Pressure vessels

INTRODUCTION

Pressure vessels are used to store and transmit liquids, vapors and gases under pressure in general. The pressure of these finds will expert pressure equally in all direction on the walls and ends of the pressure vessels. Because of the internal loading, stresses are induced on certain sections of the cylinder walls.

PRESSURE VESSELS: The pressure vessels are generally used in engineering practice to store fluid i.e. liquid vapors and gas and under pressure.

TYPES OF PRESSURE VESSELS:

Following are the main types of pressure vessels.

  1. According to the end construction.
  2. According to the dimensions.

PRESSURE VESSELS ACCORDING TO THE END OF CONSTRUCTION: According to end construction, the pressure vessels may be of open end or closed. end. A simple cylinder with a piston is an example of open-end or whereas a tank is an example of closed end vessel. Due to the fluid pressure circumferential or hoop stresses are induced in case of open-ended vessels where as longitudinal stresses in addition to circumferential stresses are induced in case of closed ended vessels.

PRESSURE VESSELS ACCORDING TO DIMENSIONS: According to dimensions pressure vessels may be of thin shell or thick shell.The deciding factor among thin and thick shells is its wall thickness an shell diameter. if the ration is less than 1/10 it is said to be a thick shell.Thin shells are used in boilers tanks and pipes whereas thick shells are used in high pressure cylinders, tanks , gun barrels etc.

USE OF PRESSURE VESSELS

Pressure vessels are used to store fluid i.e. liquids, vapors and gases under pressure. Major sues of pressure vessels are as follows:

  • steam boiler
  • storage of chemicals in chemical plants
  • storage of petroleum products
  • engine cylinders.


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