From Cave Painting to Satellite-From Long Term to Instant Telecommunication: Viewing The Inter Gallactic Superstructures

The Blood Red Moon On September 27 2015, sunday Night...

Not to scale, but a sweet portrait of our galactic neighborhood.
Not to scale, but a sweet portrait of our galactic neighborhood.

Realistic World Map

Drawing of the Lascaux cave painting over a map of the Earth, using the constellation Vulpecula and Hercules to scale and aid alignment. Star positions shown here are current modern star positions. Earth Map created using multiple high resolution Map
Drawing of the Lascaux cave painting over a map of the Earth, using the constellation Vulpecula and Hercules to scale and aid alignment. Star positions shown here are current modern star positions. Earth Map created using multiple high resolution Map
Cave paintings can also give valuable clues as to the culture and beliefs of that era.
Cave paintings can also give valuable clues as to the culture and beliefs of that era.
Some of the painting have bizarre depictions of what appear to be spacemen wearing suits, visors, and helmets. resembling modern day astronauts. This takes us to the west African tribe - the Dogon whose legends say they were guided to the area from a
Some of the painting have bizarre depictions of what appear to be spacemen wearing suits, visors, and helmets. resembling modern day astronauts. This takes us to the west African tribe - the Dogon whose legends say they were guided to the area from a
Until recently, most scientists assumed these prehistoric Cave paintings were male. .By measuring and analyzing the Pech Merle hand stencils, Snow found that many were indeed female--including those pictured here.
Until recently, most scientists assumed these prehistoric Cave paintings were male. .By measuring and analyzing the Pech Merle hand stencils, Snow found that many were indeed female--including those pictured here.
Pre-pastoral rock art throughout the ages
Pre-pastoral rock art throughout the ages
San rock art is distributed from Angola in the west to Mozambique and Kenya in the east, throughout Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa - wherever cave conditions have favoured preservation from the elements. There is a stylistic unity across the reg
San rock art is distributed from Angola in the west to Mozambique and Kenya in the east, throughout Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa - wherever cave conditions have favoured preservation from the elements. There is a stylistic unity across the reg
Contrary to other first arts of Africa, southern African rock art is not easily slotted into distinct regions. Successive generation of artists depicted similar themes and drew on a shared array of painting and engraving techniques.
Contrary to other first arts of Africa, southern African rock art is not easily slotted into distinct regions. Successive generation of artists depicted similar themes and drew on a shared array of painting and engraving techniques.
Between 20000 to 30000 years ago, people started leaving more obvious signs of their presence. Detailed cave paintings (so-called Bushman paintings) are found depicting hunting, domestic and ceremonial activates.
Between 20000 to 30000 years ago, people started leaving more obvious signs of their presence. Detailed cave paintings (so-called Bushman paintings) are found depicting hunting, domestic and ceremonial activates.
The gradual representational shifts that occur across a wide landscape, do not tie in with our knowledge of San linguistic boundaries, which were often absolute. What we do find is that the recurring pictorial themes echo what is known of San cogniti
The gradual representational shifts that occur across a wide landscape, do not tie in with our knowledge of San linguistic boundaries, which were often absolute. What we do find is that the recurring pictorial themes echo what is known of San cogniti
20,000 Year Old Cave Paintings: Mammoth in France
20,000 Year Old Cave Paintings: Mammoth in France
The Cave paintings at Lascaux, South Western France in the Old Stone Age
The Cave paintings at Lascaux, South Western France in the Old Stone Age
Sahara Desert's Magnificent Cave Paintings, and the oldest of these are more than a 100 centuries old
Sahara Desert's Magnificent Cave Paintings, and the oldest of these are more than a 100 centuries old
Santa Cruz-CuevaManos, ArgentiaThese were painted between 9-13,000 years ago
Santa Cruz-CuevaManos, ArgentiaThese were painted between 9-13,000 years ago
Paintings in Africa
Paintings in Africa
TEST(Thunderstorm Effects in Space; Technology  Nanosatellite)
TEST(Thunderstorm Effects in Space; Technology Nanosatellite)
Sputnik ! satellite launched by the Russians in 1957
Sputnik ! satellite launched by the Russians in 1957
Communications Satellite
Communications Satellite
Sketch of the Iridium satellite design
Sketch of the Iridium satellite design
Advanced Extremely High Frequency(AEHF) Milstar III satellite,
Advanced Extremely High Frequency(AEHF) Milstar III satellite,
Satellite Internet
Satellite Internet
GeoEye-1 surveillance satellite
GeoEye-1 surveillance satellite
Satellite Launch of the Delta IV Rocket carrying GOES-O satellite
Satellite Launch of the Delta IV Rocket carrying GOES-O satellite
Hubble Space Telescope might soon be reitred
Hubble Space Telescope might soon be reitred
Kepler's Space Telescope will replace Hubble Space telescope
Kepler's Space Telescope will replace Hubble Space telescope
Two more climate change satellites are due to be launched in 2012 and 2013. All seven satellites should be able to give scientists a much better grasp of the realities of climate change along with how much of that change is manmade
Two more climate change satellites are due to be launched in 2012 and 2013. All seven satellites should be able to give scientists a much better grasp of the realities of climate change along with how much of that change is manmade
Japan has launched a next-genertion spy satellite as part of efforts to beef up its surveillance against the threat of North Korea's missiles
Japan has launched a next-genertion spy satellite as part of efforts to beef up its surveillance against the threat of North Korea's missiles
The new GPS IIR carries a beefed-up antenna panel, providing a stronger ssignal to ground users, as well as three entirely new signals. This new satellite will be useful to the army, aricraft and ships from being jammed; also useful for civilians
The new GPS IIR carries a beefed-up antenna panel, providing a stronger ssignal to ground users, as well as three entirely new signals. This new satellite will be useful to the army, aricraft and ships from being jammed; also useful for civilians
This is the Chandra X-ray observatory wich has for the first time ever imaged the flow into the Black Hole. It is also capable of making observations with X-rays, something not possible with the Earth's X-ray absorbing atmosphere
This is the Chandra X-ray observatory wich has for the first time ever imaged the flow into the Black Hole. It is also capable of making observations with X-rays, something not possible with the Earth's X-ray absorbing atmosphere
Crashed Satellite and Space Debris Swirling the earth
Crashed Satellite and Space Debris Swirling the earth
Zone Of Mutual Visibility and the Path of the Satellite Schema
Zone Of Mutual Visibility and the Path of the Satellite Schema
Hurst Satellite Up Link Trucks
Hurst Satellite Up Link Trucks
GPS Satellite; Nationwide Differential Global PositioningSystem
GPS Satellite; Nationwide Differential Global PositioningSystem
The Space Elevator and Solar Power Satllites(SPS) promises unlimited, clean energy from the sun beamed to earth-based antennas and channelled into earth's power grids. Still not cheap to launch into space
The Space Elevator and Solar Power Satllites(SPS) promises unlimited, clean energy from the sun beamed to earth-based antennas and channelled into earth's power grids. Still not cheap to launch into space
Harvesting solar energy can be captured by bringing Solar Power Satellite(SPS),  could be orbiting the earth in ten years, if they could be brought in orbit over the Equator
Harvesting solar energy can be captured by bringing Solar Power Satellite(SPS), could be orbiting the earth in ten years, if they could be brought in orbit over the Equator
artist's impression of a Defense Satellite Communications System LHase III. the satellites have a degree of nuclear hardening, enabling them to operate in the intense electromagntic field generated by nuclea weapon blasts. Were launched in 1985 and
artist's impression of a Defense Satellite Communications System LHase III. the satellites have a degree of nuclear hardening, enabling them to operate in the intense electromagntic field generated by nuclea weapon blasts. Were launched in 1985 and
From Cave Painting to Satellite, man's quest for self-preservation and self-extension into universe is still an ongoing preoccupation, to date
From Cave Painting to Satellite, man's quest for self-preservation and self-extension into universe is still an ongoing preoccupation, to date
This image released on Thursday March 21, 2013 by the European Space Agency shows the most detailed map ever created of the cosmic microwave background acquired by ESA's Planck space telescope.
This image released on Thursday March 21, 2013 by the European Space Agency shows the most detailed map ever created of the cosmic microwave background acquired by ESA's Planck space telescope.
Planck satellite and telescope-It has been designed to be robust enough to withstand the 'shake-and-bake' stresses of launch, and the temperature difference between launch, when it is at an ambient temperature of about 300 K, and operation, at about
Planck satellite and telescope-It has been designed to be robust enough to withstand the 'shake-and-bake' stresses of launch, and the temperature difference between launch, when it is at an ambient temperature of about 300 K, and operation, at about

Communication Is Necessary For The Survival Of The Human Race; Love It Or Hate It, Communication Technology Is Here To Stay And Will Only Continue To Expand In


The History Of Communication From Cave Drawings To The Web

Communications in the Inner Sanctum of the Earth

All animal species have perfected a system of communication, but humans are the only species capable of spoken language[as we human communicate/talk with each other]. Effective communication is essential for a variety of reasons. It serves to inform, motivate, establish authority and control, and allows for emotive expression. Fro humans in particular, communication is also vital for creating a sense of social cohesion. Just as mankind had evolved over the centuries, our means of communication have followed suit. What began as primitive cave paintings and signed language has morphed into an endless variety of ways to express oneself to other humans.

Communication has existed in various forms since man appeared on Earth. The methods, however, consisted of a disorganized set of signs that could have different meanings to each human using… It wasn't until three millions years after man's debut, around the year 30,000 BC that communication began to take on an intentional, manufactured format. The most well-known form of primitive communication is cave paintings.

The artistic endeavors were created by a species of man that appeared around 10,000(although this is disputable because I will soon have a Hub published which goes back to 170,000 BC, of civilizations that existed along with their architectural picture of the remains of that civilization spread-out throughout South Africa), the homo sapiens. The methods involved creating pigments made from juice of fruits and berries, colored minerals, or animal blood.

These pigments were then used to create depictions of primitive life on the cave walls. The purpose of the paintings has been questioned by scholars for years, but the most popular theory states that the depictions were used as a manual for instructing other what animals were safe to eat.

Other forms of early communication existed, although they were less popular for a variety of reasons. Story telling was used to pass on important information in the days before the existence of the written word. However, since man still lived in separate groups(clans), the information could not be applied outside one's own clan or community. Drums and smoke signals were also used by early man, but were not the most practical means of communication[but were very effective,indeed].

Both methods could attract unwanted attention from the enemies of the clan and predatory animals. These methods were also difficult to standardize.I would be amiss if I do not touch up on the various modes of communication systems that are now in use. It is important at this juncture to brush-up on a few of these in order to fill in the time-line gaps that will be apparent in this Hub were I to overlook them.

Telecommunication Systems: A Historical Background

Early Handwritten Documents/Books:-

Those with proper education to do so were handwriting books and documents for well over 1,000 years before the invention of the printing press. The word "manuscript" is derived from the latin term "libri manu scripti" which translates to "book written by hand". Most handwritten manuscripts were written on vellum paper was not widely available. The majority of books and documents written were of a religious nature.

This was due to the fact that writing a religious piece was viewed as a form of worship, and also that most books were written by monks in monasteries. Literacy rates were incredibly low during the time of handwritten book, and few citizens had time for pleasure writing. Only the monks and the very wealthy were given the opportunity to become literate. Two important periods stand out when one is investigating early books.

The time between the 7th and 13th centuries were considered the age of the religious manuscript. The 13 century, however, brought about exciting change in the realm of the written word. for the first time, secular books were produced for the sake of spreading knowledge relating to religion(But if the reader were to read my Hub titled "The History And Age Of The Moors in Spain: How The Moors Civilized Europe - The History of Africa", one would get a sense as to how the written way was advanced by the Moors and had fantastic libraries to back up my claim that they are the ones who were better equipped to spread knowledge regarding all contemporary fields of study).

The Age of Telecommunications

Telecommunications is the word we use for human communications, science and Technology of sending messages, using language, images, technology and electricity. These include human natural fauna and flora , language, human and animal behavior, cave painting,photo graphs morse code, telegraph, telephone, radio, television, Computer with the Internet, and satellites . In today's world of telecommunications, these instruments change information into signals that are sent over long distances, through wires, optical fibers, or by Radio Waves or satellite.

