribbean and US), there is a consistency in the structural principles of indigenous African music Throughout sub-Saharan Africa. And we can recognize continuities between traditional South African and African American derived music of the New World[USA, in particular].

Jazz And Gospel and other secular forms, have affected Africans in South Africa as has been briefly discussed above and understandable as to why these American genres have found wide scale acceptance, and discussed above, and then some. One should remember that both African Americans and Africans in south Africa have undergone lengthy, mostly British Missionization. Both were subordinated to developing industrial economies created and controlled by Euro-Americans and Northwestern Europeans in Europe.

My point is, that, what we see happening today in South Africa, has been repeating itself over the years, from the Jazz appreciators old timers, to those of Mzantsi in the sixties to seventies, which had added upon, Funk, Disco, and contemporary musical genres the world over. These too came with their type of copycatting of American musical influences of the day, and dress-Bell bottoms, Polo Caps, all types of sneakers, and so on. Today we see the Kwaito lads and young girls carrying on like African American Hip-Hopper/Rap Groups and similar sounding music and behavior in full display in Mzantsi and the Caribbean and South and Latin America also in Europe and Asia.

This point was made absolutely clearer by Coplan in talking about African American Gospel/Spiritual Music wherein he wrote:

"They speak to the world in a language evolved from and by Africa in a foreign environment ... They made the world understanding things they stood for. [i.e.], They did not want to be Europeanized Africans, but civilized [and be 'human-civilizing' Africans]."

It is for us to take away from this piece that we are still able, as an African people, globally, to regard ourselves as civilized and civilizing the world to our own ways and means. This is what I meant by talking about adding to the contemporary social milieu, this time, giving the human race a civilized and civilizing face and realities. We are going to have to work hard to play our music to the world in our Mother tongue for the world to listen to and appreciate.

The present zeitgeist in our country and the World did not start when Facebook was initiated. These have been there and come in different forms every cycle for centuries. Many of us either do not know about this particular history of the effects and affects of music on the people of Mzantsi. Many do not really know why we dig Jazz as we do here in South Africa. We are also not cognizant of our history as it relates to how and why we were influenced by Jazz and African music.

Many of us do not even understand the stated fact above that there is African South African Sounds, and these are in the same riffs as those of African Americans. When I say we are the same, I really mean that. If Africans think that we are inferior to our African Brothers elsewhere, and those Overseas think that they are different from Africans in Africa, this is what needs to be talked about and clearly sorted out-By Africans in South Africa, Africa and the Diaspora.

The Blood that ties us to each other is much thicker and more stronger than the chasm of the Oceans breadth and depth along with the Continental distances that separates us.

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Comments 6 comments

DDE profile image

DDE 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

Great hub! Informative useful and an educational hub for all to know more about a beautiful country.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 2 years ago Author

DDE: Thank you for checking out the Hub above, and commenting kindly and in an encouraging way.. I really appreciate it very much, and you're very much welcome...


MartieCoetser profile image

MartieCoetser 2 years ago from South Africa

Honestly, Ixwa, blaming colonizers/imperialists for all that went wrong in Africa is overlooking the fact that Africans were first of all – before the intruding of Europeans - oppressed and neglected by their own leaders. Autocratic and greedy kings and chiefs sold the land of their people for an “appel en ei”, and they allowed foreign entrepreneurs to explore, develop and exploit natural resources in exchange for whatever they – the leaders – wanted in the first place to improve their own lives. As you know, this kind of negotiations – in fact all kinds of trading – provide only short term satisfactory. (The more we get, the more we want. The more we have, the more we need. Therefor the valuable asset, but not a necessity we trade today will become a necessity as we grow and multiply. Sooner or later we regret the trading of it, and we forget that we got what we wanted at the time of the trading.)

Right from the start African leaders did nothing to improve the lives of their own people. The king, chiefs and their clique were sitting on the hills, watching their land, watching their women work on the land, watching their healthy men hunting animals, watching their young boys preparing themselves for yet another war that will enrich only the king and his clique, enhancing only the power and prestige of the king and his clique. (As it is still the case in SA and the rest of Africa and in many other countries.)

