The Step-by-step Process of Garment Manufacturing

Garment Manufacturing Books

Garment Manufacturing

Garment manufacturers are primarily engaged in the design, cutting and sewing of garments from fabric. Some manufacturers are contractors or subcontractors, which generally manufacture apparel from materials owned by other firms. Larger manufacturers often contract production to many such contractors or subcontractors in the U.S. and abroad. Some manufacturers are vertically integrated, producing the textiles from which they make garments, or even operating retail outlets too.

History of Garment Industry

First sewing machine was invented in the Victorian era, after the development of machine elite class use to have a seamstress who stitched the clothes for them on sewing machine. Before sewing machines everything was done by hand. The seamstresses went to the home of the woman who wanted to stitch the clothes. As industrial revolution started in the 19th century, garment industry too began to evolve but it was in its infancy and had no developed system for garment manufacturing. Seamstresses observed that they can develop standard patterns which can fit more than one woman. They developed a mathematical sizing system to accommodate most women with very few patterns. As businessmen, interested in lowering costs, they continued developing these patterns to become paper “information systems” engineered to control quantities of exact reproductions in cutting and stitching clothing in mass production systems.

The apparel industry grew from these tailors/businessmen, as they built manufacturing factories for production, which pattern engineering accommodated. Pattern engineering grew a great industry in the early and mid-20th century. Pattern making was first taught to “apprentices” who were called “designers”. Creative designers of styles didn’t exist in the early 20th century. Paris was center of the developments in style and creation in garments at that time and many other countries copied from there. Later designers created booklets for teaching the pattern making systems mathematically – that came to be called “pattern drafting”. One dis-advantage of mass production was that designers put little effort in bringing new designs and patterns but they either copied or else made very little changes. Even today the readymade garment industry does not bring too many new ideas in the products rather it is creating mass garments to reduce cost. Garment industry has developed many new and time saving techniques, processes and machinery for the effective production today. The most important is the CAD/CAM which enables the designer, pattern maker, marker and grader to do their jobs precisely and effectively.

Step-by-step of Garment Construction

Garment Sketch
Garment Sketch
Pattern Design
Pattern Design
Pattern Grading
Pattern Grading
Pattern Marking
Pattern Marking

. Organizational Areas in Garment Manufacturing

On industrial basis there are certain areas or sequence through which garments are manufactured.

· Design / Sketch:

In the garment manufacturing the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that have to be prepared. For this purpose the designer first draw several rough sketches in the sketch book. The designer does not go for details at this moment but he rather let his creativity flow on the paper and he draws many sketches. Later these sketches are analyzed by a panel of designers. They finally select few out of them. These few sketches are rendered in detail separately or in the form of a single collection. The designer also draws working drawings along with the sketch. Working drawings are flat drawing of the sketch and it help pattern maker in understanding the patterns involved in the construction.

· Pattern Design:

The pattern maker now develop first pattern for the designsin any one standard size. This is made by pattern drafting method and the purpose of making this pattern is to create the sample garment for test fit.

· Sample Making:

The first patterns are sent to the sewing unit for assembling them into garment. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. This sample is constructed to analyze the pattern fit and design too. After the sample garment is stitched it is reviewed by a panel of designers, pattern makers and sewing specialists. If any changes have to be made they are made at this time.

· Production Pattern:

The pattern design is now taken for creating the production patterns. The production pattern is one which will be used for huge production of garments. The pattern maker makes the patterns on standard pattern making paper. These papers are made-up of various grades. The most important component, the tissue paper pattern, is made from the lightest and thinnest paper commercially available (it is not made at the pattern companies). It is called 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) basis paper, meaning that a ream of it (500 sheets) only weighs 7.5 lb (3.4 kg).

Garment patterns can be constructed by two means: manual method, CAD/CAM method. Today many companies have developed CAD/CAM because of the ease of designing patterns, fluency and precision involved which cannot be guaranteed with the manual method. Investing once into the CAD/CAM unit is worth in itself. Many buyers around the world prefer manufacturers who are using CAD/CAM methods. The production patterns created in CAD/CAM can be stored easily and they can be modified at any point of time.

