computer networking and communication guide
Computer networking and communications
Network - refers to interconnection of system/computer with a view of sharing resources/communication purposes
Why share resources?
1. Saving of cost Interconnected computers enable limited resources to be access by many people within a work place or globally. This save on equipment cost, example if you have 10 employees and want to purchase a printer for each of them, you interconnect the employees and buy 1 printer and connect to the 10 computers in the network.
2. Timely data retrieval. Networking help to bring resources at more centralized place which are easily accessible, resources are placed at one centralized place which any one who wants can reach
3. Security/Integrity of data. In secure interconnected computers it safer to transfer data across networking to avoids the tendency of your devices getting stolen
4. Research Research has become very easy with the reach of information available over the internet. This help to save time of undertaking a research that also into saving money and doing a timely report
5. Entertainment Entertainment has become a click of the mouse, you don't have to visit movie cinema as all this movies are available over the internet
6. Business/Trade It has become more lucrative to do business online because millions and millions use the internet daily as compared to shopping supermarkets and shop. Buying a car from one continent to another has become a click of the mouse without having to travel to that continent.
7. Consultancy Expertise is offering their knowledge over the internet for money. Working has become internet commuting that you only need to have internet connection and market your resume globally
We are going to discuss the common types of network we have
a) L.A.N (local area network)
b) W.A.N ( Wide area network)
c) M.A.N (Metropolitant Network)
d) Peer to Peer Network e) Client server Networks
Characteristics of L.A.N
- Refers to inter connectivity of computers within a given radius of 25 to 30 miles.
- They are always within a building
- Characterized by same transmission medium e.g. broadband
- Characterized by same operating system example running on a window platform of same version.
- They run on a special cables e.g. Fibre, optic cables
- Uses same transmission techniques could be digital (0&1)broad band analogue(waves) Advantages
- Fast transmission of data
- Low cost of establishment compare to other types of network
- More Secure because it's not connected to the public
- Easy to set up since media of same characteristic are needed Disadvantages
- Doesn't support many users since it's within a radius or a building.
- Is limited to resources
Characteristics of Wide Area Network
- Connect computers to a large geographical area normally within a town or a country
- Support many users
- Transmission of data is slow
- Security is compromised since its for public access
- Needs high specialized people to run it
- Need high cost of establishment
- Sharing of resources is unlimited
Characteristics of M.A.N
- Share the same characteristics of a L.A.N
- Might be public or private
Peer to peer Networks
- Refers to computers interconnectivity with no dedicated server to perform any routine work
- Has got less than ten computers
- Can exist in all topology
- Sharing of resources dependent on the users themselves
- Chaotic network - no centralized management of resources
- No administrator to run the network
- All the computers are equal and known as servers
- Normally each computer function as a client or a server
Characteristics of peer to peer network
a) Cost - the peer to peer network is relatively simply because computer functions as both a client and a server and no need for a powerful central server.
b) Size - It has got no more than ten computers
Factors to consider before designing a Peer to Peer network
1. where there are ten or less ten users of the network
2. where security can be compromised
3. where users are in the same L.A.N
4. If the growth of an organization network is not anticipated in the near future
5. Training - since all computers in the network can both be server and client , users will have to be trained before they are able to function properly as both users and administrators in that computer
6. Security - security consist of setting a password on resources such as directory that is shared on the network because all peer to peer users set their own security and share any existing computers.
3. Server requirement - all computer works as either server or client
4. Sharing resources - where all resources will be accessing by all user
5. Administrators if you intend not to have administrator
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