Thanks to those very entrepreneurs (colonizers/imperialists) Africans obtained the knowledge and wisdom they have today that will hopefully eventually enable them to run Africa on a high level of economic and social prosperity. Or what will prevent them from becoming the world leaders they were supposed to be since the beginning? Perhaps their current leaders who still nurture a primitive, greedy urge to live like gods while their people suffer poverty, sickness and ignorance – the very instigators of revolution either in the form of “fall, flee, fight”.

Ignorance, the lack of knowledge, the lack of inspiration, the lack of vision, all of this inflicted on Africans by their own despotic leaders prevented Africans to develop their own abilities and resources in such a way that they could have been stronger and more advanced than the colonizers/imperialists of previous regimes.

We see this very phenomenon today of people becoming easily enslaved, becoming addicts of whatever ensure a better life. Our South African young adults, whites as well as blacks, going oversea to earn what they need to survive because the leaders in their own country are not able to provide opportunities for them to stay happy and contented and NOT enslaved in their own country. So who are we going to blame one day? What was known as “colonizers/imperialists” is today merely the system of a foreign country offering a better life. When the mountain doesn’t come to Mohammed, Mohammed goes to the mountain! The same thing - only a natural human tendency.

This is but only my perspective on this business of “blaming colonizers/imperialists and even capitalists” for a natural phenomenon in the social structure of Homo sapiens.

This is but only my thoughts on the first few paragraphs of this very interesting hub. I will return to read and comment more....

Have a good weekend, Ixwa :)

Tsamaia sentle!


