Top Tips for Women's Skin Care

Skin Deep


The human skin is not just ‘packaging’; it is also the largest organ of the body. It serves many functions. As our outer covering, it is the one that faces up to the daily challenges of heat and dust, sun and snow, wear and tear. The skin can give you youth or age you, for as it was once said, beauty is only skin deep. Looking after your skin pays dividends. Not only does it gives a fresh and appealing appearance but also it helps to keep the skin delivering its other functions satisfactorily.


While you may be impatient to move to the skin care tips section, I think it is always worth knowing a little bit about the structure and functions of the skin, in order to know how best to look after it.


So here comes the science bit…

The Anatomy of Skin
The Anatomy of Skin

The Structure of Skin


The human skin comprises of two main layers the outer Epidermis and the inner Dermis. The Epidermis is the barrier and the visible outside layers of the skin. This delivers the barrier function ( like making us waterproof!) and also helps to regulate body temperature. The Epidermis contains many layers but does not have any blood vessels or glands.


These exist in the layer below known as the Dermis. This layer houses all the blood vessels, hair follicles, lymphatic channels, nerve endings, oil producing glands, collagen and fatty tissue. This forms the ‘cushion’ that allows an element of elasticity and ‘give’ thus protecting us from stress and strain. It has two layers, a papillary layer that is thin and just under the epidermis and a deeper, thicker reticular layer that houses all the important bits!


Skin Functions


Protective : As a barrier against external toxins, assaults

Defensive: As an agent hosting some immune systems and lymphatic channels

Producer: produces oily sebum as a natural moisturizer and Vitamin D

Thermoregulator: Heat loss and Heat gain

Absorber: Oxygen, some nutrients and certain drug formulations can be absorbed directly

Sensor: Senses heat, cold, pressure, pain, touch, vibration

Excretor: waste materials through sweat and sebum

The Functions of Skin


The skin serves a lot of different functions. As we said earlier it forms a protective barrier against outside assault from pathogens and toxins and makes us waterproof.

It helps to regulate temperature by releasing or saving heat. This is done through opening up or constricting the blood vessels in the dermis. The heat is also lost through perfusion and exposure.


The skin gives us sensation through various receptors- thus allowing us to feel heat, cold, pressure, pain, light touch, vibration and injury. It forms a membrane for fluid balance by allowing fluid loss through evaporation.

It works as an excretory organ, eliminating certain waste materials and salts through sweat.


The skin produces Vitamin D through pigmented cells called melanocytes. It works as a storage system for keeping water and fat. The skin also delivers absorption of certain gases like oxygen and also can absorb drugs and other medicines in a suitable format.

It offers a drainage system through lymphatic channels that capture any surface bacteria or toxins and safely move them away to be decontaminated. Thus it forms our first line of defence.


Looking after No:1


Gosh, that was exhausting just writing about all the functions of the skin. If you cannot remember any of the detail, at least it emphasises how important skin is to us humans. So let’s get onto how we can look after it.

Looking after your skin can be done through direct means and indirect means. Lets deal with the indirect means first as this may seem obvious, but is worth reiterating. The usual suspects such as sleep, hydration, diet are all present and correct.


Eat Fruit
Eat Fruit

Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.

~ Confucius

Do Eat Well

A good diet is, unsurprisingly, linked to a healthy skin. Having at least five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables goes a long way in helping skin to repair and rejuvenate itself. Foods rich in Vitamin A and C, such as carrots, tomatoes, dark green leafy vegetables like spinach, apples, oranges, berries , Kiwi all help. There is also a link between a healthy digestive system and healthy skin. Constipation can lead to bad skin and spots so plenty of fibre for a regular bowel habit is essential.


Exercise
Exercise

Do Exercise


A regular exercise regime helps the skin. When we exercise the blood flow to the skin increases and delivers the necessary nutrients to the skin. It also helps to clear out waste through sweat, opens our pores and clears out impurities. As this also helps the brain to release endorphins that elevate your mood, there is a double benefit to exercise.


Hydrate
Hydrate

Do Drink Water


Dehydration can thin and stress the skin. Drinking plenty of fluids, particularly water, helps to keep the skin young and pliable. Dehydrated skin soon looses elasticity and can become damaged, leading to wrinkles.



Sunglasses
Sunglasses

Do wear Sunglasses


Bright light makes us squint and frown, leading to permanent lines around the eyes. Not wearing prescription glasses when you need to, leads to eye strain and crow’s feet.


