Adjectival, Specialty & Niche Tourisms

What are Adjectival Tourisms?

Adjectival Tourisms are all those forms of tourism that have an adjective in front of them. I can currently think of two broad forms of adjective tourisms. The first is niche tourism markets -- those that focus on the special interests of particular clients. This is also known as Specialty Tourism.

The second approach consists of ways that academics describing the phenomenon of tourism and broad forms of tourism, including the tourism and travel experience and tourism landscapes and economies. I refer to these as Conceptual Tourisms.

These approaches are both listed below, in separate sections, along with an Unusual Tourisms section for concepts that have been thrown out there, but have not, in my opinion, gained any use. I have also added a Tourism Research Issues list, just because I think it kind of fits here.To get more information on any of the concepts in this hub you can simply search for these terms in your favorite search engine.

Like most of my hubs, this one is for use by my students in the tourism and geography classes that I teach at Northern Arizona University. I placed a version of this list on the 'Tourism' entry in Wikipedia -- but that is not updated as regularly as here.

Suggestions for additions, as well as appropriate links, are welcome in the comments section.

Specialty Niche Tourism Markets

For many of these, the word "Travel" is interchangeable with "Tourism"

  1. - Aboriginal Tourism (also Tribal Tourism and Native American Tourism)
  2. - Active Tourism (participating in sport activities)
  3. - Adventure Tourism (usually outdoors; also Extreme Adventure)
  4. - Adventurous Leisure
  5. - Aerial Tourism (also Flightseeing)
  6. - Agritourism (or Farm Tourism)
  7. - Alternative Tourism (involving risk)
  8. - Alternative Sport (involving risk or counter culture)
  9. - Ancestral Tourism (see also Roots Tourism)
  10. - Armchair Tourism (also Vicarious Travel -- experiencing travel without traveling)
  11. - Atomic Tourism (also Nuclear Tourism)
  12. - Atrocity Tourism (also War, Disaster, etc., below)
  13. - Audio Tours / Tourism
  14. - Backpack Tourism (or Youth Backpack Tourism)
  15. - Battlefield Tourism
  16. - Beach Tourism (see also SSS, below)
  17. - Birth Tourism
  18. - Border Tourism (or Cross-Border Tourism)
  19. - Business Travel
  20. - Celebrity Tourism (including Delebrity Cruises)
  21. - Commodity Tourism (based on fishing, agriculture, etc.; includes Plantation Tourism)
  22. - Community Based Tourism (or Community Supported Tourism)
  23. - Corruption Tourism
  24. - Cruise Tourism
  25. - Culinary Tourism
  26. - Diaspora Tourism (related to Roots Tourism)
  27. - Disaster Tourism
  28. - Dark Tourism
  29. - Death Tourism (Dark Tourism to sites of disaster and death)
  30. - Dental Tourism (a form of Medical Tourism)
  31. - Desert Tourism
  32. - Dive Tourism (SCUBA)
  33. - Drug Tourism (to buy legal or illegal drugs)
  34. - Ecotourism (or Eco-tourism in some countries)
  35. - Educational Tourism (or Edutourism)
  36. - Emersive Tourism (educational, volunteer, adventure and working travel)
  37. - Enclave Tourism
  38. - Engagementcations
  39. - Equestrian Tourism
  40. - Ethnic Tourism
  41. - Event Tourism (or Special Event Tourism, including Festivals)
  42. - Extreme Tourism
  43. - Fare Travel (application of "fare trade" to travel and tourism)
  44. - FIT - Fully Independent Travel (or Free and Independent Travel)
  45. - Free and Easy Travel (transportation and accommodations only package)
  46. - Gambling of Gaming Tourism
  47. - Garden Tourism
  48. - Gay Tourism (also LGBT Tourism - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender)
  49. - Gay Marriage Tourism
  50. - Geography Tourism (also Extreme Geography Tourism)
  51. - Geoparks Tourism (geology-based parks)
  52. - Geotourism (related to GeoParks, and to Sustainable Tourism)
  53. - Girlfriend Getaway (all female trip)
  54. - GIT - Group Inclusive Travel (also All Inclusive Holiday, related to Package Tour)
  55. - Golf Tourism
  56. - Green Tourism (related to Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism)
  57. - Greif Tourism (related to Thanatourism)
  58. - Halal Tourism (sensitive to Islamic practices)
  59. - Health Tourism (overlapping with Wellness Tourism, Medical Tourism and New Age Tourism)
  60. - Heat Tourism
  61. - Heritage Tourism
  62. - Hobby Tourism