ixwa profile image

ixwa 2 years ago Author

MartieCoetser: Wrong Spelling of Tsamaia(It's Tsamaya) on that "Tsamaya" word you have used incorrectly-we, Africans, whom you seem to really not know, say "Sala sentle(Tswana) hantle( Sotho). Whenever I write history, I do not rant, and this Hub, it is more specifically directed at Africans, and your knee-jerk faction above will not alter "Historical" facts and 'truth'. You are from the school of Apartheid propaganda that has vilified us for centuries. And you are simply regurgitating the same things I abhor and attack in many of my articles above. This Hub above, is more directed to Africans, and there's somewhere where I wrote that we should not be discussing what 'you' Whites have done to us, but direct my wholesome knowledge to my African people. You should never just hurl yourself into my Hubs and rant, rave and use vitriolic jabberwocky when addressing the Hub above. You talk history from the Apartheid talking-point of view. This Hub is still a work in progress, and it is the type of gut wrenching talk which is ignorant talk, like yours, that I detest, to be honest. I am an African and I know my history/story very well. You do not really know Africans even though you are here in Mzantsi. One other thing, you cannot accept that an African can write the type of Hub above. I have. The Hub above is examining Art and using Artists words and perspectives as to why they made the art they did. The soccer history and stories from the soccer players, is what happened to our soccer, which you never knew, both the Art and Soccer side of Africans here in Mzantsi. The last part, which is the exhibiting of African cultural dress, different groups, and their music-is my part as an historian to motivate and rebuild the remnants of the culture that I know still exists, and can be developed to what we think and see it fit to do. Fancy, you write a long hatred-tinged and biased response and still tell me that you are going to respond to it 'after reading it all'.. Don't you think that's disingenuous of you ... not read the whole Hub and have a knee-jack bordering o prejudiced response, and to add insult to injury, you do not really know my language. Look, if you want to pick a fight, do not do it here, you are wrong, and this Hub is seriously researched and being made much more perfect-for African people of Mzantsi, as I have been doing up to now. Your ancestors were colonizers and this is not your country. That is plain and simple truth. The very accusation you are overflowing with against us Africans, is the reason I wrote the last part of the Hub using Photos and music, and will soon add the history- as a counter. What's your problem here. I will not go into Bartholomew Diaz and the murders he inflicted on the Khoi and San people after being inebriated from their beer, and they used cannons to kill them. I will not even mention the history of Vasco da Gama, a thug, who went on to destroy the eastern cities of Kilwa, Sofala, etc. You need to read the writings of Mungo Park; van Riebeeck got to know about South Africa and beyond by reading the Captain of the ships logs and maps; da Gama, when he reached the cities of in these years of 1488-89; they watched a flourishing maritime trade in gold, and iron, and ivory, and tortoise shell, beads, and copper, cotton,cloth, porcelain. da Gama acknowledges that hey have stumbled upon a world of commerce, much more better and wealthier than anything Europe knew. Now, Your mighty and 'advanced' Europeans were so backward that they lived in huts without windows and a small chimney to let out smoke; washing ones body was taboo; there was European slavey with nearly emptied the whole European population; The moors came and 'civilized Europe, who were ruled by Vandals and the Visigoths(barbarians to whit!) I have written a Hub on How African Moors civilized Europe by way of Spain, Portugal, Britain, France and Germany etc-go read it for yourself. In some of my Hubs I have cited a Dutch Ship that ran aground of the East coast of Africa in the 11th century. Why don't you go and read for yourself the Captain's logs and what they found of the Xhosa/Zulu people. I don not want to dig too much about the The Van Riebeeck rule who called us 'dogs', and was only held back from terminating us by the Company investors; and you think that I do not know that your ancestors could not even tread the Bible they touted to us, and were helped to survive(starting with the sailors) to eat the right food after suffering from scurvy; the Trekkers were worse, and if I wanted, I could write couple Hubs on the history of the Voortrekkers, from their own accounts and that of the Africans. I have access to a lot of material that I have not even touched up on about your colonizing and belligerent culture. Do not come here and lecture me by spewing venom ya'll talk amongst yourselves. No nation is the paragon of virtue/perfection as you hypocritically trumpet. You did nothing but enslave Africans in all you did. The Boers never regarded as human, so, why am I not surprised at your invectives above. I wrote the Hub above dispel such vindictive assertions and chest-thumping you have had 624 years to spin your false yarn about Africans here in Mzantsi. I only have 20 years of, yes, decrepit ANC rule, which by the way Whites under Apartheid are living more lavishly than they ever dreamed. In the 20 years, I have had a decade and some added years to put together a history of a people who have always been told they are nothing, we were killing off one another and this persists to this day, these terrible accusation of which you are a good propagator for. Well, No more, we are the one who are going to tell you who we are as Africans of Mzantsi. You are colonizers,and today you still want to colonize information about us Africans, and like babies and "Boys"/"girls" you refer to us as, and other ugly terms, and no respect of the fact that amongst us, there are people like me who will tell you where to get off. And you want an even more protracted and hard hitting historical critique, I am ready to render you one. For now, I repeat, do not come onto this Hub and howl like an uncultured and uncouth human being; your trying to hold Africans down, is holding yourself down, too. You better grow up, intellectually and realize that some of us know our "Story"-History, and stop using our language a because the next thing we know you will be 'swearing' at us not knowing what you said. Historically you are no better than Africans, and you only had the "gun" to take our land, destroy our culture and enslave our people. I am not even going to go into the van Riebeeck policies in the Cape, or the Broederbond, for that matter, or the fact that when ANC was taking over, your Apartheid leaders destroyed all information, burned it in furnaces, pulled, shredded so much information, that your mind, up to this far, can't even begin to wrap itself around what I might tell you about your people as colonizers, enslavers, Apartheidizers, the whole bit. Lastly, the Hub above is for African people of SouthAfrica, and I have the birthright and human right to tell them about their culture/history, and why it is in 'Shambles', society, institutions and history, and this is but one step towards engaging and telling them what has been destroyed, is still there, alive, beautiful, powerful, vibrant, and whether you like it or not, , This is not Boer people or their culture, but African people and their culture. You have no business coming and telling us what we should say or not say. These are not the days of Apartheid, and you better get on with the reality. That ANC is messed up, I have written a lot of Hubs to that fact. As to the fact that the Boers destroyed African societies, land and everything that was ours, is a historical fact and truth. If you persist, then I will take this whole discourse to another level. You better read before you come here and make yourself look not so coherent-which you are above.. Too much rant without evidence, but racist, jaundiced and vitriolic Apartheid Rant.. I am here to respond and am not surprised you jumped the gun.. Check Yourself


MartieCoetser profile image

MartieCoetser 2 years ago from South Africa

Ixwa

It was not at all my intention to rant, rave, pick a fight, or to upset you in any way. I really don’t want you to see my comments in a negative light. Yes, I can take a stand, I can fiercely take part in a controversial debate, but never with the intention to ‘fight’. I am sorry you read me wrong and found yourself all of a sudden in the shoes of an executor of opposition.