Beauty Sleep
Beauty Sleep

Do Sleep Well

No wonder we call it a beauty sleep. A well rested body means a healthier skin, especially our facial skin. Lack of sleep has an adverse impact on overall energy. This leads to stress, tired skin and poor circulation.

Alcohol
Alcohol

Taking joy in living is a woman's best cosmetic.

~ Rosalind Russell

Smoking
Smoking

Don’t Binge Drink


Alcohol dehydrates and also opens up your blood vessels. Drinking excessive amounts can lead to loss of fluid from the body and can permanently open our pores and blood vessels. This can over the long run, lead to liver ‘spots’ broken capillaries and skin damage from toxicity of alcohol coming through our pores. Sensible drinking is always better.


Don’t Smoke


Smoking is on par with persistent sun exposure when it comes to skin damage. Heavy smokers develop permanent lines. Even passive smoking leads to persistent exposure to the toxins in the smoke and causes skin problems. Long term smokers also suffer from narrowing of blood vessels leading to poor wound healing and thinner skin due to lack of nutrients.



Stress
Stress

Don’t Over Stress

Worriers can damage their health by producing excess stress hormones. As the body’s own stress hormones have an element of steroids in them, this leads to unhealthy skin. It also causes deeper frown lines and worry creases. Persistent worries can affect your diet, can make you drink and smoke too much and affect your sleep. So Relax, smile and try to have a positive outlook.

Skin type based on oil distribution
Skin type based on oil distribution

Skin Types



  • Normal Skin has even texture, barely visible or medium pores, good colour and circulation, neither oily nor dry.
  • Combination skin has all the features of above but will also have an oily ‘T’ zone that runs across the forehead and over the nose and chin. May people have this type of skin especially women.
  • Dry skin will feel tight when washed, it is prone to fine wrinkles, can be flaky and red. In browner skins there may be an ash or grey tone due to build up of dead skin.
  • Oily skin is shiny, with larger pores and is prone to blackheads and blemishes easily
  • Sensitive skin is thin, prone to broken capillaries and rashes and is prone to allergies easily. It has fine pores.
  • Mature or sun damaged skin has many wrinkles, leathery texture and prone to loss of elasticity and broken capillaries. The lax tone is seen especially around the jawline and the cheeks.

What is your Skin Type?



When it comes to direct care, skin care regimens do not need to be complex and expensive. Dermatologists classify skin types in order to help us find the best approach to caring for our skins.


Although there are different classifications, the most common ones are that which distinguish skin into 6 different types - see the chart on the right for the description of skin types.


Knowing your skin types is essential to choose a good regime. Many people mistakenly choose products that may aggravate problems for their skin as they may be incompatible for the type of skin you have. There are also assumptions and misconceptions such as not moisturising 'oily' looking skin and these can lead to further problems.


Once you've assessed your skin type we can move on to simple skin care principles and look at products to help us do this.


The questionnaire below helps you to identify what skin type you belong to.

What Skin Type are You?

Fours Steps to Flawless Skin


Now that you are familiar with your skin type, we are good to go. The ‘direct’ skin care regime always starts with good cleansing. As your outer covering, the skin endures many assaults – heat, dust, fumes, sweat, oily sebum all tend to deposit on the skin. Along with makeup and mascara and whatever else we choose to apply on the skin. We also need to know how best to exfoliate, moisturise and protect the skin, especially facial skin.

CLEANSING


A good cleanse is vital to skin care. However, research shows that more than 75% of women either don’t know how best to cleanse their face or are using the wrong products. This is where knowing your skin type helps. Oily skin needs a different cleansing approach as opposed to dry skin. If you choose your products wisely, you’ll have a fresh, glowing skin as a clean palette to start your day with. Moisturising, make up, applying anti-aging creams and all other activities should always start after a good cleanse.

When it comes to cleansing, it is worth knowing what is best:


How often?


Overcleansing is as bad as undercleansing. Washing the skin too often leaves it tight and taut, and may cause dry epidermis, cracked skin and rashes. Cleansing is best done twice as a routine- in the morning after waking up and at night before going to bed. Night-time routine is best to remove make up, dust and grime and avoids the pores from getting clogged with material. Morning routine removes the oils that build up overnight.

Hot or Cold?


Using hot or cold water opens up pores too much and can cause broken capillaries. Go for lukewarm or at room temperature.


With what?