The information can be transmitted either through the drums,voices, music, instruments, pictures, words or computer data which has an immediate transmission effect and arrive instantly. Some anthropologists postulate that humans were able to speak about 40,000 years ago. The communicated through grunts, gesturing, imitating sounds from nature and possessed a rudimentary language system.

Early humans were practicing the earliest forms of tele-communicating by drawing pictures of themselves, nature and their spiritual lives. They also painted foreigners and events that affected their lives as a result of this intrusion. And as early writing developed, thousands of years after languages were developed, people throughout the world used all forms of communications methods to document their histories, pass on news and information to one another people living in Africa and the Ancient East started using symbols or pictographs and later developed the alphabet.

Hundreds of years ago, people used doves, horseback, runners or walking on foot to receive their messages. It is also equally important to take note that today we like to say that, 'A picture is worth many words', so do the paintings in the caves, they transmit different messages according to what we will read what they meant. The whole human telecommunication effort was to preserve a record and history of human beings in the days when there was no modern conveniences and efficiencies.

The Ecological Environment of Telecommunications Communications


We can look for example at various modes of human means and ways of communications briefly, here. We should also bear in mind that the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication began thousands of years ago with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, America and parts of Asia. Whenever we consider distance communications, in the mode of visual, auditory and ancillary methods, in this case we start during the prehistoric times, where we know that Fires, Beacons, smoke signals, communication drums and horns we utilized.

Around the 6 century BC, we see mail being a newly developed way of communication in use. From the 5th Century AD to 1877, the means of communications and telecommunication saw the introduction and use of Pigeon posts(5th century B.C), Hydraulic Semaphores(4th century BC); Heliographs(Shield signals) (490 BC): Maritime flag semaphores(15th century AD); the first experimental acoustic (Mechanical phone(1672 AD); Signal Lamps((1867); Acoustic phonograph

The ways and means of communication and telecommunication that were Basic electrical signals: Electrical telegraph (1838); First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable (1858); Telephone(1876); Telephony via Light beam Photo phones(1880).

With the advent of the developed ways of communications that were using basic electricity, we see the emergence and the proliferation of Advanced electrical and electronic signals like Wireless Telegraphy((1893); Radio(1896); First North American Transcontinental telephone calling (1914); Television(1927); First Commercial radio-telephone service, U.S.-Japan(1934); World's First experimental videophone network(1936); Limited capacity Mobile Telephone Service for automobiles((1946); Transatlantic telephone cable((1956); Commercial Telecommunications Satellite(1962); Fiber Optical telecommunications(1964); First North American Public Videophone Network((1965); Computer Networking(1969); The First Modern-Era Mobile (Cellular) Phone(1973); INMARSAT Ship-to-Shore Satellite Communications(1979); First Mobile (Cellular) phone Network(1981); SMTP E-mail((1982); Internet(1983); Mobile Satellite Hand-Held Phones(1998); and, finally, to date, Skype Internet Telephony(2003).

This is a brief historical review of the history of communication. This Hub is more concerned with the History of human Communications, as I have briefly covered the historical timeline, all the way to the Satellite, and will narrowly deal with the history of Cave paintings in-depth, and that of the Satellite, as much as possible, below.

Cave Paintings

The first cave painting picture in this article is said to have been 40,000 years old and is seen on a white silica sandstone rock shelter which shows that humans existed in this area of Banda district about 800 Kilometers(500 miles) southeast of New Delhi, India. This cave painting shows hunting by cave men in the paleolithic age.

A Paleolithic Embellished Cave found in France(Ardeche) was made public by the French Minister of Culture and French Speaking Language, Mr. Jacques Toubon. These paintings were discovered in December 1994 at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc (Ardeche, France), the cave, composed of several spacious galleries and dens, is adorned with some 300 paleolithic paintings and engravings(dating 18,000 - 20,000 BC) which focus on a wide variety of animals including beats, owls, mammoths, rhinos, hyenas and felines. The cave has also retained several vestiges of human activities; fireplaces[hearths], flints and other clues which denote an evolution in tools and habits. Totally left intact and untouched by any human intrusion throughout the ages, the cave represents an exceptional source of studies for archeologists.

There are some rock paintings found in the cave of Cueva de las Mondea which imply that they were done in the last ice age, estimated to be about 32,000. One of these paintings were drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal Painting on them was large wild animals such as bison, horses, aurochs deers and , human hands as well as tracing of Human Hands.

In the Ukhahlamba-Drakensburg Mountains Old paintings by the indigenous who settled there 8,000 years ago represent, some postulate, to represent religious beliefs. Some other Cave paintings can be found in Creswell Crags, Nottinghanshire, England. Other cave paintings can be found in Australia and others in Africa, in the Tassel n'ajjer mountains in Southeast Algeria, and also in Mesak Settafet and Tdrart in Libya and other regions of the Sahara: including Ayr mountains, Niger and Tibesti, Chad.

Telecommunications Technology in Outer Space

The Russians launched the Sputnik 1 Satellite in 1957. It was a metal sphere with a diameter of 58 cm, weighed 83.6 Kg and 4 protruding antenna. It was the beginning of the space age. The launching of space-borne Satellites began in earnest

The Associated Press reports that two big communications satellites collided in the first-ever crash of two intact spacecraft in orbit, shooting out a pair of massive Debris Cloud and posing a slight risk to the international Space Station. This accident occurred nearly 500 miles over Siberia in February 2008. NASA believes that the Space Station orbits 270 miles below the swirling collision debris." According to AP, the collision involved an Iridium commercial satellite, which was launched in 1997, and a Russian satellite launched in 1993 and believed to be non-functioning. The Russian satellite was out of control.

The Iridium craft weighed 1,235 pounds and the Russian crafted nearly a ton. At the beginning of the 2008 year, there were roughly 17,000 piece of man-made debris orbiting the earth. These items are at least 4 inches in size. The associated Press further informs us that: "Iridium Holdings LLC has a system of 65 active satellites which relay calls from portable phones that are about twice the size of a regular mobile phone.

It has more than 300,000 subscribers. The US Department of Defense is one of its largest customers. Iridium was initially launched by Motorola in the 1990s, and Iridium plunged into bankruptcy in 1999. Some Private investors relaunched. The orbit of the Iridium is very low and they move very fast. Most communication satellites are in much higher orbits and don't move relative to each other, meaning that collisions are rare.

The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellites, according to the DefenceTech.org: "will support twice as many tactical networks, while providing 10-12 times higher data rate transfer than that of the current Milstar II satellites. They will perform the secure backbone of the Pentagon's intermediate term Military Satellite Communications(MILSATCOM) architecture, until the larger capacity Transformational Communications Satellite System or its equivalent enters service."

The GOES-O satellite is going to be launched for a position of 22,300 miles above the earth where it will keep a permanent eye on the atmospheric conditions in the Eastern United States and Atlantic Ocean. According tow the Website, Space-NASA Information" "GOES-O is the latest weather satellite developed by NASA to aid the nation's meteorologists and climate scientists. The acronym stands for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The spacecraft in the series provide the familiar weather pictures seen on United States newscasts everyday. The satellites are equipped with a formidable array of sensors and instruments. GOES provides nearly continuous imaging and sounding, which allows forecasters to better measure changes in atmospheric temperature and moisture distributions, hence increasing the accuracy of their forecasts. GOES environmental information is used for a host of applications, including weather monitoring and prediction models.

When the information need motivated early man to leave a historical record for us in the caves and for later generations after we are gone, that gave rise to a need for us, modern man, to try and reach out for space, by using space for our information transmission and monitoring, and exploration. We drew picture of our surroundings in the caves, we drew animals, of all sorts and those we did not know resided in those parts of the world.

Early man recorded important events that affected and effected their routine, or drew about the practices of their customs in those time, themselves and their children, whenever they went hunting and if they encountered foreigners. They recorded this deep in darkened caves, high on the ceilings of the caves or in hidden or open caves; hey used red and yellow ochres, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal to permanently record all these events which we appreciate because they were hidden in caves, and we get a glimpse of life and culture they drew.

The View from Above Space and from Underneath Earth

Over the millennium,communications has progressed very slowly and this has given rise to other technologies like radio with its radio waves, and the computer, with its wiring and the web. If we were running away from global change, wild animals, or human enemies, famine, we dug deeper into caves we found ready made, we brought our experiences and recorded them. We understood that the images we made were a record by virtue of what was draw and where it was kept from prying eyes and other problems.

Elongating and stretching our minds life, culture, customs, history or our environment and its animals, flora and fauna, we had a perceptive insight into keeping records. We eventually went into writing by inventing the alphabet, then we came around to the printing press, typewriter, radio, tape recorder, vinyl, tapes, stereo, TV, VCR, same-time camera,Movie Projectors, video cameras, i-Pods, I-Phones, The Web and Satellites. We have evolved in every aspect of our lives and are headed into the unknown.

How the Satellite Works

Satellites speed-up information and learning. We have created many of these transmitters and thrown them all over space, and now we have used another unforeseen problem: Space debris swirling around the earth at speeds ten time the bullet. Chris Sherwood wrote a piece on "How the Satellite Internet Work? Saying: Satellite Internet, as the name suggests, is the use of satellite technology to gain Internet Access. Satellite Internet equipment consists of the Satellite, Modem and Coaxial cable that run for the satellite to the modem. The Internet Signal begins at the hub of your internet provider.

This signal is sent into the sky using a large satellite dish and relayed off of a satellite dish orbiting earth. The orbiting satellite then relays the Internet signal to your personal Satellite Dish. Connected to the satellite dish are the coaxial cables. These cables run the internet signal to you router and then to your computer. Satellite Internet connects ten time fast than that of dial-up. We have, as noted above, had a massive collision of a Russian satellite and an American satellite that our space, according to NASA has clouds of debris hovering around the earth from these spacecrafts.

Then there is this satellite called TEST satellite. TEST stands for Thunderstorm Effects in Space Technology. Test was a Nanosatellite based on cube construction. The SPAce DUStA(SPADUS) experiment addresses the need to provide important information on the orbital characteristics and possible sources of near-Earth cosmic dust and the mass distribution of meteor-stream particles which may be encountered. The present-day lack of quantitative measurement of the flux ,velocity / trajectory, and time characteristics of small debris particles continues to hamper the development of reliable evolutionary modeling of orbital debris, and need for this data is important in this field."(Taylor).

In the case some caves have been contaminated by debris, moisture and the air conditioners used to cool the caves up and provide light. Some are falling off form their original spaces where they were painted. When we interact with nature and utilize the help of any technology we pollute and destroy the earth, inside and outside and above in space. There are goad ends and disastrous endless problems accruing in space as much as we are developing speed, efficiency and interconnectivity.

Technology helps and at the same time distracts for our goals and ambitions. When the old world meets with the contemporary world, we see disintegration and efforts to erase what we destroy working itself as one in the issues above. We have the technology, and whenever we use it, we create solutions and problems, and it is that balance we need to have in order to apply the new and old means of communication, acquiring knowledge, preserving data for the benefit of humanity.

Our dependence on Technology and technique has pushed us to the brink of many catastrophes which we are still mulling over. Viewing human development from the Cave-painting to satellite perspective is that, with the newer technology, we are still beaming images and transmitting and transforming messages and meanings.

While we are developing and honing our telecommunications skills, we are destroying our very existence and space we live in. We are somewhat slow in processing what our technologies have afforded us, and how these new ways of seeing, leaning, talking and communicating, are affecting and effecting the very ideals we are trying to uphold. It is very easy to bash progress and difficult to glean meaning from its operations, existence and permanence. Whenever there is change, there is fear of the new and unknown.

At this juncture, we are playing catch-up with the cyber data, memes, viral speed, new gadgets, unknown techniques and what lies ahead on the other side of the 'after effects' of technology and technique leading the way and our determining our lives. Fear is no more an option in our times, but we should be wrapping our minds onto and have an understanding the new technologies and their technique and gadgets, and also have the clarity and fortitude to look at these for what they are: machines which direct our existence lives and thinking Processes.