A garment sewing pattern or garment fabric & patterns draft is developed by calculating, taking account of the following measurements: -

1. Direct Sample.
2. Specification Sheet/ Measurement Chart.
3. Actual body size measurements.
4. Ease Allowances.
5. Sewing Allowance.

These allowances are different for different type of fabrics and patterns.

· Grading

The purpose of grading is to create patterns in different standard sizes. Grading a pattern is really scaling a pattern up or down in order to adjust it for multiple sizes. Pattern sizes can be large, medium and small or else there are standard patterns of size 10, 12, 14, 16 and so on for different figure and statures sizes. This is generally how we get S M L XL XXL sizing. Pattern grading by manual method is a cumbersome task because the grader has to alter the pattern on each and every point from armhole, to neckline, sleeve cap and wrist etc. by using CAD it is much easier and faster.

· Marker Making:

The measuring department determines the fabric yardage needed for each style and size of garment. Computer software helps the technicians create the optimum fabric layout to suggest so fabric can be used efficiently. Markers, made in accordance to the patterns are attached to the fabric with the help of adhesive stripping or staples. Markers are laid in such a way so that minimum possible fabric gets wasted during cutting operation. After marking the garment manufacturer will get the idea of how much fabric he has to order in advance for the construction of garments. Therefore careful execution is important in this step.

Computer marking is done on speciallized softwares. In computerized marking there is no need of large paper sheets for calculating the yardage, in fact, mathematical calculations are made instead to know how much fabric is required.

· Spreading:

With the help of spreading machines, fabric is stacked on one another in reaches or lays that may go over 100 ft (30.5 m) long and hundreds of plies (fabric pieces) thick.

· Cutting:

The fabric is then cut with the help of cloth cutting machines suitable for the type of the cloth. These can be band cutters having similar work method like that of band saws; cutters having rotary blades; machines having reciprocal blades which saw up and down; die clickers similar to die or punch press; or computerized machines that use either blades or laser beams to cut the fabric in desired shapes.

· Sorting/Bundling:

The sorter sorts the patterns according to size and design and makes bundles of them. This step requires much precision because making bundles of mismatched patterns can create severe problems. On each bundle there are specifications of the style size and the marker too is attached with it.

· Sewing/Assembling:

The sorted bundles of fabrics are now ready to be stitched. Large garment manufacturers have their own sewing units other use to give the fabrics on contract to other contractors. Stitching in-house is preferable because one can maintain quality control during the processing. On the other hand if contractors are hired keeping eye on quality is difficult unless the contactor is one who precisely controls the process.

There are what is called sewing stations for sewing different parts of the cut pieces. In this workplace, there are many operators who perform a single operation. One operator may make only straight seams, while another may make sleeve insets. Yet another two operators can sew the waist seams, and make buttonholes. Various industrial sewing machines too have different types of stitches that they can make. These machines also have different configuration of the frame. Some machines work sequentially and feed their finished step directly into the next machine, while the gang machines have multiple machines performing the same operation supervised by a single operator. All these factors decide what parts of a garment can be sewn at that station. Finally, the sewn parts of the garment, such as sleeves or pant legs, are assembled together to give the final form to the clothing.

· Inspection:

Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. During processing the quality control section needs to check each prepared article against these defects.

· Pressing/ Finishing:

The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Molding may be done to change the finished surface of the garment by applying pressure, heat, moisture, or certain other combination. Pressing, pleating and creasing are the basic molding processes. Creasing is mostly done before other finishing processes like that of stitching a cuff. Creasing is also done before decorating the garment with something like a pocket, appliqués, embroidered emblems etc.

Vertical and form presses is automated machines. Perform simple pressing operations, such as touching up wrinkles in knit shirts, around embroidery and snaps, and at difficult-to-reach places on garments.

· Final Inspection:

For the textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, designs and the final finished garments. Quality control in terms of garment manufacturing, pre-sales and posts sales service, delivery, pricing, etc are essential for any garment manufacturer, trader or exporter. Certain quality related problems, often seen in garment manufacturing like sewing, color, sizing, or garment defects should never be over looked.