My focus is on the future. I want to be part of the solution, not the problem. According to my perspective on ‘constructive building’, haggling over history and stoning culprits are primitive acts and a waste of precious time. Our country needs people with foresight and brilliant solutions, people eager and able to build a better future, instead of throwing stones at culprits as far as they go, bickering about the past like scavengers over a carcass.

Recently I read the same kind of ‘blaming imperialism and colonialism article’ written by Ricardo Ignacio, a native American - https://www.facebook.com/pages/Ricardo-Ignacio/174...

I am sure you will be able to read his post when you follow the link. It starts with “..... Exactly 11 months ago, a month AFTER creating this page, I published a blog....”

The same kind of bickering over previous oppressors and their horrible deeds.

You are talking about Van Riebeeck, Da Gama and Diaz, primitive Europeans living in huts, the Moors, the Vandals, Barbarians.... YES, I know all about them. Or let me rather say I know quite a lot about them - landlords who had executed their so-called right to end the virginity of their female workers the night before their (the virgin’s) wedding, leaving her future husband bereft of his human rights, so-called witches burnt alive on stakes, so-called criminals boiled alive, kings and queens beheaded and/or jailed for life in dark, wet cellars, so-called criminals crucified, or buried alive..... YES, I am very well aware of the horrendous deeds that were committed by people with white skins. They were indeed barbarians, and many of them are still barbarians, raping and/or killing their own children, eating human flesh, etc. But I have also learned about the gruesome doings of Tjaka, Mzilikazi, Dinghane and other African kings and rulers, not to talk about the ancient and even recent rulers of the East and Far East.

However, I don’t even have to look that far back to hang my head in shame and to realize that we are living in a decrepit world. Only remembering the doings of my own grandfathers and uncles – their racists and hypocrite pattern of thoughts – is enough to send me flying to another planet where no injustice exist.

Fact is, Colonialism and Imperialism, just like Marxism, Communism, Apartheid, etc.etc. had proven itself as irremediable catastrophes.

Sadly, throughout the history of mankind nations nurtured an arrogant urge to oppress, abuse and exploit each other regardless of race and culture. Our (Dutch, French and German) ancestors who came to SA since 1652 intended to escape oppression and the most gruesome injustice that were committed in Europe in the name of religion. Then they, the oppressed, became the oppressors until the British arrived and turned the wheel into their favour. Our language, Afrikaans – a spontaneous conjugation of native and foreign languages - was only accepted as one of SA official languages in 1925 - 273 years after the fist Dutchman set foot ashore. In 1932 the government, still under British rule, was finally able to address the Poor White Problem (among the mixture of Dutch, French, German (Afrikaner Boere) caused by British Colonialism – and less than 20 years later those very poor Boere were the new oppressors. Kind of like a hen-pecking order....

However, Ixwa, can we change the past? How can we blame ourselves, or allow others to blame us, for horrors that were committed by our ancestors? I can but only live my life the best I can in my specific circumstances, knowing that the seed I sow today will be reaped by my children and their children.

I prefer to believe that a ‘fatherland’ is NOT necessarily the country we were born in, or the country that was “bought” or “conquered” by our ancestors, but the country we see as our home since the day we are born, the country we learn to love, the country we want to live in for the rest of our lives. If all of us have to return to the country of our original ancestors, where will we end up? Even before the Khoi and the San, SA was inhabited by Paranthropus robustus who were most probably “conquered” and “oppressed” by Australopithecus africanus, and eventually by Homo erectus. Were will we end up when we start to determine what piece of this planet “belongs” to us?

Anyway, I will return again to read the rest of your hub. I have always found your hubs interesting and insightful. Unfortunately too lengthy (for me) to read in one session. At a certain point I just have to stop and digest, and share my thoughts. I believe it is important for us South Africans to know how we interpret our past and present. Surely, only then we will be able to destroy all misconceptions and move forward as one nation, not repeating mistakes that were made in the past.

You are welcome to delete my comments, Ixwa, as they are most certainly only applicable to the first part of your hub and perhaps completely out of context with the rest.

Oh, wait, I have to say something about your sentence: “...... you cannot accept that an African can write the type of Hub above....” To the contrary – I KNOW Africans are not inferior to any other race on this planet. I know all people are people, regardless of race and culture. The success and achievements of all humans depend only but only on the opportunities presented to them and their own determination to seize those opportunities. Personally I have missed many opportunities in my life, and I can waste all my precious time blaming my parents, my ancestors and I can even blame King Sekhukhune and Queen Tandila – as they have brutally murdered some of my relatives.