The view from above through the satellites seems to give us an impression that we are thrashing our thin space with garbage of all sorts circling our planet at incredible speeds. We have not yet figured out what to do with this gigantic debris. some aver that it will spin out of earths orbit and burn itself in the dark abyss we see as space

Instant Media Consciousness

There were many reasons why we lived in caves, and there are still more reason why we use technology and machines of communications the way we do. Some Astronomer say we are perched in one of the tails of the Milky Way without yet having been able to see the core of our universe. We still refuse to acknowledge the truth that, thus far, we have been unable to locate any neighbors.

There is speculation about there being water and life in the Moon and Mars, and other outlying distant planets. We have not yet figured how we are supposed to live with each other and for each other. We still have yet to experience a unified planet working in tandem to achieve much more loftier goals as the human race. We are now hooked into a culture that has conditioned us to live our lives based on Instant Gratification.

Immediacy and rapid satisfaction is a culture that we imbibe from the telecommunications systems and their machines embedded within a very sophisticated technology and rapidly evolving technique which drives our very needs, responses, ideas, philosophies, language and thoughts and aspirations.

These technologies come equipped with programs that we need to know in order to fulfill our insatiable need for immediacy and instant gratification. Our consciousness has been fine-tuned by newspaper, radio, television and now by the net, in a very light-speed-like way. If we understand the effects and affects of these technology, we stand a better chance to control them.

Through the existence of the high resolution satellite imagery, human rights advocates can now document abuses everywhere in the world — even in countries that are sealed off from on-the-ground researchers; for example, Darfur in Sudan, has been able to acquire commercially available high resolution satellite images obtained in GeoTIFF format and imported into ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS for viewing and analysis(Amnesty International).

Mass Communication with information communicated and transmitted by today's mediums and systems, shapes and directs society's expectations and behaviors. Repeated exposure and repetition of messages and memes dislodge our independent thinking processes, and we become dependent on structured methods that work on our values, attitudes, emotions and behavior and the effects of mass telecommunication and mass communications can be pre-determined and be put to use.

From the cave paintings to sophisticated satellites sent into the sky through the shuttle, we have come a long way indeed. The more we learn and involve ourselves fully into the new and emerging and interconnecting technologies, we need to remember that all these things have to be done for the human good.

From Satellite to The Birth Of New Technologies

The Role and Advantages of Satellite Communications:

The context of a worldwide military communications network, satellite communication systems are very important. Satellite communications links add capacity to existing communications capabilities and provide additional alternate routings for communications traffic. Satellite links, as one of several kinds of long-distance links, interconnect switching centers located strategically around the world. They are part of the defense communication systems (DCS) network. One important aspect of the satellite methods of communication inoperable. Because of this, satellites make a significant contribution to improved reliability of Navy Communications.

Satellite communications have unique advantages over conventional long distance transmission. Satellite links are unaffected by the propagation variations that interfere with 'hf' (High Frequency) radio, They are also free from high attenuation of wire or cable facilities and are capable of spanning long distances. The numerous repeater stations required for line-of-sight or Troposcatter links are no longer needed. They furnish the reliability and flexibility of service that it needed to support s military operation.

Capacity, Reliability, Vulnerability And flexibility

The present military communications satellite system is capable of communications between backpack, airborne, and shipboard terminals. The system is capable of handling thousands of communications channels.

Communications satellite frequencies are not dependent upon reflection or refraction and are affected only slightly by atmospheric phenomena. The reliability of satellite communications systems is limited only by the equipment reliability and the skill of operating and maintenance personnel.

Destruction of an orbiting vehicle by an enemy is possible. However, destruction of a single communications satellite would be quite difficult and expensive. The cost would be excessive compared to the tactical advantage gained. It would be particularly difficult to destroy an entire multiple-satellite system such as the twenty-six random-orbit satellite system currently in use. the earth terminals offer a more attractive target for physical destruction. this can be protected by the same measures that are taken to protect other vital installation

Most operational military satellite earth terminals are housed in transportable vans. These can be loaded into cargo planes and flown to remote areas. With trained crews these terminals can be put into operation in a matter of hours. Worldwide communications can be established quickly to remote areas nearly anywhere in the World

Satellite Limitations

Power, Receiver Sensitivity And Availability

Limitations of a satellite communications system are determined by the technical characteristics of the satellite and its orbital parameters. Active communications satellite systems are limited by two things: Satellite transmitter power on the down links and receiver sensitivity on the up links. Some early communications satellites have been limited by low-gain antennas.

The amount of power available in an active satellite is limited by the weight restrictions imposed on the satellite. Early communications satellites were limited to a few hundred pounds because of launch vehicle payload restraints The only feasible power source is the inefficient solar cell. (Total power generation in the earlier satellites was less than 50 watts.)

As you can see,the 'rf' power output was severely limited; therefore, a relatively weak signal is transmitted by the satellite on the down link. The weak transmitted signal is often reduced by propagation losses. This results in a very weak signal being available at the earth terminals. The level of signals received from a satellite is comparable to the combination of external atmospheric noise and internal noise of standard receivers. Special techniques must be used to extract the desired information from the received signal.

Large, high-gain antennas and special types of preamplifiers solve this problem but add complexity and size to the earth terminal. (The smallest terminal in the defense communication systems network has effectively an 18-foot antenna and weighs 19,500 pounds.) Development of more efficient power sources and relaxation of weight restrictions have permitted improved satellite performance and increased capacity.

Powerful transmitters with highly directional antennas are used at earth stations. Even with these large transmitters, a lot of signal loss occurs at the satellite. The satellite antenna receives only a small amount of the transmitted signal power. A relatively weak signal is received at the satellite receiver.

This presents a little problem as the strength of the signal received on the up link is not as critical as that received on the downlink. The down-link signal on the up link is not as critical as that received on the down link. The down-link signal is critical because the signal transmitted from the satellite is very low in power. Development of high-gain antennas and highly sensitive receivers have helped solve the down-link problem.

The availability of a satellite to act as a relay station between two earth terminals depends on the locations of the earth terminals and the orbit of the satellite. All satellites, except those in a synchronous orbit, will be in view of any given pair of earth stations only part of the tie. The length of time that a non-synchronous satellite in a circular orbit will be in the AONE OF MUTUAL VISIBILITY (the satellite can be seen from both terminals) depends upon the height at which the satellite is circling. Elliptical orbits cause the satellite zone of mutual visibility between any two earth terminals to vary from orbit to orbit. These times of mutual visibility are predictable.

Future of Satellite Communication


Satellite communications are becoming well established in the Navy. In October 1983 the Department of the Navy established the Navy Space Command, which assumed operational responsibility for Navy space systems plus coordinating responsibility with other operational activities. Most ships have satellite communications capabilities New systems have been installed on ships and are fully compatible with other electronic systems and equipment. Communications via satellite has increased existing Navy communications capabilities for the command and control of naval forces. However,it is a major step in modernizing Navy Communications. It has relieved the Navy of its total dependence on 'hf' radio transmission and reduced the need for many 'hf' ground stations overseas.

A recent step in the advancement of satellite communications was the start of the DSCS Phase III. The first Phase III satellite was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the summer of 1984. Seven satellites will be placed in space during this phase(see Picture in Photo Gallery termed "Zone Of Mutual visibility). Phase III will develop the use of 40-watt, solid-state amplifiers to replace the currently used traveling-wave tube (twt). It will also be used to develop new type of filters.These filters will provide increased channel bandwidth, which will provide additional communications capacity.

Fro the Cave painting to the new generation of Satellites, there has been a consistent pattern embedded within these communication modes and system. Permanency and longevity of picturesque and photographic messaging, lodged in the caves, and streaming the viral primordial Soup forever and into eternity. The messaging and propagation of information from the Caves to the Satellite, has shown us that Nam is willing to maintain and forever propagate their information and communication patterns into the distant future...

This is what satellites do, they link us as humans, and links and inform us about space or the Universe... The constant running theme of "from Long Term to Instant Communication" still prevails and eggs on human communication, record-keeping and permanent propagation-inter and intra-connectivity.

Planet Hunting Telescope-Extension of Man Into Space

Here are some of the latest news on the Kepler Telescope, which is thought to be dead, but has 'oceans of data' to its credit, as reported by Michael Lemonick:

"NASA's Kepler spacecraft has scouted out thousands of potential new planets. A malfunction may have halted space operations, but new discoveries will keep flowing from the project's ocean of data.

"Space-watchers saw the handwriting on the wall months ago, but now it’s official: NASA's Kepler spacecraft, by far the most successful planet-hunting telescope in history, isn’t coming back. Engineers realized back in May that one of the three reaction wheels that let the probe aim at its targets had gone bad—and despite every effort to fix the problem, said NASA astrophysics director Paul Hertz at a press conference yesterday, “We cannot recover three-wheel operations.”

"But rather than gnash his teeth and tear out his thinning hair, Kepler’s founding father and principal investigator William Borucki, of the NASA Ames Research Center in California, declared the mission 'spectacularly successful.'

"He’s not in denial: after spending the 1990s banging on NASA’s door trying to get Kepler approved, he and his team got the go-ahead for a four-year mission in 2000, and the spacecraft was launched in 2009. Kepler successfully completed that phase last year. What’s been cut short is the so-called “extended mission,” a three-year renewal approved in early 2012.

"Kepler’s first four years were mind-blowingly productive: the telescope found some 3,500 new worlds orbiting distant stars—or more accurately, 3,500 'planet candidates,' of which only 135 have been confirmed so far. Astronomers both inside and outside the Kepler team are convinced, however, that the vast majority will turn out to be bona fide planets. “When I conceived the mission,” said Borucki, “it was like we were standing in a desert. Now we’re submerged in an ocean of data.”

"And those 3,500 only represent Kepler’s first two years of operations. Astronomers are still sifting thorough the second two years, and “we’re convinced the most exciting discoveries are still to come,” noted Borucki. That’s a powerful prediction given that Kepler has found planets orbiting double stars-something previously seen only in Star Wars—a six-planet solar system and a planet the size of Earth's moon.

"But the true quarry, as Borucki has stated openly from the beginning, was to find planets like Earth—about the same size as our home world, orbiting stars like the Sun, and in the “Goldilocks zone” in their solar system where temperatures are not too hot, not too cold, but just right for life to be possible. Kepler hasn’t found any of these yet, but it has come awfully close:

It's found Earth-size (and smaller) planets, but not in the Goldilocks Zone, and it’s found planets a bit bigger than Earth with just the right temperatures—but they’re orbiting stars dimmer than the Sun. Still, when scientists extrapolate from what the probe has already found, it’s clear that our galaxy conservatively holds at least 17 billion worlds about the size of Earth.

"True twins of Earth, moreover, may well be lurking in the data still being analyzed— although, said Borucki, 'we’ll have to dig down hard.' He figures it will be another three years before all of the numbers are finally crunched, and until then, Kepler lives on as a zombie mission: dead in space, but still going strong back home on Earth.

"Or maybe not even dead. Engineers have given up on fixing the hobbled satellite, but Kepler’s light-gathering mirror and electronics are still working fine. So even before the telescope was declared incapable of doing its original job, NASA started soliciting proposals for what other sorts of science it might be able to do. “We’ve gotten a wide variety of suggestions,” said Borucki, “including searches for asteroids, comets and supernovas.”

"Another idea: look for the telltale flicker as a distant planet passes in front of an even more distant star. If things line up just right, the planet's gravity can act as a lens, focusing the starlight and making it brighten momentarily. Until they take a hard look at Kepler’s capabilities with just two working reaction wheels, notes Borucki, “We have no way of knowing what’s practical.” Beyond that, budget pressures may force NASA to stop pouring scarce money into a crippled Kepler and funnel it elsewhere.

"No matter—the probe’s legacy is already firmly established. “Kepler has been a crucial step in our exploration of the galaxy,” said Borucki. “If we had found that there were very few Earths out there, we would be making very different choices about future missions. Instead, NASA is moving ahead with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite and looking ahead to the JamesWeb Space Telescope, which among other thing will study the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets. “Yes, it would have been better if the mission had gone on longer,” said Borucki. “But I’m very satisfied.”