Sewing defects

Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely.

Color defects

Variation of color between the sample and the final garment, wrong color combinations and mismatching dyes should always be avoided.

Sizing defects

Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of various parts of a garment like sleeves of XL size for body of L size garment can deteriorate the garments beyond repair.

Garment defects

Broken or defective buttons, snaps, stitches, different shades within the same garment, dropped stitches, exposed notches and raw edges, fabric defects, holes, faulty zippers, loose or hanging sewing threads, misaligned buttons and holes, missing buttons, needle cuts or chews, pulled or loose yarn, stains, unfinished buttonhole, short zippers, inappropriate trimmings etc. all can lead to the end of a brand name even before its establishment.

· Packing:

The finished garments are finally sorted on the basis of design and size and packed to send for distribution to the retail outlets.

Recent Developments in Garment Manufacturing


CAD and CAM are two technologies that have made prominent changes in the way garment manufacturing was done in previous eras. Today all large garment manufacturing companies have developed CAD/CAM system to do the process of garment manufacturing. CAD is an abbreviation for computer-aided design and CAM for computer-aided machine. CAD/CAM is computer software that controls the production of garments. In CAD the designer designs the garments by using any suitable software like Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw etc and in CAM the cutters, sewers, graders and markers control the process of development.

The designer creates 2-D or 3-D model of design in CAD and CAM as a software numerically controls the machines that generates the production.

There are several advantages of CAD/CAM over manual method of designing and production of garments:

  • The expense and time is reduced in a considerable manner when compared to the laborious manual work of designing.
  • Designing can be done from anywhere as the designers are able to control the process from remote locations as well.
  • The data can be easily stored, transmitted, and transported through computer files.
  • Digital swatches can be saved on floppy disks, zip disks, CD-ROM or hard drive thus saving space. Moreover they can be easily organized for fast and easy retrieval.
  • The designs can be easily customized and personalized as corrections and editing can be done at any time without significant delays or cost increases.
  • The designers don't need to produce swatches all the time as they can now see how a particular fabric or garment looks in different colors and shapes on computer screen itself.

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Comments 115 comments

dewa vm 6 years ago

the article is very informative although I feel it also needed to say more about cad/cam for clothing fashion design, an area that has very limitted literature as of today.

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gulnazahmad 6 years ago from Pakistan Author

thanks dewa vm for taking time and appreciating this hub, I am sure gonna write a hub on Cad/Cam because it is something very important for most of the industries today.

seryhu profile image

seryhu 6 years ago from Canada

Wonderful hub, lots of useful information, well crafted. Looking forward to reading more of your hubs!

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gulnazahmad 6 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks Seryhu for such a nice comment.

glenda 6 years ago

nice if you send as a copy

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gulnazahmad 6 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks glenda you are welcome any time

parth 6 years ago


aminuldesigner+8801912473738 6 years ago

really nice information of apparel side in function

OK thank u

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thank you for stopping by aminuldesigner+8801912473738.

electricsky profile image

electricsky 5 years ago from North Georgia

Thanks for your hub information. I can tell you are a real professional at textile fabric design.

There is so much to know it really dwarfs what I thought of sewing.

I wish I knew more about CAD/CAM. I suppose it takes a college degree to really understand it, right?

gulnazahmad profile image

gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks electricsky for your nice comments. I have actually spent time as a lecturer in a textile university and at the same time I have experience working on many projects. You are right that degree is must to learn the up-to-date techniques of textile manufacturing or of sewing but readymade garment construction can be learnt to greater extent by diplomas too.

If you want to know anything about garment construction from basic cutting to understanding the role of CAD/CAM in construction and designing you are more than welcome.

subreena 5 years ago

excellent work........keep writing!!!

Pooja Nagpal 5 years ago

this is very intersting article i get good knowedge for my ph.D work


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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Its good to know that you got help from my article. Keep reading.