Makeup and mascara are better removed with some precleansing with cotton wipes . When wiping make up and mascara use semicircular sweeping motion with a cotton wipe and a cream cleanser. Wipe down over the eyelids and away from the lashes to avoid getting products and debris in your eye.

When it comes to washing, avoid harsh soaps that will dry out your skin. Use a foaming lotion cleanser for normal skin, a gel wash that can dissolve oils for oily skin and a cream cleanser for dry and sensitive skin. No need for expensive products, your cleansers can be cheap and effective if you choose the ingredients and type carefully.


How?


Your fingers are best designed to perform the cleansing. Use gentle circular motions that also help to massage the skin and encourage circulation and lymphatic drainage. Avoid harsh brushes, cotton or scrubbing sponges on your face.

EXFOLIATING


Every day our skin sheds dead cells and rejuvenates with fresh layer of cells underneath. The rate of shedding is much better when younger and tends to slow down as we get older. The dead cells tend to also shed unevenly so a little help goes a long way by refreshing our skin and giving it that healthy glow.


Choosing the products wisely helps to make this process gentle but effective without harsh results. There are some useful tends to exfoliating:


Dry brushing


Using a good textured brush from a drug store, dry brushing helps to loosen the dead cells all over the body. This also massages the skin gently and eliminates toxins through lymphatic drainage. Dry brushing is a good step prior to using body scrubs and exfoliants.


Body scrubs


Depending on your skin type, pick an exfoliate or a scrub to help wash away the dead cells along with dirt and grime. Most scrubs contain small beads or particles that help micro-massage and unclog the pores. Facial scrubs need to contain gentler beads and particles. Oily skin tends to benefit from slightly more frequent exfoliation as opposed to normal/sensitive skin. However a twice weekly routine should be enough. Over exfoliation can damage skin. Thicker skin in soles and legs can benefit from tougher scrubs.


Shower/Wash


Once your body scrub is rubbed in and massaged. A blast from the shower will wash away all those dead cells leaving your skin refreshed. Facial exfoliating needs a gentler wash with lukewarm water- and make sure you don’t get those particles in your eyes- they can be annoying!


Other Brushes


Clarisonic and Spa sonic do electric brushes that use gentle circular motion and sonic vibrations to brush away dead cells. They can be used as an adjunct to other techniques. They are on the expensive side. You can invest in them if you don't trust your hands to do the dirty work or if you have cash to spare.

Be careful if you have infected skin or acne spots that are inflamed. Exfoliation can sometime break the spots and spread bacteria causing localised infection.

MOISTURISING


Skin soon looses oil and water and needs regular nourishment. a good moisturiser keeps skin fresh, acts as a supplementary barrier along with your natural skin oils and also keeps the skin nourished.


It is a common misconception that oily skin doesn't need moisturising- all types of skin do. It is the choice of moisturiser that can vary.


A thick, creamy, oily moisturiser is best for dry skin. A light, gel based moisturiser works well with oily skin and gets absorbed quickly. For those with combination skin, a light fluid moisturiser is somewhere in between gel based and cream based moisturiser.


Serums can also act as moisturisers for mature skin and in addition they have antiwrinkle properties. A goos moisturiser should follow cleansing, washing and definitely after exfolaiting as such acts deny the skin of its natural barriers for some time.

Usually applying moisturiser to damp skin helps 'lock-in' moisture.


While you may have been doing this all your life- there are some simple steps for effective moisturising. After washing and patting your skin lightly to take away excess moisture, Apply few dollops of moisturiser all over the face avoiding eyes. Work from your cheeks and use circular motion to massage in the moisturiser, then onto your forehead, chin and down on your nose.

SUNSCREEN


After you have cleansed, exfolated and moistusied don't forget to wear sunb protection. the UV radiatio nfrom the sun can be very damaging to the exposed skin. Even when it is not too warm or sunny, the radiation is still there. Whether indoor or outdoors, in wummer or in winter, rain or snow, the suns UV rays can penetrate and affect your skin.


The newer sunscreens are no longer a white paste making us look like caste members of Addam's family. The ultrasheer option helps to keep it clean and clear.

  • All round sun protection is always a good idea.
  • Light SPF can be built into many moisturisers. In warmer, brighter climes heavy duty sun screen is vital to avoid unsightly freckles, sun spots and wrinkles.
  • Choose broad spectrum Sun creams with SPF 30 or above.
  • Reapply frequently especially when active
  • Use waterproof ones if swimming
  • Choose sun protective clothing
  • Avoid sun tanning for too long and if possible altogether!
  • Take extra care while swimming or skiing as water and snow reflect sun and cause double and damage

In Summary


  • It helps to know you skin. Once you know your skin type you can choose your products wisely.