From man's humble beginning to achieve mortality, permanence and extension into space/universe, we see a constant effort to finding other life in the universe. Although the Kepler telescope is hobbled, as the author duly notes above, there is still some worth and work that is being done by the telescope, looking into Meteorites, study , comets, supernovas and the atmospheres of the recently discovered exoplanets. We pick the yarn of man's exploration and extension into Universe in an article written by Michael D. Lemonick, wherein he writes about the further findings of the Kepler space telescope in the following manner:

The Mystery of Dark Matter Clarified - A Little

Astronomers got their first hints that the universe is filled with some invisible, mysterious, massive substance back in the 1930s—something that must be there and holding things together gravitationally, otherwise the rotation of galaxies would cause them to spin apart. Even now, nobody knows for sure what the mystery stuff is. The leading candidate for the past decade or two has been some sort of exotic elementary particle, forged in the Big Bang—but so far, despite plenty of searching, such a particle has never actually been found.

That means there’s still hope for a dark horse in the dark matter sweepstakes: black holes are certainly dark, and there could be lots and lots of them floating around that we haven’t noticed. But the hope that they’re the answer to the riddle has faded recently with a couple of new papers—one based on what is effectively a thought experiment, the other on an ingenious set of observations with the Kepler space telescope, which was launched in 2009 to search for exoplanets, or worlds orbiting other stars.

One kind of particularly small black hole was already off the table. Such things could have been created in the violent turbulence of very early universe, but would have long since evaporated (some people feared one might be created by the Large Hadron Collider when it switched on in 2008, and go on to swallow the Earth, but since you’re reading this, it didn’t).

Smallish black holes, however, from about a third the mass of the moon to a third the mass of the sun, were still a possibility. So Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb and several colleagues decided to test the idea. Way back in 1974, physicists Bill Press and Saul Teukolsky thought about the fact that a black hole could actually reflect light rather than swallowing it if it were spinning fast and the light came in at an angle. If you could somehow surround the hole with mirrors, the light would bounce back and forth from black hole to mirrors and back again, the energy getting amplified with every bounce. “It would be similar to a laser,” says Loeb, and once the energy got high enough, the whole thing would explode. “They called it a ‘black hole bomb,’” he says.

Good thing for the black holes then that there are no free-floating mirrors in space, meaning that plenty of the smallish bodies should have survived and might still be around today to act as dark matter. But until about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, Loeb realized, the universe was a sea of hot, free-flying particles, including zillions of electrons, and that a dense cloud of electrons can reflect light, just like a mirror. That would spell trouble. If smallish black holes did form back then, they’d almost certainly have been spinning rapidly, and thanks to the electrons, black hole bombs should have been going off right and left.

Some could have survived to make up the dark matter, says Loeb, but the energy released by the ones that exploded would have distorted the cosmic microwave background radiation — the light flash left over from the Big Bang — in ways that should easily be seen today. There’s no such distortion, meaning that no significant numbers of black holes in this size range ever existed in the first place.

That’s the pure-thought basis for the new findings: the direct-observation version comes from Kim Griest, of the University of California, San Diego, and two co-authors. They figured that if smallish black holes were around in any significant numbers today, they should have drifted across the Kepler telescope’s field of view. Kepler has done its exoplanet-hunting by searching for the silhouettes of distant planets as they passed in front of their parent stars, slightly blocking the light they emit.

But while planets marginally dim the light of a star, a black hole moving in front of it should have the opposite effect. As Einstein realized in the 1930s, the gravity of a massive object warps the space around it, bending any light rays that pass by. If something is shining in the background, it will appear to be distorted or magnified. Gravitational lensing has been seen in galaxies and quasars, among other places, and if a black hole wandered in front of any background star, it would brighten it in the same way (actually, just a part of the star’s surface, since a black hole is so physically small).

This sort of brightening should be evident in Kepler’s observations—if the black holes are there. But it’s not. So they aren’t.

That still doesn’t rule out black holes entirely, according to Loeb. “If they’re somewhere between the mass of an asteroid and a third the mass of the moon,” he says, “They’re still allowed, If you’re a black hole though, and you aspire to be the source of dark matter, things are getting awfully tough."

The Kepler telescope has projected back to earth the universe as never been seen before, neither imagined. Most assumptions as to how the universe looked like, or was composed of, has been clarified by the telescope that there is a homogeneity that has been constant since the big Bang. Many of the assumptions held by man about the Universe and its composition have been wrong, as the article above discusses.

According to Lemonick, the universe is rotating, which, he observes, may account for the uneven temperature distribution throughout the universe, but he still thinks more theories and reading of the data need needs to be done more. Because this will help man in understanding and studying 'more smaller hot and cold spots that make up Plancks's pointillist picture of the young universe and are the seeds that eventually grew into the huge clusters of galaxies we see today and the voids that lie between.'

Obviously and apparently there's still more to be done, and man has not yet even scratched the universal surface as to what lies out there. But one thing is certain, there is a constant effort and a very serious move into understanding the earth and the universe it exists it and passing on that data to future generation, since there is still so much ground to cover. The correlation between man's need to record, observe and pass on data from Cave paintings to the Satellite world we live in is a constant and persistent ongoing maneuver and study that is still going on as I am onto this Hub.

SDSSIII-Telescope

We describe the design, construction, and performance of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope located at Apache Point Observatory. The telescope is a modified two-corrector Ritchey-Chrétien design with a 2.5 m, f/2.25 primary, a 1.08 m secondary, a
We describe the design, construction, and performance of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope located at Apache Point Observatory. The telescope is a modified two-corrector Ritchey-Chrétien design with a 2.5 m, f/2.25 primary, a 1.08 m secondary, a | Source

In the Hub above, we trace human communication from Cave paintings to the Satellite now orbiting the Earth. Now, man's quest to understand and see further into the Universe is now made possible by the SDSSII Telescope which enables man to see into the further reaches of the uiverse. Not only was man satisfied with the Hubble telescope, which could not see beyond the universe, the SDSSII has no enabled us to see into the Galactic Goldilock Zones, which might help us see beyond what our capabilities can do up now. We can now detect Black Holes and see things from the beginning of the universe to the end .

We learn more about this Telescope from an article written byAudrey Olmsted in which we are informed that:

The history of the universe has yet to be revealed, but New Mexico State University astronomers are intent on unraveling its secrets, now that a new phase of a multiyear project has seen “first light.”

The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), took its first astronomical data on the night of Sept. 14. On that night, astronomers used the Sloan Foundation 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) to measure the spectra of a thousand galaxies and quasars. The eventual goal is to collect spectra for 1.4 million galaxies and 160,000 quasars by 2014.

“What BOSS is looking for are the ripples that are leftover from the formation of the universe,” said Kurt Anderson, an NMSU astronomy professor and the APO site director. “We are trying to figure out the nature of the mysterious dark energy that leads to the expansion of the universe and creates cosmic acceleration.”

Apache Point, located in Sunspot in the Sacramento Mountains, operates four telescopes: the 3.5-meter Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) telescope, the 2.5-meter telescope of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the 1.0-meter NMSU telescope, and the SDSS 0.5-meter photometric telescope. NMSU is a member of ARC and operates the observatory through the Department of Astronomy.

SDSS is a collaboration between NMSU and several other institutions around the world to map the universe.

The third phase of the survey builds upon recently completed projects to map the distribution of quasars and galaxies in space and the distribution of stars within our own galaxy. These projects have already produced the most detailed three-dimensional maps to date of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the rest of the universe.

“The data from BOSS will be the best ever obtained on the large-scale structure of the universe,” said David Schlegel, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Schlegel is the principal investigator of BOSS.

BOSS uses the same telescope as the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey, but equipped with new, specially built spectrographs to measure the spectra.

“The new spectrographs are much more efficient in infrared light,” said Natalie Roe, of the Lawrence Berkeley Lab, who is the instrument scientist for BOSS. “The light emitted by distant galaxies arrives at Earth as infrared light, so these improved spectrographs are able to look much further back in time.”

Baryon oscillations began when pressure waves traveled through the early universe.

Anderson said that as the universe expanded and cooled, the waves stopped, but left behind an acoustic signature, which appears as a ripple in the spatial distribution of galaxies.

Through BOSS, he added, astronomers hope to learn how galaxies are formed, how dark matter is distributed, and insights into the nature of the enigmatic “dark energy,” which is accelerating the expansion of the our universe.

The BOSS spectrographs will work with more than two thousand large aluminum plates that are placed at the focal plane of the telescope; these plates are drilled with the precise locations of nearly two million objects across the northern sky. Optical fibers are plugged into a thousand tiny holes in each of these “plug plates” to carry the light from each observed galaxy or quasar to BOSS’s new spectrographs.

The four areas of the SDSS-III are BOSS, the second phase of Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE-2), the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS).

BOSS, the largest of the four surveys in SDSS-III, includes more than 350 scientists from 42 institutions. The BOSS design and implementation has been led from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The optical systems were designed and built at Johns Hopkins University, with new charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras designed and built at Princeton University and the University of California at Santa Cruz/Lick Observatory.

The University of Washington contributed new optical fiber systems, and Ohio State University designed and built an upgraded BOSS data-acquisition system. The “fully depleted” 16-megaapixel CCDs for the red cameras evolved from Berkeley Lab research and were fabricated in that lab’s Microsystems Laboratory.

The SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration. These include the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, the University of Cambridge, the University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, NMSU, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the University of Tokyo, the University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, the University of Virginia and the University of Washington.

BOSS: Dark Energy and the Geometry of Space

The SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will map the spatial distribution of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and quasars to detect the characteristic scale imprinted by baryon acoustic oscillations in the early universe. Sound wave
The SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will map the spatial distribution of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) and quasars to detect the characteristic scale imprinted by baryon acoustic oscillations in the early universe. Sound wave | Source
SEGUE-1 was designed to explore the Milky Way structure; formation history; kinematics; dynamical evolution; chemical evolution; and dark matter distribution. The images and spectra obtained by SEGUE-1 allowed astronomers to map the positions and vel
SEGUE-1 was designed to explore the Milky Way structure; formation history; kinematics; dynamical evolution; chemical evolution; and dark matter distribution. The images and spectra obtained by SEGUE-1 allowed astronomers to map the positions and vel | Source
The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise infrared spectroscopy to penetrate the dust that obscures significant fractions of the disk and bulge of our Galaxy. APOGEE will survey over 100,000 red gia
The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise infrared spectroscopy to penetrate the dust that obscures significant fractions of the disk and bulge of our Galaxy. APOGEE will survey over 100,000 red gia | Source
Artist's conception of an extrasolar planetary system: The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor the radial velocities of 11,000 bright stars, with the precision and cadence needed to detect gas giant pla
Artist's conception of an extrasolar planetary system: The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor the radial velocities of 11,000 bright stars, with the precision and cadence needed to detect gas giant pla | Source
SDSS-III

Building on the legacy of the Sloan Dital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SDSS-II, the SDSS-III Collaboration is working to map the Milky Way, search for extrasolar planets, and solve the mystery of dark energy.

SDSS-III's newest release is Data Release 10 (DR10). DR10 contains the first spectra of the APO Galactic Experimental(APOGEE), as well as additional sky coverage and better galaxy parameter estimates from BOSS.

Now, I can only go as far as I can understand and tabulate the advances that have been done thus far by man in his quest towards understand and tabulating the architecture of the universe. But, as far as this Hub goes, I have gone as far as any layman can with the subject of man's search and attempt to peer as far as he can into the Universe. My point here is to try and show that the progression from Cave painting to the seeing towards the edge of the Universe and into deep space, is an effort to show man's indomitable spirit of understand phenomenon in which he exists.

We learn from Brian Dodson that:

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is little known to the public, but represents one of the most-challenging efforts in observational cosmology ever attempted. The most recent phase, SDSS-III, began in 2008 and includes the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), a part of SDSS-III aimed at mapping the cosmos. Its goal is to map the physical locations of all major galaxies back to seven billion years ago, and bright quasars back to 12 billion years ago – two billion years after the Big Bang. This is being done so we can gain a better understanding of dark matter and energy, and hopefully encounter a few surprises.