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ournote2self 5 years ago

Very informative. Thanks for sharing! :)

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks ournote2self for your comment. I hope it was helpful for you.

bongiwe luthuli 5 years ago

very intresting article but can u please explain bundling and sorting for the unit production system

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Bongiwe I hope to write an article on bundling and sorting in detail soon. So please check it out then. Thanks for the comment.

hashimputtur 5 years ago

Very good information for beginners


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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Hope you got help from it, thanks for the comment.

GP 5 years ago

Hey very informative, as i am doing my project work for garment constuction. Thanks a lot

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Happy to know that it is was helpful. You can also read some other hubs related to garment construction and use of CAD/CAM in garment construction on my page.

Karthick 5 years ago

I am a beginner in garments . I am passion about designing and manufacturing T-shirts . It's informative for me . Thanks a lot . if possible write a hub on basic technicals and cad/cam which has limited lecturer . waiting for your reply.....

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Karthick well sorry for late reply and surely I will write a Hub on basic techniques of garment construction for you specially. Hopefully you will read it soon.

Ziaul Karim 5 years ago

I am a quality auditor. You have shown part-by-part process.

Really, it’s helpful for all related profession.

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks Zia-ul-karim for the comment, it has given me motivation to write better and quality articles.

anna canedy 5 years ago

thanks so much for sharing your knowledge may GOD richly bless you

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Amin! anna that is so nice of you:-)

MD. ARIF SAMAD RUBEL 5 years ago



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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Thanks Mohammad for your comment.

hasanshaikh 5 years ago

Hi sir do you have a grading scale that we are yousing in garment fild

Avijit 5 years ago

I need 30 terms and definition of textile (mainly about garment)

New2Garments 5 years ago

I am just starting a manufacturing unit of my own, Luckly with my degree in Marketing and fiancé i was able to get some orders now is the time to manufacture them and i need Help.

Basically i need to know what software i can use to assist my cutters in best/ lowest possible average of the expensive cloth we use.

Kindly any technical person who can help me with any thing pls contact Ty

any help will be much appreciated.

Nun the less good article but i need more info on things if possible.

Kami 5 years ago

Very nice article!

Jemima joy 5 years ago

Thanks alot that is a good information

a.k.m khurrom 5 years ago

Thanks for sharing ...but i need some information about fabric consumption by CAD and manual marking.

Phanithp 5 years ago

I need some help on how to setup a basic shirt sewing line

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gulnazahmad 5 years ago from Pakistan Author

Avijit thanks for the comment and I will surely write something related to what you need as soon as I get time.

sanjit singh 5 years ago

sir i sanjit singh ,i read it your ,all coll um ,its realy fantastic and very usefull .i know about ,pressing & packing defect .detail ,

yohannes 5 years ago

good info

Brandy 5 years ago

How do you find... A company that makes massGarment Manufacturing



Rizvi 5 years ago

Lovely explanation for a naïve person such as me. I am new to apparel ind.

Adeel Ahmed 5 years ago

Thanks so much for sharing such a great information as I wanna get some high post job.Till now,I am a Software Engineer of Garments company.I just develop the tools asked by the managers(don't know what lies beneath).This will definitely give me sound knowledge of the complete manufacturing process

SAArshad 5 years ago

very useful information provided for knowledge seekers.

You seems to be an expert in garment manufacturing.

Please write some thing to avoid defects in garments to zero level for specially fashion garments but earlier will be the your kindness.How you like the target idea????

masudur rahman 5 years ago

well.....for garment technology.

bitania desta 5 years ago

interesting for garment engineers

sk farid ahmed 5 years ago

All information is fine but I need more information about estimate of manufacture. Thanks.

