Graphic Terminologies Made Easy

This article explains 6 different graphic terminologies which are most commonly used in the industry.


1. PCI-E
PCI Express actually means Peripheral Component Interconnect Express is an expansion card designed to replace older PCI,PCI-X and AGP cards.PCI Express is a serial connection that operates like a network than a bus.


2. GPU
GPU is Graphical Processing Unit.
It is a single chip processor , designed by NVidia, publicized initially as GeForce 256 GPU which is capable of processing minimum of 10 million polygons per second, with over 22 million transistors. This chip contains integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup and rendering engines.

3. Anti Aliasing
Anti Aliasing is the process of making the edges in the video more smoother.It basically smoothes out the jaggies and makes the picture nicer to look at.It is also known as font smoothing.If anti aliasing is not done or is not applied properly then diagonal edges especially in low resolution looks like staircases.
The main reason for these jaggies is due to the monitor or the printer not having enough resolution to represent a smooth line.

Antialiasing is sometimes also known as oversampling.

4. Anisotrophic filtering
Sometimes for the viewer the textures on surfaces doesn't look so great.The concept of anisotrophic is to address this issue and make the user see the actual quality of those textures on surfaces at greater angles.

Anisotrophic Bilinear
Bilinear filtering is a texture filtering method used to smooth textures when displayed larger or smaller than they actually are.

Anisotrophic trilinear
Trilinear filtering is an extension of the bilinear texture filtering method, which also performs linear interpolation between mipmaps.

The complete GPU performance is used by the anisotrphic filtering. AF provides the best image quality almost in every case.AF can function with anisotropy levels between 1 and 16, which define the maximum degree which a mipmap can be scaled by, but AF is commonly offered to the user in powers of two: 2x, 4x, 8x, and 16x.


5. Frame Buffer
Frame Buffer which is a video output device actually drives a video display from memory buffer containing complete data.The early frame buffers used 1-bit (2 color), 2-bit (4 color), 4-bit (16 color) or 8-bit (256 color) color depths.

Framebuffers used in personal and home computing often had sets of defined "modes" under which the framebuffer could operate. These modes would automatically reconfigure the hardware to output different resolutions, color depths, memory layouts and refresh rate timings.
It is also known as video memory.

6. Refresh Rate
The refresh rate is the number of times a display's image is repainted or refreshed per second. The refresh rate is expressed in hertz .

For example , a refresh rate of 100 means the image is refreshed 100 times in a second. This rate can be modified using display properties.

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