Measuring the position of an object projected on the sky is straightforward – what is difficult is measuring its distance. This is accomplished by measuring the redshift of the object, and converting the redshift to distance. Redshift can be thought of as being to light waves what the Doppler effect is to sound waves. Similar to the change in the pitch of a siren as an emergency vehicle passes, first approaching and then pulling away from our position, light waves from galaxies undergo a similar shift to the longer wavelengths (colors become redder) as they move away from us due to the expansion of the Universe.

Redshift is defined as z, which is equal to the ratio of the observed wavelength of a spectral line to the actual wavelength minus 1. The most distant galaxies observed by Hubble had a redshift of z~0.003, while the limit of the BOSS survey is z~3. The relation between redshift and distance is linear up to about z=0.3 (three billion light years distant), after which general relativistic effects force a nonlinear relationship, the details of which provide substantial clues on the matter, energy, and fundamental laws of the Universe.


SDSS takes a trip through the past 12 billion years of our Universe

View of a cluster of Galaxies spread along a dark matter Filament
View of a cluster of Galaxies spread along a dark matter Filament | Source

Man's Quest Peering Billions of Years into Our Universe Using the SDSS-III

We learn further from Dodson that:

Of particular interest is measuring the size of baryon acoustic oscillations as a function of time. Baryons are a type of elementary particle, including protons and neutrons. In the very early Universe, photons and baryons are so tightly coupled that they form a nearly incompressible liquid. This coupling also prevents photons from traveling, so that during this period the Universe is opaque. If you drop a rock into a pond, you will see rings move outward from the point of impact. Similarly, a local disturbance in the photon-baryon fluid propagates outward, but at about half the speed of light.

As the Universe expands, there is enough room for the photon-baryon liquid to break apart into separate particle fields. This is the era, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, when the 3K cosmic background radiation was emitted into the Universe. When the particles break apart, the photon-baryon "sound waves" stop, leaving a spherical shell of large baryon density where the sound wave ended. Those denser regions then expand along with the Universe, but continue to have more matter than average. Currently, this "sound horizon" has expanded to about 500 million light years. As looking deeper into space is equal to looking into the past, it is possible to measure the diameter of the sound horizon as a function of time, and to extract therefrom the rate of expansion as a function of time.

For many decades, the rate of Universal expansion was thought to be constant, or possibly slowing, as there is no mechanism in general relativity or in the Standard Model of particle physics which could cause acceleration of expansion. However, detailed studies of Type IA supernovae at cosmological distances has recently provided clear evidence for such acceleration. This discovery, for which the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded, is the reason you hear about the unknown "dark energy" – it is required to explain accelerating expansion of the Universe within our current cosmological models. Measuring the rate of expansion using the baryon acoustic oscillations is one of the most reliable methods we have to study this unexpected phenomenon."

This will be be further extended, the study of the expansion of the Universe. But up to this point, we begin to understand that man was not confined to the Cave painting, nor the orbiting satellites dotting the space around the earth, but now we are even much deeper into the Universe, and looking into billion of years from the formation of the Universe, and tracing it as it expands into infinite space.

Sliced Map of the Universe

A 2-D slice through our Universe showing galaxies up to two billion light years away. The filaments and clusters now known to be formed by the distribution of dark matter in the Universe can be clearly seen
A 2-D slice through our Universe showing galaxies up to two billion light years away. The filaments and clusters now known to be formed by the distribution of dark matter in the Universe can be clearly seen | Source

Ring Nebula In The Constellation of Lyra

The blue gas in the nebula's center is actually a football-shaped structure that pierces the red doughnut-shaped material. Hubble also uncovers the detailed structure of the dark, irregular knots of dense gas embedded along the inner rim of the ring.
The blue gas in the nebula's center is actually a football-shaped structure that pierces the red doughnut-shaped material. Hubble also uncovers the detailed structure of the dark, irregular knots of dense gas embedded along the inner rim of the ring. | Source

Interstellar Gas

This light-year-long knot of interstellar gas and dust resembles a massive caterpillar. Harsh winds from extremely bright stars are blasting ultraviolet radiation at this "wanna-be" star and sculpting the gas and dust into its long shape. The culprit
This light-year-long knot of interstellar gas and dust resembles a massive caterpillar. Harsh winds from extremely bright stars are blasting ultraviolet radiation at this "wanna-be" star and sculpting the gas and dust into its long shape. The culprit | Source

Star Forming Spiral Galaxy

This interacting galaxy duo is collectively called Arp 142. The pair contains the disturbed, star-forming spiral galaxy NGC 2936, along with its elliptical companion, NGC 2937 at left. Once part of a flat, spiral disk, the orbits of the galaxy's star
This interacting galaxy duo is collectively called Arp 142. The pair contains the disturbed, star-forming spiral galaxy NGC 2936, along with its elliptical companion, NGC 2937 at left. Once part of a flat, spiral disk, the orbits of the galaxy's star | Source

Massive Cluster Of Galaxies

The gravitational field surrounding this massive cluster of galaxies, Abell 68, acts as a natural lens in space to brighten and magnify the light coming from very distant background galaxies. Like a funhouse mirror, lensing creates a fantasy landscap
The gravitational field surrounding this massive cluster of galaxies, Abell 68, acts as a natural lens in space to brighten and magnify the light coming from very distant background galaxies. Like a funhouse mirror, lensing creates a fantasy landscap | Source

Starring Into Space And Learning About The Universe

Source
The Kepler team will hold an engineering review Saturday in advance of a flight readiness review Monday, when an official launch date and time will be set.  The $600-million, 3.5-year mission will search for Earth-like planets around more than 100,00
The Kepler team will hold an engineering review Saturday in advance of a flight readiness review Monday, when an official launch date and time will be set. The $600-million, 3.5-year mission will search for Earth-like planets around more than 100,00

Kepler Sheds Light On Other Earths

Nancy Atkinson informs us that:

NASA’s Kepler telescope has lost its ability to precisely point toward stars, putting its exoplanet search in jeopardy. One of the reaction wheels –devices which enable the spacecraft to aim in different directions without firing thrusters – has failed. This is of grave concern because last year reaction wheel #2 failed, and now #4 has failed. Kepler scientists say the spacecraft needs at least three reaction wheels to be able to point precisely enough to hunt for planets orbiting distant stars.

“We need three wheels in service to give us the pointing precision to enable us to find planets,” said Bill Borucki, Kepler principal investigator, during a press briefing today. “Without three wheels it is unclear whether we could continue to do anything on that order.”

But the Kepler team said there are still possibilities of keeping the spacecraft in working order, or perhaps even finding other opportunities for different science for Kepler, something that doesn’t require such precise pointing abilities.

“We’re not ready to call the mission down and out just yet,” said John Grunsfeld, NASA’s associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, “but by any measure it’s been a spectacular mission.”

Last year, NASA had approved an extended mission for Kepler through 2016, and so a lot is riding on the health of the spacecraft’s reaction wheels.

Yesterday, (May 14, 2013) Kepler went into safe mode, a pre-programmed software mode that if the observatory has trouble with pointing, it puts the spacecraft in a state where the solar panels turn towards the Sun to maintain power to its systems, as well as sending an alert to ground controllers. When engineers looked at telemetry, they saw indication that reaction wheel #4 was not moving, even after they commanded it to speed up.

“Initially, they did see some movement on the wheel,”said Charles Sobeck, Kepler deputy project manager during today’s briefing, “but it quickly went back to zero speed, indicative of internal failure on the wheel. Our next step is to see what we can do to reduce the fuel consumption, as we would like to extend the fuel reserve as long as we can.”

Sobeck said they have a few things to try yet to perhaps get wheel #4 working again, such as “jiggling” it or trying the wheel in reverse.

“We can try jiggling it, like you’d do with any wheel here on Earth, commanding it to move back and forth,” said Sobeck, “so we can try to bring the wheel back in service. Or perhaps since wheel #2 hasn’t been turned on for eight months, it may come back if we turn it on. It will take us awhile to come up with a plan.”

Sobeck explained they are currently using thrusters to stabilize the spacecraft, and in its current mode, the onboard fuel will last for several months. But they hope to soon put the spacecraft into what is called a “Point Rest State,” which would extend the fuel to last a period of several years.

“The Point Rest State is a sort of oasis where we can park the vehicle while we decide what we can do next, or see if there’s another mode we can operate the spacecraft in,” Sobeck said “Once we know how we can operate, we can know what the spacecraft can do in the future.”

The Point Rest State is a loosely-pointed, thruster-controlled state that minimizes fuels usage while providing a continuous X-band communication downlink. Sobeck described it as using the solar pressure from the Sun in conjunction with minimum thruster use to allow for a periodic slow back and forth rocking motion of the vehicle which is very fuel efficient but still keeps the solar arrays pointing towards the Sun and communications antennas pointed towards Earth.

The software to execute that state was loaded to the spacecraft last week, and last night the team completed the upload of the parameters the software will use.

Sobeck also said there is the possibility of the wheel running in the opposite direction, but running the wheel backward would mean they would need to use more thruster fuel. “The reaction wheels try to balance the forces from the solar pressure, that’s what forces a wheel to run,” he told Universe Today. “If you’re running the wheel backward, you don’t balance the forces, but add to it, and spacecraft will start to tip, so you will have to offset that with additional thruster firings.”

Reaction wheels have been a problem with several different missions, and Sobeck said NASA does have a team looking at problems of reaction wheels and trying to find ways to maximize their longevity.

Earlier this year, elevated friction was detected in reaction wheel #4, and so as a precaution for wheel safety, and as a measure to mitigate the friction, the reaction wheels were spun down to zero-speed and the spacecraft was placed in a thruster-controlled safe mode for several days. After that, the wheel was able to be used again and it operated until this week.

But the team stressed that even if the Kepler spacecraft is unable to make more observations, there are still terabytes of data to pore over yet from the mission.

“We have two years of data that has yet to be searched through,” said Borucki, “I’m optimistic that the data we have we’ll be able to accomplish Kepler’s mission of finding another Earth. We believe that in the next couple of years we will have many more exciting discoveries with respect to finding planets.”

Boricki added that while he’s delighted that they have found so many planetary candidates, on the other hand “I would have been even happier if it had continued another four years. That would have been frosting on the cake,” he said, “but we have an excellent cake right now.”

Kepler has found over 2,700 planetary candidates, with 130 confirmed planets, from the size of Earth’s moon to larger than Jupiter.

“We’ll continue to analyze the data to get the science that Kepler was designed to do,” said Paul Hertz, NASA’s astrophysics director. “Even though Kepler is in trouble, it has collected all the data necessary to answer its scientific objectives. Kepler is not the last exoplanet mission, but the first. It has been a great start to our path of exoplanet exploration.”

There’s also the chance that something else could be done with the spacecraft if it no longer can do planet hunting, such as asteroid hunting or other astronomical observations…just something that doesn’t need as precise ability for pointing. If that’s the case, Hertz said they would open up a call for science mission proposals.

Kepler: Into the Universal Abyss

Our little spacecraft continues to keep us on our toes.  During the final test prior to the initial test campaign run in the two-wheel K2 mode, we were very encouraged to see that the spacecraft operated throughout the test using the fine guidance se
Our little spacecraft continues to keep us on our toes. During the final test prior to the initial test campaign run in the two-wheel K2 mode, we were very encouraged to see that the spacecraft operated throughout the test using the fine guidance se | Source

From Earth And Now Looking And Seeing Into Deep Space Spread Throughout Dark Matter

Smeared and Magnified Galaxy The young galaxy SDSS090122.37+181432.3, also known as S0901, is seen here as the bright arc to the left of the central bright galaxy. The distorted view of S0901 is caused by gravitational lensing, resulting from one or
Smeared and Magnified Galaxy The young galaxy SDSS090122.37+181432.3, also known as S0901, is seen here as the bright arc to the left of the central bright galaxy. The distorted view of S0901 is caused by gravitational lensing, resulting from one or | Source

A Science Odyssey: Mysteries of the Universe - Documentary

New Discovered and Seen Space Galaxy

We are informed in the following article by NASA that:

"Scientists have discovered a young galaxy acting in unexpectedly mature ways. The galaxy, called S0901, is rotating in a calm manner typical of more developed galaxies like our own spiral Milky Way.