Syed Arif Hussain 5 years ago

its very informative....highly appreciable ....keep it up

Kumar 5 years ago

Good piece of information, hope to see more from you, keep it up

joni 5 years ago

Its very helpfully information,well done

Badamasi Saleh Alhassan 5 years ago

excellent services keep it up

Hadiul 5 years ago

Very informative site.

piseth 5 years ago

sir/madarm i want to know how to check Zone ex.Zone A which point Zone B which point C which , pls show the picture so

Hafiza Arooj 5 years ago

Asslam-o-Alaikum everyone.I am Hafiza Arooj from Pakistan.I,am a very good tailoress and Alhamdulilah many ladies from different countries send their clothes for sewing at very low rate.If any one wants to get stitched the female clothes.My services are always for them.My contact number is 0333-6273729.

Ajai mohideen 4 years ago

thats too informative...........

nerob 4 years ago

itz so helpfull...........

m.sulaimanset 4 years ago

dear sir,

i am working as a qam in garmant company i want reduce defects % now v getting 15%defects in i reduce it by 2%. what process ineed to follow.

stan 4 years ago

Do you have any idea about the production time?

Shahid Ashraf 4 years ago

Contact me for new world of textiles

Textile designer ripul sharma 4 years ago

Nice i like

abida 4 years ago

informative for every upcoming buddies.....thank you

palash (merchandiser) 4 years ago i need garments

waqas ali 4 years ago

plz give some topics for project in garments manufacturing b?c i have to done a project.i am a seventh semester student and my technology is garments manufacturing.


zaheer ahmad 4 years ago

as salamualykum to all,i m gradute from a textile university nd have degree in apparel manufacturing and merchandising.i have just started a work in developing my own business wd my frnd, we need a designer which can make designs of gents and ladies too.if any one intrested plz contact me on my no. 03123081668 email

bhupendra dansena 4 years ago

nice but i cant find about productional technology

sara 4 years ago

Fashion under Suitable Prices is not difficult because Stylish appearance is an essential part of human life.

rinko ado 4 years ago


Dhananjay yadav 4 years ago

Nice Concept Given .............

T/MARIAM 4 years ago


avneet 4 years ago

jst got exactly what i wanted....this is amazing...very nicely explained

Badamasi saleh alhassan 4 years ago

Excellent works and research

shgshir 4 years ago

onak valo akta jinish

NAGA 4 years ago

Dear Sir,

I'm Naga Just wish to extand that the information that you have up loaded is going to be usefull to me in my project paper. I hope you would allow us to use this information to explain the process flow of a garment manufacturing...Naga

shaukat ali buitems quetta pakistan 4 years ago

thnx for your efforts and plz upload some information about garments in pakistan.

Cecilia Annan 4 years ago

Am Cecilia from Ghana.

I am a fashion designer who takes contracts from other institutes such as school and other organizations. But I find it difficult to get the work done inresed in a computerized automatic cutting and sewing which can help me work faster. I would want to know if there is such or similar to this

(" Computerized Automatic Cutting & Sewing Machine" For Fabric or Clothing's. )

Kindly a let me.please add a photo or a site of the machine for me to see the product.

Thank you.

profile image

Cecilia Annan 4 years ago

my email is Skype name is Cecilia 2095 phone-233-0243165131-0208885227 please contact me on this line

JJ 4 years ago

So how do the manufacturers like to receive the designs... online or on paper? 4 years ago

thanks, i would like to know more about the method of pattern making with windows!


Cecilia Annan 4 years ago

am interested on this machine how can i get it? you are fantastic.

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Cecilia Annan 4 years ago

please am very happy to Tex you again,am interested in your machines

rosie ahmad 4 years ago

Please help me where to reach and how to get my 1st order of stitching clothing for my new factory I just open my sewing co, I have 10 machines and 8 employes . Your help will be a big start, I am trying to calling different factories but they don't send it out. Thanks

I am Rosie, cell609 417 7313, please Tex me.

warasul 4 years ago

hi.i am leon.i am Bangladeshi.

i am a fashion design & B.s.c Textile Eng.

i want a garments because this sector is good benefit in our country.

i know how to a start a garments and garments costing.

plese help me my . phone no- +88 01816268789.thank u.

Hyacinth Pestaina 4 years ago

Thank you so much for this article.