  • The skin doesn't know day or night, so don't bother with night cream and day cream and similar tomfoolery.


  • Skin care is both internal and external, eating well, sleeping well and drinking wisely always helps


  • You don't need expensive products to look after your skin, careful choice and trial and error will land you your optimum regime.


  • After , washing and rinsing don't throw it all away by drying your face with common everyday hand towels where bacteria may reside. Keep clean frsh towels and pat your face dry- don't rub.


  • Your skin needs sunshine, just not too much of it. So you don't have to hide way. Wearing proper sunscreen will help.


  • Foods with plenty of zinc, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and trace elements like magnesium, selenium, chromium will help. If you are not eating healthily supplements help too.


  • Look after your skin, after all, it looks after you!



Copyright © Mohan Kumar 2012

Thank You!


Hope you found this useful and informative. Do visit the other fashion and beauty hubs -links are to the right.

Please don't forget to leave your comments and feedback below.



If you liked what you read and saw do share with your friends and family on Facebook/Twitter or similar using the buttons below.

I do appreciate your time and attention.

See you soon.


Love,

Docmo


Copyright © Mohan Kumar 2012


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Comments 32 comments

Anna Evanswood profile image

Anna Evanswood 4 years ago from Malaysia

So much information! Thank you:)


always exploring profile image

always exploring 4 years ago from Southern Illinois

Another great hub Docmo. Taking good care of the skin is extremely important. Thank you for sharing. Oh by the way, trere's nothing better than Ponds deep cleanser, I have tried them all...Cheers


Vellur profile image

Vellur 4 years ago from Dubai

WOWWW great hub with so much information. Very nicely presented and great pictures. Voted up.


Amy Becherer profile image

Amy Becherer 4 years ago from St. Louis, MO

I am addicted to NewBeauty, Vogue and Allure for the latest information regarding skincare. NewBeauty is reviewed courtesy of dermatologists, plastic surgeons and cosmetic dentists. Although, I believe genetics determine our basics, knowing our bodies helps in individualized care. When I recently saw my new dermatologist, he remarked in looking at my chart, that he thought I was 20-years younger. I use Retin A and recently researched and added Skinceuticals C E Ferulic serum. The derma doc relayed that he uses Retin A, too. He spoke to me for an hour and even wrote down the new addition to my arsenal!

Great article, Docmo, on a topic that I can't get enough of. I look to physicians for the best information available on all things physical. Unfortunately, only very few have your dedication to research and bringing the truth in focus. Thank you!


HawaiiHeart profile image

HawaiiHeart 4 years ago from Hawaii

Very informative hub! Our skin is so important and we really need to take good care of it. Great tips.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

@Anna - thank you for your visit and comments.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

@Ruby- I've heard good things about the Ponds product- hence it's inclusion here. Thank for your comments.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

@Vellur- thank you for your appreciation. It's makes all the work rewarding.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

@ Amy- I am glad your skin are regime is paying off - carefully selected products go a long way. Thank you for your visit and comments. I am waiting for another of your wonderful poems!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

@HawaiiHeart( love that name!) thanks for your comments. Much appreciated!


editorsupremo profile image

editorsupremo 4 years ago from London, England

Thank you for a very informative hub on skin care. Excellent tips.

Voted up!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

Thank you editorsupremo- appreciate your visit and comments!


Genna East profile image

Genna East 4 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

Hi Doc..

I’ve been absent for a while due to work demands and family matters. Your hub us just what the doctor ordered. Stress can do number on the complexion, and I’ve noticed that mine has not looked its best as of late. I thought I would try ROC as a more aggressive approach to moisturizer but wasn’t sure if there is any difference with over-the-counter creams. Loved this hub, Doc…hugs!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

Lovely to see you here. I know the feeling - stress and lack of proper rest can be bad for sink. thankfully it is temporary. Plenty of hydration, nice aggressive moisturizer ROC is good but the cheaper over the counter creams are also coming on top recent studies. Cetaphil is actually made by L'oreal and is actually very effective as I recently found out. thanks for your visit and comments.


ishwaryaa22 profile image

ishwaryaa22 4 years ago from Chennai, India

An extremely informative and comprehensive hub! You explained this engaging hub in a detailed manner right from the skin structure to the importance of looking after skin! I answered your quiz - it correctly stated that my skin is normal to combination skin type. You rightly pointed out that a healthy lifestyle is a key to healthy skin. Well-presented hub!