"Usually, when astronomers examine galaxies in an early era, they find that turbulence plays a much greater role than it does in modern galaxies. But S0901 is a clear exception to that pattern," said James Rhoads of Arizona State University, Tempe.

It has taken the light from the galaxy 10 billion years to reach us across space, so we are seeing it when it was comparatively young.

"This galaxy is the equivalent of a 10-year-old. I can tell you from watching my kids' classes that 10-year-olds like to fidget! S0901 is unusual because it's not fidgeting, and instead is very well behaved." Rhoads is lead author of the research, appearing in the May 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

The discovery was made using the Herschel space observatory, a European Space Agency mission with important NASA contributions.

"This is a truly surprising result that reminds us that we still don't understand many details of the evolution of the universe. Facilities like Herschel help us understand this complex story," said Paul Goldsmith, U.S. Herschel Project Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

When galaxies form, they accumulate mass because their gravity attracts vast, external gas clouds. As the gas clouds enter a particular galaxy, they fall into haphazard orbits. These disordered paths cause turbulence in the host galaxy, which can drive star formation.

To investigate the internal conditions of forming galaxies, Rhoads and Sangeeta Malhotra, also from Arizona State University, and colleagues targeted two young galaxies, one of them being S0901.

Using a cosmic magnifier known as a gravitational lens, the researchers got a better view of the galaxies than they would have otherwise. An instrument on Herschel, the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI), was then able to pick up the signature of ionized carbon, revealing the motion of the gas molecules in the galaxies. This motion was much smoother than anticipated in the S0901 galaxy. Results for the second galaxy hinted at a calm rotation too, but were less clear.

"Galaxies 10 billion years ago were making stars more actively than they do now," says Malhotra. "They usually also show more turbulence, likely because they are accumulating gas faster than a modern galaxy does. But here we have cases where an early galaxy combines the calm rotation of a modern one with the active star formation of their early peers."

More observations with other telescopes should help reveal if other galaxies behave in similarly grown-up ways, or if S0901 is oddly ahead of its time."

Read the news release from ESA online at:

Herschel is a European Space Agency mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. While the observatory stopped making science observations in April 2013, after running out of liquid coolant as expected, scientists continue to analyze its data. NASA's Herschel Project Office is based at JPL. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel's three science instruments, including HIFI. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the U.S. astronomical community. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

Planaet, Universe Probing and Galaxie Seeking Telescopes

Illustration of the James Webb Space Telescope
Illustration of the James Webb Space Telescope | Source

The Universe - SECRETS OF THE SPACE PROBES - Full 1080p

Harvard Lawyer calls for UFO Disclosure 2015

Interterrestial Intelligence And Understanding It's Existence Today

This Hub has extensively traced human communications systems and mediums/ways and means of transmitting those communicated ideas from the Cape painting to the Satellites. There are many stars/galaxies beaming their bright lights we see as far away tiny stars-which the scientists say reach us, as we see them, after traveling in space for billions or more light years, that in the times of the Cave people, they engendered many beliefs and other human behavioral patern. Today, because of the satellites and gigantic telescopes peering into the vast Dark Matter, we have been able to discern many galaxies and Universes over vast spaces and distance, and as Hubble observed, fast moving away from one another, that, at this point in the Hug, I would like to explore, through the article posted below that, We Are Not Alone In this Vastness.

Aliens Exist And Wil Be found Pretty Soon, Scientists inform us:

It used to be that if you asked an astronomer if there was intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, you’d get some sort of hedged response involving the vastness of the universe and statistical probabilities that you’d expect from a diligent scientist.

I’ve asked this question recently of a few astronomers from NASA, and also from the massive Keck observatory in Hawaii, and I’ve received a version of that same old response, but with a new preface that has become more common in recent years. It’s usually something like: “Well, we might be able to answer that question relatively soon.”

This past week, a few scientists took it a step further and gave the U.S. Congress a relative date by which they expect we’ll have discovered signs of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe.

“It is not hyperbolic to suggest that scientists could very well discover extraterrestrial intelligence within two decades’ time or less, given resources to conduct the search,” Seth Shostak, Senior Astronomer at the SETI Institute, said in testimony before the U.S. House Committee on Science, Space and Technology.

So there you have it. Aliens by 2034. That’s actually a few decades ahead of the date of first contact in the fictional “Star Trek” series — April 5, 2063.

It is worth noting that in the last decade, Shostak was floating the date 2025 as a likely end to our apparent cosmic isolation, and as recently as February he was talking about a date “two dozen years out.” So, clearly Shostak isn’t trying to win any bets by calling the specific date we find E.T., but rather the point is that the current rate of technological advancement makes it likely that we’ll be able to find that evidence within a single generation.

Much of the credit for this level of confidence among Astrobiologists like Shostak can be credited to discoveries made by the latest generation of telescopes, perhaps most notably the Kepler planet-hunting space telescope, which continues to deliver a steady stream of of revelations about just how common not only distant planets, but potential Earth analogs are in far-off solar systems.

“Recent analyses of Kepler data suggest that as many as one star in five will have a habitable, Earth-size planet in orbit around it,” Shostak told the lawmakers. “This number could be too large by perhaps a factor of two or three, but even so it implies that the Milky Way is home to 10 to 80 billion cousins of Earth.”

BBC Science Documentary Is Everything We Know About The Universe Wrong Science Documentary

Life in The Universe Documentary

NEW Solar System documentary HD Universe or Multiverse Documentary

PBS Nova S37E16 Hunting the Edge of Space ,The Ever Expanding Universe , Discovery Channel

Our Own Backyard: The Milky Way

Ancient Observation As To The Universal Mind

"The Universal Mind; The Principle Of Infinite Energy; Infinite Supply, Is ever Available"

It is not always the man who struggles hardest who gets on in the world. It is the direction as well as the energy of struggle that counts in making progress. To get ahead-you must swim with the tide. Men prosper and succeed who work in accord with natural forces. A given amount of effort with these forces carries a man faster and farther than much more effort used against the current. Those who work blindly, regardless of these forces, make life difficult for themselves and rarely prosper.

It has been estimated by wise observers that on the average, something like 90 per cent of the factors producing success or failure lie outside a man's conscious efforts-separae from his daily round of details. To the extend that he cooperates with the wisdom of the Universal Mind his is successful, well and happy. To the extend that he fails to cooperate, he is unsuccessful, sick and miserable.

All down the ages some have been enabled to see the good. ... Now that we know that this infinite Good is not more available to one than it is to all. We know that the only limit to it is our capacity to receive. If you had a problem in mathematics to work out, you would hardly gather together the necessary figures and leave hem to arrange themselves in their proper sequence. You would know that while the method for solving the problem has been figured out, 'you' have got to 'work' it. The principles are there, but 'you' have got to 'apply' them.

The first essential is to understand the principle-to learn how it works-how to use it. The second-and even more important part is to APPLY that understanding to the problem at hand.

In the same way, the Principle of Infinite Energy, Infinite Supply, is ever available. But that Energy, That Supply, is static. You've got to understand the law. You've got to 'apply' your understanding in order to solve problems of poverty,discord, disease.

Science shows that it is is possible to accomplish any good thing. But distrust of your ability to reach the goal desired often holds you back and failure is the inevitable result.

Only by understanding that this one power-and that this power is Mind, not circumstances or environment-it is possible to bring your real abilities to the surface and put them to work.

Few deny that intelligence governs the universe. It matters not whether you call this Intelligence Universal Mind, God, Providence or merely Nature. All admit Its directing power. All admit that It is a force for good, for progress. But few realize that our own minds are a part of this Universal Mind in just the same way that the rays of the sun are part of the sun.

If we work in harmony with It, we can draw upon the Universal Mind for all power, all intelligence, in the same way that the sun's rays draw upon their source for the heat and light they bring the earth.

It is not enough to 'know' that you have this power. You must put it into 'practice'-not once, or twice, "but every hour of the day". Don't be discouraged if at first it doesn't work out. When you first studied arithmetic, your problems did not always work out correctly,did they? Yet you did not on that account doubt the principle of mathematics.You knew that the fault was with your methods,not with the principle. It is the same in this. the power is there. Correctly used, it can do anything.

All will agree that the Mind which first brought the Life principle to this earth-which imaged the earth itself and the trees and the plants and the animals-is all powerful. All will agree that to solve any problem, to meet any need, Mind has but to 'realize' the need and it will be met.

What most of us do not understand or realize is that we ourselves, being part of Universal Mind, have the same power. Just as the drop of water form the ocean has all the properties of he great bulk of water in the ocean. Just as the spark of electricity has all the properties of the thunderbolt. And having that power, we have only to realize it and use it to get from life any good we may desire...

The Secret Of The Ages..

The Universe And Us Earthlings: Stuff That Foating In Dark Energy And Dark Matter In Sapce-Universe

Our Relationship To the sun- Where We At...

And here’s that same Sun(Our Sun) as viewed from the surface of Mars

But even our galaxy is a little runt compared with some others. Here’s the Milky Way compared to IC 1011, 350 million light years away from Earth...

Which means that there are ones much, much bigger than little wimpy Sun. Just look at how Tiny and Insignificant our Sun is. Here’s another look. The biggest st

That’s because the Milky Way galaxy is huge. This is where you live inside the Milky Way..

Space radio waves align in mysterious mathematical pattern, could be produced by alien technology

Blitzars, which last only about a millisecond, have been detected by telescopes since about 2001 and have been heard ten times since. And nobody really knows where they come from, or why they happen. But a new study has found that the bursts line up
Blitzars, which last only about a millisecond, have been detected by telescopes since about 2001 and have been heard ten times since. And nobody really knows where they come from, or why they happen. But a new study has found that the bursts line up
Asteroid 2014-YB35 An asteroid that is 1,000-metres wide is set to skim past Earth, travelling at more than 23,000 mph. The rock, named 2014-YB35, will pass by relatively close to Earth at the end of March 2015. But that is 2.8 million miles away, 11
Asteroid 2014-YB35 An asteroid that is 1,000-metres wide is set to skim past Earth, travelling at more than 23,000 mph. The rock, named 2014-YB35, will pass by relatively close to Earth at the end of March 2015. But that is 2.8 million miles away, 11

Dark Matter

Dark matter may not be so dark after all, after scientists witnessed the mysterious cosmic entity interacting with the universe around it an entirely new way.

Despite accounting for an estimated 85 per cent of matter in the Universe, dark matter has never been seen directly by any scientific instruments. Its existence has only been inferred by its gravitational effects.

But astronomers have now for the first time witnessed dark matter apparently “slowing down” after interaction with other dark matter - suggesting it is capable of engaging with a force other than gravity.

“We used to think that dark matter sits around, minding its own business. But if it slowed down during this collision, this could be the first dynamical evidence that dark matter notices the world around it,” said Richard Massey of Durham University. who led the research.

“Dark matter may not be completely ‘dark’ after all.”

Dark matter can only be detected indirectly by the way it bends the light of distant galaxies in a process known as gravitational lensing.

Hubble Telescope

The discovery was made via images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope
The discovery was made via images captured by the Hubble Space Telescope | Source

Hubble

Exploiting this phenomenon, an international team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope took images of a massive simultaneous collision in deep space between four distant galaxies.

The researchers found that the dark matter associated with the colliding galaxies has become disconnected with this visible mass of colliding stars, suggesting that it has come under the influence of a force other than gravity, probably by interacting with itself.

“The observations show that dark matter has ended up in a different place to the stars in the galaxy it was associated with. It has become offset in some way, and that’s pretty unusual,” Dr Massey said.

“We’ve been trying to think of other things that would cause this offset and there’s nothing else we can think of that would have this effect other than dark matter interacting with itself. This is the first step in figuring out what dark matter is. To see it behaving in this way is the first positive thing we’ve seen dark matter do,” he added.

An earlier study published last month examined the behaviour of dark matter during 72 “high speed” collisions of clusters containing thousands of galaxies. This suggested very little or no interaction between dark matter.

However, the latest study published this week in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society examined the relatively slower speed collision of just four galaxies in a cluster known as Abell 3827, which took place over hundreds of millions of years.