I would love to read hubs about the Voortrekkers written by you. I am well aware of the fact that I know only one side of the story and I am honestly interested in the accounts of the Africans. Credo Mutwa’s book, “My People”, is in fact my only available reference – apart from the journals that were written by my own ancestors and the censored history that were fed to us by the Apartheids Department of Education.

Now let me rather not try to greet you again in your language, and not even in my own, as you are obviously not open for this kind of... what shall we call it..... embarrassing efforts to bury primitive hatchets?


ixwa profile image

ixwa 2 years ago Author

MartieCoetser: I think, in all fairness, you ought to read the whole Hub, closely, first, and then go back to your comments and my comments. In so doing, you will come out with a much better perspective. At this juncture, given what has been written in so many ways and styles in this Hub above, my primary concern was African people of Mzantsi, and I am qualified to write anything I find to be positive about the,African people here in south Africa, and I also use my right, as one of the Africans people to chastise and call out those of us in our midst who are still drawing us backward-Meaning African People.

I take my work and researches seriously, and work on them very hard to reach a proper and better form. I do not write articles simply for the joy of putting together sentences and photos/music, just so that I have a feel-good feeling that I have written something. I write with many references that I cite and my own experience as an African of south Africa.

My African people educated me, my grandma was my primary informant and life teacher(Schooling, too). When I write our history as an African person, I utilize history and many disciplines to cohere and present a serious read on African history of Africans in South Africa. I am not blaming anyone here, I am stating historical facts and truths. These are aids in assisting the African readers to make the necessary connection in order to adjust their present reality for a better and informed future.

It is precisely forgetting and not tabulating the correct and true history that we are going to repeat the same mistakes, not when we teach our people about it(the Colonial Past).

I will not delete your comments, and you note well that you did not read this whole article. If you want to criticize Any African King, you are welcome, that is the truth and historical lesson is important to me and our people. You can write such Hubs if you want, but on this one, I am specifically talking to and addressing/calling upon the Consciousness of our African people to begin to work on ourselves first. That is right and moral.

I do not really think that much of Credo, and I have all his books, and I would be interested what you say after reading 'Indaba My Children' authored by him. To me, Credo is the eccentric he is, and really, some stuff he says and does, if you knew us a a people of African descent, as one nation, he is wrong and very opportunistic. We know him long ago when he lived in his mountain house, in a hillock in Deep soweto, and one four-roomed house in the Township of Diepkloof, where he was run-out by the June 16th students for having said a lot of bad and disturbing things to the students. I am not a Credo person.. I let him be... I will one day take up on his works and critique them, for I have nearly caught up to our History of Oral Culture and Tradition/Custom.

I have learned a lot about my falsified history during Apartheid, and the Afrikaner people's history was my prime focus, even in this time I am living in, and I have collected a lot of material on Apartheid. I have also made it my business to know European history, Asiatic history(more focused on the Afro-Asiatic Ancestry; I have learned a lot of African Caribbean, South American Africans, Africans in Latin America and also in the USA(I am busy working on this Culture of Africans in the Diaspora Hub as I write a reply to you. I did not forget about the Africans in the Middle East and Europe, I have made it my task to learn about that, and I did(And still always learning more about African people in those places). I take myself and my work very seriously..

We are sensitive about our languages as you are. We correct not only you because you are A White person, we correct each other as Africans if say things wrong. I have learned Afrikaans in School, along with English, and am now learning Spanish and Japanese, out of interest and it is time I have to do such things.

So that, when I write about any history, media, or the topics I have dealt with as you can see from my published works, I do not just write, as I said above, for the sake of writing. I am writing what I think I should write, and not for the Internet, that is, shorten it for anyone. I write as much as I can on particular topics, and they all are tight and are all works in progress, just like this one above.

The article above, as I have said to you, is my exhorting and motivating our African people to Wake Up and start dealing with matters such as we see being foisted upon us by the ruling ANC elite. I do not care for Apartheid just as I abhor and dislike the present government, and I dare criticize them in the Hubs I have already published here on HubPages.

If you want to say anything about the Hub above, I think it will be best to read all of it and then maybe you might come out with more informed response. As it is now, I do not think you have read the Hub, and it would be better if you do... Thanks, again...

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