Thanks for SHARING. Useful & Interesting. Voted up and Socially Shared.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California)

Mohan (Docmo),

Having the advice in this Hub come from a physician causes the information to be even more meaningful. I've read many healthcare articles. Yours are ones I know I can trust,


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

Ishwaryaa, sorry I missed your comment before- thank you so much for your appreciation of my efforts.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

Daisy, what more can a (Doc) Writer want other than such trust. IT makes me feel more responsible in ensuring my research is right and my advice as accurate as possible. Thank you for your visit and comments.


Marina Lazarevic profile image

Marina Lazarevic 4 years ago from San Francisco, CA

I really enjoyed this Hub. It's packed with so much fantastic information! I use the Clinique Dramatically Different lotion and love it. I should try some of the other products you recommended for exfoliating. Thanks for the super-thorough guide on maintaining healthy skin!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK Author

Thank you Marina- glad you found this helpful!


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

It's so nice to have a doctor in the house! The first facial cleanser you 'advertised', Cetaphil, was recommended to me by my skin doctor. So, I got one right. However, I am a smoker which probably negates everything else!

You have done another fabulous job, comprehensive, informative, useful and with just a touch of humor (the Addams Family look). It is always a joy to read your hubs.

Voted up, useful and interesting.


Sunshine625 profile image

Sunshine625 4 years ago from Orlando, FL

I tend to forget that the skin is largest organ of the body and that's so obvious. I'm good to my skin. Most of the time. I highly recommend witch hazel as a facial toner. It's works well for my oily t-zone. Thanks for the pointers Doc!


Alecia Murphy profile image

Alecia Murphy 4 years ago from Wilmington, North Carolina

Some good tips indeed! Great hub!


MelChi profile image

MelChi 4 years ago from Cape Town, South Africa

These are terrific tips you've shared here! I only wish that schools would teach this and make it as interesting as what you've put together. I learnt a lot today. Great point about day and night cream - I always wondered about that! I enjoyed this - voted up, and across the board except for funny - good skincare is no joke. Thanks for sharing! :)


Mama Kim 8 profile image

Mama Kim 8 4 years ago

This is an absolutely fabulous hub! Well written, wonderfully presented and very informative! Thank you for this. Voted up useful and shared ^_^


vibesites profile image

vibesites 4 years ago from United States

Yes, stress is one of the things why my skin keeps on breaking out. And I will try to drink more water as well (and less caffeine). Thanks for the wonderful tips! I'll be sure to follow them one by one. :D


jantamaya profile image

jantamaya 4 years ago from UK

Hi Doc Mo! Nice to see you again :) Great hub! Congrats! In one thing I disagree with you. A day cream makes sense. Why? Day creams contain (mostly) SPF (Sun Protection Filter). An important factor. You don't need to think about sun protection for your face and neck because you would do it automatically, every morning. Additionally to this, day creams contain less fat (?, don't ask, I'm not an expert) and allow you look better during a day :) So Doc, hope you won't forget to use your day cream next morning :-). Greetings from West Yorkshire.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 4 years ago from England

What a great hub Doc, this was so full of information, and something we always forget to read about when buy skin creams. I think all articles should contain this information when selling their creams, this was brilliant! I have always used a cheep cream, Nivea to be exact, its just as good as others more expensive, and I always splash my face with cold water after washing with warm, it seems to close my pores and make my skin feel tighter, voted up! nell


mary615 profile image

mary615 4 years ago from Florida

This is a very good article about skin care. I didn't care for mine as I should have when I was young, and now I'm paying by having more wrinkles than I should and having skin cancers. I try and warn my younger daughters and granddaughters all the time to take care of their skin.

I voted this Hub UP, etc. and will share, pin and tweet.


anupma profile image

anupma 4 years ago from India

Huge information about skin are here. Skin care falls in top priority nowadays. Sun-screen does suit me. It makes my skin oily. So I use to put cream in stead of sun-screen.

Voted up, useful, interesting and awesome.


dghbrh profile image

dghbrh 4 years ago from ...... a place beyond now and beyond here !!!

Very useful information and a really informative hub here.

Thanks for sharing this one. I pressed many buttons and sharing too....keep up the good work.


Mike Robbers profile image

Mike Robbers 4 years ago from London

I'm glad that such an excellent article about "Women's Skin Care" is written by a man.. great work, just emailed it to my partner

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