The different nature of this collision means that even a very low level of interaction can eventually create a detectable lag between the galaxy’s dark matter and its stars, which continued to collide, Dr Massey said.

Professor Liliya Williams of the University of Minnesota, a senior member of the team, said: “Our observation suggests that dark matter might be able to interact with more forces than just gravity. The parallel Universe going on around us has just got more interesting. The dark sector could contain rich physics and potentially complex behaviour.”

Calculations suggest that the clump of dark matter associated with cluster of four galaxies is offset in space by a distance of about 5,000 light years, equivalent to about 50,000 million million kilometres – a distance that would take Nasa Voyager spacecraft, the most distant man-made object, some 90 million years to travel.

“It sounds a long way but in cosmic terms it’s actually quite small. We were lucky to see it and it was only possible because of the power of the Hubble space telescope and the fact that one of the galaxies was perfectly aligned so that we could see the gravitational lensing effect,” Dr Massey said.

Dark Matter Particles

University of Southampton researchers believe one reason may be that dark matter particles are much lighter than has previously been proposed
University of Southampton researchers believe one reason may be that dark matter particles are much lighter than has previously been proposed

The four galaxies in this cluster are involved in a massive collision taking place over a period of hundreds of millions of years. As the topmost of the four galaxies in the image begins to collide, it has left its dark matter trailing behind.

The dark matter in this image is invisible, but it can be detected by the way it bends the light of an even more distant galaxy, in a process known as gravitational lensing, which has left a distorted image seen here as an arc of blue light just to the right of the cluster.

The discovery that dark matters trails behind galaxies in this way suggests it is not perfectly ‘dark’ after all.

Astronomers discover nine new dwarf galaxies

Nine “dwarf galaxies” a million times smaller than normal galaxies have been identified in orbit around the Milky Way, in a discovery that could shed light on the mysterious dark matter of the Universe.

The mini galaxies are a billion times dimmer than the Milky Way and were only found with the help of the most powerful digital camera in the world, which can see the faint glow of normal-sized galaxies as far away as eight billion light years from Earth.

It is the biggest collection of dwarf galaxies observed at any one time, and the first in 10 years. Two teams of astronomers working independently discovered them in images taken of the southern sky during the search for the invisible dark matter that makes up a quarter of the total matter and energy of the Universe.

Dwarf galaxies contain about 5,000 stars, compared to the hundreds of billions of the Milky Way, which is why they give off so little light and are so difficult to detect. The closest of the nine is 95,000 light years away while the most distant is a million light years.

The dwarf galaxies were found near the large and the small Megallanic clouds, two of the most famous dwarf galaxies orbiting the much larger Milky Way, and were identified independently by scientists at Cambridge University and researchers at the US Fermi Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois.

“Dwarf satellites are the final frontier for testing our theories of dark matter. We need to find them to determine whether our cosmological picture makes sense,” said Vasily Belokurov of the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge University.

“Finding such a large group of satellites near the Megallanic Clouds was surprising, though, as earlier surveys of the southern sky found very little, so we were not expecting to stumble on such a treasure,” Dr Belokurov said.

The Cambridge team said that three of the nine are definite dwarf galaxies, while the others could be either dwarf galaxies or globular clusters, containing stars and other cosmic objects that is not held together with dark matter.

Sergey Koposov of Cambridge said: “The discovery of so many satellites in such a small area of the sky was completely unexpected. I could not believe my eyes.”

Our Solar System...

The Sun Blasts Out Two X-Class Flares

A close-up of an an X1.7-class solar flare on May 12, 2013 as seen by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. The Sun gets active! On May 12, 2013, the Sun emitted what NASA called a “significant” solar flare, classified as an X1.7, making it the first X-
A close-up of an an X1.7-class solar flare on May 12, 2013 as seen by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. The Sun gets active! On May 12, 2013, the Sun emitted what NASA called a “significant” solar flare, classified as an X1.7, making it the first X- | Source

View From Space

Jason Major writes:

51 years ago today, on May 5, 1961, NASA launched the Mercury-Redstone 3 rocket carrying Alan B. Shepard, Jr. aboard the Freedom 7 capsule. Shepard successfully became America’s first man in space, making a brief but historic suborbital test flight that propelled American astronauts into the space race of the 1960s.

The video above is made from photographs taken by a film camera mounted to the Freedom 7 spacecraft and scanned by archivists at Johnson Space Center. It shows the view from Freedom 7 as the Redstone rocket launched it into space, getting an amazing view of Earth’s limb and the blackness beyond before falling back to splash down in the Atlantic.
The video is made from the entire film reel, so at the end there’s also some shots of a light experiment inside the spacecraft.

What’s amazing to realize is that, at this point in time, the space surrounding our planet was a very empty place. This was a time before communication and weather satellites, before GPS, before Space Station and space shuttles — and space junk — and student-made weather balloon videos. Just 51 years ago low-Earth orbit was a new frontier, and guys like Shepard (and Gagarin and Glenn, etc.) were blazing the path for everyone that followed.

Even though images of Earth from space are still amazing to look at today, seeing these photos reminds us of a time when it was all just so very new.

Why Can’t We See the Center of the Milky Way?

Our Oen Sun In Full Falre And Oceans Of Fiery Blaze

Mars's Lost Oceans

Galactical Bodies Conceptualized...

This artist's conception shows the 30 Ari system, which includes four stars and a planet. The planet, a gas giant, orbits its primary star (yellow) in about a year's time. The primary star, called 30 Ari B, has a companion -- the small "red dwarf" st
This artist's conception shows the 30 Ari system, which includes four stars and a planet. The planet, a gas giant, orbits its primary star (yellow) in about a year's time. The primary star, called 30 Ari B, has a companion -- the small "red dwarf" st

Some Of The Milky Way's subjects.. Bright And Fast Spinning Bright Young Stars

The massive, bright young star, called VFTS 102, rotates at a million miles per hour, or 100 times faster than our sun does. Centrifugal forces from this dizzying spin rate have flattened the star into an oblate shape and spun off a disk of hot plasm
The massive, bright young star, called VFTS 102, rotates at a million miles per hour, or 100 times faster than our sun does. Centrifugal forces from this dizzying spin rate have flattened the star into an oblate shape and spun off a disk of hot plasm

Our Solar System

Our Solar system, And The Neighboring Glactic Hood

A Peek Into Our Universe Its Galaxies, And Planets

Galactic Universe And Earth's Solar Systems: Partial Universe...

We learn from Fraser Cain that:

Our Earth feels like all there is, but we know that it’s just a tiny planet in a vast Solar System. And our Solar System is just one member of a vast Milky Way galaxy with 200 to 400 billion stars. But how many galaxies are there in the entire Universe?

This is a difficult number to know for certain, since we can only see a fraction of the Universe, even with our most powerful instruments. The most current estimates guess that there are 100 to 200 billion galaxies in the Universe, each of which has hundreds of billions of stars. A recent German supercomputer simulation put that number even higher: 500 billion. In other words, there could be a galaxy out there for every star in the Milky Way.

Astronomers are now using entire galaxies as lenses to look at other galaxies, providing them with precise tool to measure the size and age of the universe and how rapidly it is expanding. The measurement determines a value for the Hubble constant, which indicates the size of the universe, and confirms the age of the universe as 13.75 billion years old, within 170 million years as well as the strength of dark energy, responsible for accelerating the expansion of the universe.

The team used a technique called gravitational lensing to measure the distances light traveled from a bright, active galaxy to the earth along different paths. By understanding the time it took to travel along each path and the effective speeds involved, researchers could infer not just how far away the galaxy lie but also the overall scale of the universe and some details of its expansion.

It is often difficult to distinguish between a very bright light far away and a dimmer source lying much closer. A gravitational lens circumvents this problem by providing multiple clues as to the distance light travels. When a large nearby object, such as a galaxy, blocks a distant object, such as another galaxy, the light can detour around the blockage. But instead of taking a single path, light can bend around the object in one of two, or four different routes, thus doubling or quadrupling the amount of information scientists receive. As the brightness of the background galaxy nucleus fluctuates, physicists can measure the ebb and flow of light from the four distinct paths.

According to astronomers, our Milky Way is an average-sized barred spiral galaxy measuring up to 120,000 light-years across. Our Sun is located about 27,000 light-years from the galactic core in the Orion arm. Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way contains up to 400 billion stars of various sizes and brightness.

A few are supergiants, like Betelgeuse or Rigel. Many more are average-sized stars like our Sun. The vast majority of stars in the Milky Way are red dwarf stars; dim, low mass, with a fraction of the brightness of our Sun.

As we peer through our telescopes, we can see fuzzy patches in the sky which astronomers now know are other galaxies like our Milky Way. These massive structures can contain more or less stars than our own Milky Way.

There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
And there are tiny dwarf galaxies with a fraction of our number of stars.

So how many galaxies are there?

According to astronomers, there are probably more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, stretching out into a region of space 13.8 billion light-years away from us in all directions.

And so, if you multiply the number of stars in our galaxy by the number of galaxies in the Universe, you get approximately 1024 stars. That’s a 1 followed by twenty-four zeros.

That’s a septillion stars.

Go Figure..

Skhokho!

1. Part Of The Galactic Universe..

2. Wehre we are located in our Milky Way Galaxy...

3. This is the Earth Size compared to the the sun

4. The solar system's four inner planets are much smaller than its four outer planets, and all eight are dwarfed by the Sun they orbit. The sizes of the bodies are shown to scale, though the distances between them are not. The numbers given are the approximate diameters of each body at its equator.

5. Sunset on Mars. Appearing only about two-thirds the size it does from Earth, the Sun sets behind the 50-mile-distant rim of Gusev Crater. The blue glow is caused by light-scattering dust suspended in the atmosphere. Mosaic composite photograph. Taken by Spirit Rover, May 19, 2005.

According to astronomers, our Milky Way is an average-sized barred spiral galaxy measuring up to 120,000 light-years across. Our Sun is located about 27,000 light-years from the galactic core in the Orion arm. Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way contains up to 400 billion stars of various sizes and brightness.

A few are supergiants, like Betelgeuse or Rigel. Many more are average-sized stars like our Sun. The vast majority of stars in the Milky Way are red dwarf stars; dim, low mass, with a fraction of the brightness of our Sun.

As we peer through our telescopes, we can see fuzzy patches in the sky which astronomers now know are other galaxies like our Milky Way. These massive structures can contain more or less stars than our own Milky Way.

There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
And there are tiny dwarf galaxies with a fraction of our number of stars.

So how many galaxies are there?

According to astronomers, there are probably more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, stretching out into a region of space 13.8 billion light-years away from us in all directions.

And so, if you multiply the number of stars in our galaxy by the number of galaxies in the Universe, you get approximately 1024 stars. That’s a 1 followed by twenty-four zeros.

That’s a septillion stars.

But there could be more than that.

It defines the amount of the Universe that we can see, because that’s how long light has taken to reach us since the Big Bang.

This is a minimum value, the Universe could be much bigger – it’s just that we can’t ever detect those stars because they’re outside the observable Universe. It’s even possible that the Universe is infinite, stretching on forever, with an infinite amount of stars. So add a couple more zeros. Maybe an infinite number of zeroes.

That’s a lot of stars in the Universe.