A uniform design & manufacturer is looking for good quality suiting fabric which is suitable for the Caribbean climate, this suiting fabric should be machine washable, crease resistant and stain resistant. Also the fabric should be made to ensure a high resistance to wear and general scuffing. Please send reply to



Futamarka 3 years ago

Они любят поспорить чья команда лучше и каждый раз дело доходит до того что они выбирают не традиционные способы доказать это. Макияж. И одно правило: кто первым заржат тот и выиграл. Мечтая быть ближе к футболистам эти девчонки способны пойти на многое. Мы даже не говорим что все их комнаты завешаны плакатами и атрибутикой любимой команды.

Futamarka 3 years ago

Система домашнего отбеливания зубов. В домашних системах отбеливания применяются окисляющие вещества, такие как перекись водорода или перекиси карбамида, использующиеся для осветления эмали зуба. Окислитель проникает в поры кристаллической структуры эмали зуба и в течение определенного времени окисляет слой дентина, лежащий под эмалью, осветляя его. Для ускорения процесса отбеливания в стоматологи используют энергию света. Эффект отбеливания может держаться несколько месяцев, но может меняться в зависимости от образа жизни пациента. Эффект отбеливания может снизиться из-за курения и потребления жидкостей темного цвета, таких как кофе, чай и красное вино.

mahmoud 3 years ago

thank you for ur great work

i am from egypt have garments trade

Chiriushnum 3 years ago

We helpful to acquire at the top of living nevertheless of late I've developed an amount of resistance.

nisha 3 years ago

thank u

for helping me

Mylindaminka 3 years ago

Свет - этот термин употребляется применительно к освещённым местам изобразительного предмета. Самые светлые участки на лице - лобные бугры, скулы, спинка носа и подбородок.

Hamid Ali 3 years ago

A very comprehensive approach by you Miss Gulnaz...

Can you send me a copy please.... I'm a Student of Textile Engineering.

kriti 3 years ago

omg!!!!! your website was sooooooo helpful!!! tks sooo much for all the info!

kriti 3 years ago

omg!!!!! your website was sooooooo helpful!!! tks sooo much for all the info!

beam2x 3 years ago

is the garments factory have a revising section?

i need in my report...


Nice article. It helps me a Lot

PAMELA 2 years ago


suresh 2 years ago

i am intresting in new technology &new advanced garment making machineres

karuppusamy saran 2 years ago

Hai its very useful informative for all the beginners.

Thanks U.

kamlesh 2 years ago

I Start shirts & pants sewing manufacturers factory .

why start process


girija k. 2 years ago

Good information.

Thanks a lot

Prince 2 years ago

Its always nice when you read smthoeing that is not only informative but entertaining. I will bookmark Civil Procedure Blog (Vairo). I have been seeking for information about this subject matter for years and yours is the best I have located. I really enjoyed your blog post.

Deborah 24 months ago

Well done job. I like to know more about the CAD/CAM methods. Thank you.

Noorul Huda 24 months ago

Well done, much use full for garment industry. Where I can get handbook please advise.

suvrath 22 months ago

Thanx gulnaz its very useful and worth information keep updating

akshaya 21 months ago

can anyone tell me how the recruitment and selection process of tailors happen ?

senthil 18 months ago

thanks for guidnes using all garment industry

Hana 18 months ago

Very interesting

Thevini 18 months ago

Good information.thanx

santosh bhosale 15 months ago

hi i am start sewing garment business plz help me how to start this business

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Proto-Tom 15 months ago from Spokane, Washington

Great hub! Is it working for you? Did it rank well? I hope so because I enjoyed it.

Tewolde Mulu 15 months ago

thanks so much, but i need much more

rr 12 months ago

What is opening

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hubber8893 11 months ago

The explanation of the subject matter that is garment manufacturing, is deliberately well except at some rare chances the author lost sequence. Overall the representation is worth reading and I found it quite easy to decipher the process of garment manufacturing through this robust piece of work. Thanks to the author!

Rosalyn Jackson 6 months ago

This Website is very useful and very informative thanks

Musarrat Hussain 2 months ago

need soft copy of this book. kindly send me on the following email adress .

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