  63. - Homestay Tourism (also Village Stay Tourism and Kampung Stay Tourism)
  64. - Hot-Spot Tourism (places of current conflict)
  65. - Incentive Travel (gift or award vacations for employees)
  66. - Inclusive Tourism (for disability travelers)
  67. - Independent Tour Groups (aka "Donkey Friends" in China)
  68. - Island Tourism
  69. - Jihad Tourism (travel to support one side in a Muslim conflict)
  70. - Jobbatical (work exchange sabbatical)
  71. - Honeymoon (or Second Honeymoon)
  72. - Libel Tourism
  73. - Literary Tourism
  74. - Local Travel (aka Proximity Tourism; related to Staycation)
  75. - Mass Tourism
  76. - Maternity Tourism
  77. - Medical Tourism
  78. - MICE - Meetings, Incentive Travel, Conventions and Exhibitions
  79. - Mountain Tourism
  80. - Nautical Tourism
  81. - New Age Tourism
  82. - Nightlife Tourism (also Entertainment Tourism)
  83. - Package Tourism (related to GIT)
  84. - Perpetual Tourism ("travel as a way of life")
  85. - Photography (or Photo) Tourism
  86. - Plantation Tourism (Agritourism to tropical plantations)
  87. - Poverty Tourism (or Poorism)
  88. - Pro-Poor Tourism
  89. - Proximity Tourism (aka Local Travel; related to Staycation)
  90. - Reality Tourism (real world experiences; often related to Responsible Tourism and Poverty Tourism)
  91. - Relationship Tourism (experimenting with brief, non-committal relationships, such as this)
  92. - Religious Tourism (or Faith Tourism; includes Pilgrimage)
  93. - Residential Tourism (retirement in another country)
  94. - Respite Tourism (for care givers)
  95. - Responsible Tourism (or Purposeful Tourism)
  96. - Reunion Tourism
  97. - River Cruise Tourism
  98. - Romance Tourism (or Female Sex Tourism, as opposed to Male Sex Tourism)
  99. - Roots Tourism (or Genealogy tourism; related to Diaspora Tourism)
  100. - Ruin Porn (related to: #urbex, hidden city, abandoned america)
  101. - Rural Tourism
  102. - Second Home Tourism (also Vacation Home)
  103. - Senior Tourism
  104. - Sex Tourism (also Child Sex Tourism)
  105. - Shopping Tourism
  106. - Social Tourism (meaning social welfare, associated with European communist policies)
  107. - Space Tourism
  108. - Sports Tourism
  109. - SSS - Sun, Sand and Surf (also Sand, Surf and Sex)
  110. - Staycation (became widely used in Summer 2008; a form of Local Travel and Proximity Tourism)
  111. - Thanatourism (meaning 'death' related tourism)
  112. - Urban Tourism
  113. - Vacation Rental Travel
  114. - VFR - Visiting Friends and Relatives
  115. - Virtual Tourism (a modern form of Armchair Tourism)
  116. - Volunteer Tourism (also Voluntourism)
  117. - War Tourism
  118. - Wine Tourism (a form of Culinary Tourism)
  119. - Winter (Sports) Tourism

New and Unusual Tourisms

These are terms that I have come across, but I consider them concepts that are not yet used in any regular way -- at least not be most people and academics. ...Or perhaps I just feel uncomfortable putting them in either of the lists above.

  1. Babymoon (a pre-birth honeymoon)
  2. Biotourism (travel to biological sites and sights)
  3. Black-Hole Tourism/Resorts (disconnecting from technology)
  4. Book Town tourism
  5. Celebration Vacations
  6. Community Assistance Tourism
  7. Creative Tourism (tourist participation indestination arts)
  8. Deep Tourism (as opposed to shallow or supericial tourism, like "deep ecology")
  9. Emo Tourism
  10. Genetourism (from the Greek, genesis = birth; tourism to birth places of famous people)
  11. Graffiti Tourism (travel to commit graffiti)
  12. Infadelity Tourism
  13. Intrabound Tourism (intra-regional? - appears on several websites, including Wikipedia, but is never defined)
  14. Killing-Fields Tourism (a form of Thanatourism)
  15. Lest We Forget Tourism (or Never-Again Tourism, meaning in rememberance of events that we should not forget)
  16. Libel Tourism (I am not sure this is really tourism)
  17. Mea culpa Tourism (or perhaps Guilt Tourism; related to Lest We Forget Tourism)
  18. Mancation (an all male trip)
  19. Momcation (for mothers)
  20. Pornographic Tourism
  21. Purposeful Tourism (also Meaningful Tourism, related to Volunteer Tourism)
  22. Resolution Tourism (as in New Years resolutions)
  23. Riot Tourism
  24. Sado-masochistic Tourism
  25. Summer Communes
  26. Tummy Tuck Travel (medical tourism for plastic surgery)
  27. Ultra Budget Travel
  28. Unguided Travel (random explorations of place)