Partial Universe and our Solar System Planets

 Part Of The Galactic Universe..
Part Of The Galactic Universe..
Where we are located in our Milky Way Galaxy...
Where we are located in our Milky Way Galaxy...
This is the Earth Size compared to the the sun
This is the Earth Size compared to the the sun
The solar system's four inner planets are much smaller than its four outer planets, and all eight are dwarfed by the Sun they orbit. The sizes of the bodies are shown to scale, though the distances between them are not. The numbers given are the appr
The solar system's four inner planets are much smaller than its four outer planets, and all eight are dwarfed by the Sun they orbit. The sizes of the bodies are shown to scale, though the distances between them are not. The numbers given are the appr
Our Planetary Solar System
Our Planetary Solar System
Sunset on Mars. Appearing only about two-thirds the size it does from Earth, the Sun sets behind the 50-mile-distant rim of Gusev Crater. The blue glow is caused by light-scattering dust suspended in the atmosphere. Mosaic composite photograph. Taken
Sunset on Mars. Appearing only about two-thirds the size it does from Earth, the Sun sets behind the 50-mile-distant rim of Gusev Crater. The blue glow is caused by light-scattering dust suspended in the atmosphere. Mosaic composite photograph. Taken

New BBC Documentary 2015 Hunting The Edge Of Space BBC Documentary HD

Undectable Extraterrestrial Signals And The Andromeda Galaxy

Andromeda as Seen By NSASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer
Andromeda as Seen By NSASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer

Undetectable Extraterrestrial Signals --"Advanced Civilizations Could Be Using Ghostly Neutrinos or Gravitational Waves"

The Daily Galaxy Infroms us Thusly:

The Daily Galaxy Informs us thusly:Several of the world's leading astronomers -- including Great Britain's former astronomer royal, Sir Martin Rees -- believe advanced extraterrestrial civilizations, rather than using different radio waves or visible light to signal, may be using an entirely different communication medium such as ghostly neutrinos or with gravitational waves (ripples in the fabric of space-time) or using communication mechanisms we cannot begin to fathom.

So far, we have no evidence to prove that we are not the lone sentient life in the universe. And yet the odds that not one single other planet has evolved intelligent life would appear, from a statistical standpoint, to be quite small. There are an estimated 250 billion (2.5 x 10¹¹ ) stars in the Milky Way alone, and over 70 sextillion (7 x 10²² ) in the visible universe, and many of them are surrounded by multiple planets.
Meanwhile, our 4.5 billion-year old Solar System exits in a universe that is estimated to be between 13.5 and 14 billion years old. Experts believe that there could be advanced civilizations out there that have existed for 1.8 gigayears (one gigayear = one billion years).

The odds of there being only one single planet that evolved life among all that unfathomable vastness seems so incredible that it is all but completely irrational to believe. But then "where are they?" asked physicist Enrico Fermi while having lunch with his colleagues in 1950.

Fermi reasoned, if there are other advanced extraterrestrial civilizations, then why is there no evidence of such, like spacecraft or probes floating around the Milky Way. His question became famously known as the Fermi Paradox. The paradox is the contradiction between the high estimates of the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and yet the lack of evidence for, or contact with, any such civilizations.

Given the extreme age of the universe, and its vast number of stars, if planets like Earth are at all typical, then there should be many advanced extraterrestrial civilizations out there, and at least a few in our own Milky Way. Another closely related question is the Great Silence, which poses the question: Even if space travel is too difficult, if life is out there, why don't we at least detect some sign of civilization like radio transmissions?

“The fact that we have not yet found the slightest evidence for life -- much less intelligence -- beyond this Earth," said Arthur C. Clarke, "does not surprise or disappoint me in the least. Our technology must still be laughably primitive, we may be like jungle savages listening for the throbbing of tom-toms while the ether around them carries more words per second than they could utter in a lifetime."

Lord Rees, a leading cosmologist and astrophysicist who is the president of Britain’s Royal Society and astronomer to the Queen of England believes the existence of extraterrestrial life may be beyond human understanding.

“They could be staring us in the face and we just don’t recognize them. The problem is that we’re looking for something very much like us, assuming that they at least have something like the same mathematics and technology. I suspect there could be life and intelligence out there in forms we can’t conceive. Just as a chimpanzee can’t understand quantum theory, it could be there as aspects of reality that are beyond the capacity of our brains.”

What would the nature of extraterrestrial intelligence be, assuming it exists? Arizona State University astrophysicist Paul Davies makes the interesting point that it is quite feasible for civilisations to exist without ever developing a scientific culture. Science, as we know it on Earth, would not exist without the combination of Greek philosophical inquiry and monotheism.

Davies’s fundamental point is that we should not take an anthropocentric view of possible alien life. Our civilisation is no more than 10,000 years old, a blink of the eye in cosmic terms. There could well be civilisations a million years old or even a 100 hundred million years old who are advanced in ways we cannot even begin to imagine.

In fact, Davies writes in his book, The Eerie Silence, that advanced technology might not even be made of matter. That it might have no fixed size or shape; have no well-defined boundaries. Is dynamical on all scales of space and time. Or, conversely, does not appear to do anything at all that we can discern. Does not consist of discrete, separate things; but rather it is a system,or a subtle higher-level correlation of things.

Are matter and information, Davies asks, all there is? Five hundred years ago, Davies writes, " the very concept of a device manipulating information, or software, would have been incomprehensible. Might there be a still higher level, as yet outside all human experience, that organizes electrons? If so, this "third level" would never be manifest through observations made at the informational level, still less at the matter level.

We should be open to the distinct possibility that advanced alien technology a billion years old may operate at the third, or perhaps even a fourth or fifth level -all of which are totally incomprehensible to the human mind at our current state of evolution in 2012.

Frank Drake, the founder of SETI and Drake's Equation, believes that satellite TV and the “digital revolution” is making humanity invisible to aliens by cutting the transmission of TV and radio signals into space. The earth is currently surrounded by a 50 light year-wide “shell” of radiation from analogue TV, radio and radar transmissions. According to Drake, digital TV signals would look like white noise to a race of observing aliens.

Although the signals have spread far enough to reach many nearby star systems, they are rapidly vanishing in the wake of digital technology, said Drake. In the 1960s, Drake spearheaded the conversion of the Arecibo Observatory to a radio astronomy center. As a researcher, Drake was involved in the early work on pulsars. Drake also designed the Pioneer plaque with Carl Sagan in 1972, the first physical message sent into space. The plaque was designed to be understandable by extraterrestrials should they encounter it.


The image at the top of the page show X-ray observations that have more than tripled the number of known black holes in the nearby Andromeda galaxy. Lying just 2.5 million light-years from Earth, Andromeda (main image) is a giant spiral, the largest of the approximately six dozen galaxies populating the so-called Local Group; the Milky Way ranks number two in size and boasts about 50 known black holes. With this discovery, Andromeda now has 35 known black holes, each weighing several times more than the sun, plus a far larger one at its center.

The Universe And Its Galaxies....

Galaxy Cluster...
Galaxy Cluster...
Black Hole...
Black Hole...
The wonders of space: A picture from the Hubble Space Telescope. Hawking said the observations of an expanding galaxy made by the astronomer after which the telescope is made refuted the idea the universe had no beginning
The wonders of space: A picture from the Hubble Space Telescope. Hawking said the observations of an expanding galaxy made by the astronomer after which the telescope is made refuted the idea the universe had no beginning
Early Galaxies..
Early Galaxies..
he core of the Milky Way at a distance of some 26,000 light years from Earth.
he core of the Milky Way at a distance of some 26,000 light years from Earth.

The Universe....

The universe was born with the Big Bang as an unimaginably hot, dense point. When the universe was just 10-34 of a second or so old — that is, a hundredth of a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second in age — it experienced an incredible burst of expansion known as inflation, in which space itself expanded faster than the speed of light. During this period, the universe doubled in size at least 90 times, going from subatomic-sized to golf-ball-sized almost instantaneously.

Deep Space Look...

Hypervelocity Stars,,
Hypervelocity Stars,,
Starburst Galaxy, Messier 82(M82) taken today: Scientists now think that this vigorous phase of star formation is brief
Starburst Galaxy, Messier 82(M82) taken today: Scientists now think that this vigorous phase of star formation is brief
This image shows these distant galaxies, found in a region of sky known as the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, in the constellation of Fornax. The galaxies are so distant that their light has taken around ten billion years to reach us, so we see t
This image shows these distant galaxies, found in a region of sky known as the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, in the constellation of Fornax. The galaxies are so distant that their light has taken around ten billion years to reach us, so we see t
Astronomers have obtained the first image of a dusty disc closely encircling a massive baby star, providing direct evidence that massive stars form in the same way as their smaller brethren. This discovery, made thanks to a combination of ESO's teles
Astronomers have obtained the first image of a dusty disc closely encircling a massive baby star, providing direct evidence that massive stars form in the same way as their smaller brethren. This discovery, made thanks to a combination of ESO's teles
Sprial Sci Fi Galaxy...
Sprial Sci Fi Galaxy...

A Contemporary Updated Universe We Are All Of Us Living And Existing In.. We Are In The Universe, And The Universe Is In Us...

1. It Would Take About 100,000 years For A Spaceship From Earth To  Traverse The Whole of Our Milky Way, from One End to another Travelling At The Speed Of Light... This illustration shows the distribution of molecular gas across the plane of the Mil
1. It Would Take About 100,000 years For A Spaceship From Earth To Traverse The Whole of Our Milky Way, from One End to another Travelling At The Speed Of Light... This illustration shows the distribution of molecular gas across the plane of the Mil
2. The Herschel Infrared Space Observatory discovered that galaxies do not always need to collide with each other to drive vigorous star birth. The finding overturns a long-held assumption and paints a more stately picture of how galaxies evolve. The
2. The Herschel Infrared Space Observatory discovered that galaxies do not always need to collide with each other to drive vigorous star birth. The finding overturns a long-held assumption and paints a more stately picture of how galaxies evolve. The
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has snapped the best ever image of the Antennae Galaxies. Hubble has released images of these stunning galaxies twice before, once using observations from its Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in 1997, and
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has snapped the best ever image of the Antennae Galaxies. Hubble has released images of these stunning galaxies twice before, once using observations from its Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in 1997, and
4. An international team led by astronomers from Queen's University Belfast has identified the fastest ever star on an escape trajectory from the Milky Way – the white dwarf US708, which is traveling at a staggering 1,200 km per sec (746 miles per se
4. An international team led by astronomers from Queen's University Belfast has identified the fastest ever star on an escape trajectory from the Milky Way – the white dwarf US708, which is traveling at a staggering 1,200 km per sec (746 miles per se
5. Andromeda Is So Hot And Cold: This mosaic of the Andromeda spiral galaxy highlights explosive stars in its interior, and cooler, dusty stars forming in its many rings. The image is a combination of observations from the Herschel Space Observatory
5. Andromeda Is So Hot And Cold: This mosaic of the Andromeda spiral galaxy highlights explosive stars in its interior, and cooler, dusty stars forming in its many rings. The image is a combination of observations from the Herschel Space Observatory

The Mysterious Orbit of Mercury I The Great Courses

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Comments 6 comments

IslandVoice profile image

IslandVoice 7 years ago from Hawaii

And that is the big question, what good will it do us to have more technology, state of the art equipments and knowledge? We know more, but we are less safe. We place in our very enemies hands the ability to use the same tools to kill and destroy. You have written again, another masterpiece of a hub. I truly enjoyed reading this. Congrats too, for the fine illustrations you have added!


nextstopjupiter profile image

nextstopjupiter 7 years ago from here, there and everywhere

The biggest challenge of our time is how to use information technology to end wars, hunger, homelessness, slavery, environmental destruction and all the other evil things still existing on our spaceship Earth. If we don't find the right way we will end up in the stone age again.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 5 years ago Author

IslandVoice: Although this is late for me to be responding, I will simply say, thank you very much, and for the Hubs you keep on publishing. I will be visiting soon. Again, sorry for the late reply, and it is better later than never at all. Thank you!


ixwa profile image

ixwa 5 years ago Author

nextstojupiter: Honestly, this is a late reply, nonetheless, I hope you understand and keep on commenting to any of my hubs. Mmm.. I wonder if some of us are luddites or technophobes, and it is the middle ground between the two that I would love to see humanity synergize technology with human technique: meaning, an extreme attachment to either one at the expense of the other means human uneven development. Anyway, my apologies again fro responding this late to your post. I hope you come back and check some other articles I will be posting in the near future. Thanks!


jamterrell profile image

jamterrell 5 years ago

Absolutely fascinating hub!You also have great pictures here.I enjoyed reading it.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 5 years ago Author

Jamterrell: Welcome to the Hub above and I hope, so far, you find HubPages enthralling and satisfying. Thank you very much for reading the Hub above and I appreciate you kind comments.. I am looking forward to hearing and reading your comments and posts on any of the Hubs I have already written.Again, welcome to both HubPages, and for commenting on the article above. Peace be unto you!

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