Related to this list is an article on The Worst Travel Trends.


Conceptual Tourisms - for Academic Research

These are more on the theoretical and academic concepts of tourism experiences and landscapes.

  1. - Active / Passive Tourism
  2. - Authentic Tourism (or Tourism and Authenticity)
  3. - Behavioral Tourism (studying tourist behavior and decision making)
  4. - Clustered Tourism (or Destination Tourism) / Dispersed Tourism (or Touring Tourism)
  5. - Deep Play (or Deep and Dangerous Play; involving risk)
  6. - Existential (Authenticity) Tourism
  7. - Experimental / Participatory Tourism
  8. - Experiential Tourism
  9. - Globalization / Localization / Hybrid Tourism
  10. - Inbound/ Outbound Tourism
  11. - Inauthentic / Placeless / Staged Tourism
  12. - Modern / Postmodern Tourism (or Pomo Tourism and Post-Tourists)
  13. - Pro-Poor / Responsible Tourism
  14. - Recreational Tourism
  15. - Serious Leisure (the opposite of Recreational Tourism)
  16. - Sustainable Tourism
  17. - Tourism 2.0, Travel 2.0, Tourism 3.0 and Travel 3.0
  18. - Tourism Incognita (the unexpected and unknown in travel)
  19. - Structured Tourism

Tourism Research Issues

The following list is compiled each year by David L. Edgell (Professor of Tourism, College of Human Ecology, East Carolina University) based on input from members of the TRINET tourism researchers email list.

TEN IMPORTANT WORLD TOURISM ISSUES

FOR 2017 (published in June 2016)

  1. Importance of maintaining a destination’s sustainability regarding social, cultural, natural and built resources

  2. Concerns for safety and security remains an important issue for the travel and tourism industry

  3. Impact on the travel and tourism industry resulting from the global economic perspective

  4. Responding to increased interest in potential long-term consequences of climate change impacts on tourism

  5. Necessity for increased local/regional/national leadership in tourism policy and strategic planning

  6. Educating users about optimizing the application of new technologies in the tourism industry

  7. Resolving barriers to travel: visas, passports, airline services, fees, and delays

  8. Understanding the transformative effect that travel and tourism has on global socio-economic progress

  9. Effect on travel and tourism from natural/human-induced disasters, health issues, and political disruptions

  10. Changes in tourism demand resulting from increased travel by emerging nations

FOR 2016 - I guess I missed this one

FOR 2015 (published in July 2014)

  1. Impact on the travel and tourism industry resulting from the global economic slowdown
  2. Concerns for safety and security remains an important issue for the travel and tourism industry
  3. Importance of maintaining a destination's sustainability regarding social, cultural, natural and built resources
  4. Necessity for increased local/regional/national leadership in tourism policy and strategic planning
  5. Resolving barriers to travel: visas, fuel price increases, airline/transportation fees, and airline delays
  6. Educating users about optimizing use of new technologies in the tourism industry
  7. Understanding the transformative effect that travel and tourism has on global socio-economic progress
  8. Effect on travel and tourism from natural/human-induced disasters and world political disruptions
  9. Responding to increased interest in potential long-term consequences of climate change impacts on tourism
  10. Changes in tourism demand resulting from increased travel by emerging nations

FOR 2014 (published in August 2013)

  1. Continued impact on the travel and tourism industry resulting from the global economic slowdown
  2. Concerns for safety and security remains an important issue for the travel and tourism industry
  3. Necessity for increased local/regional/national leadership in tourism policy and strategic planning
  4. Importance of maintaining a destination’s sustainability of social, cultural, natural and built resources
  5. Educating users about optimization of technologies and online applications in the tourism industry
  6. Understanding the transformative effect travel and tourism has on global socio-economic progress
  7. Responding to increased interest in potential long-term consequences of climate change on tourism
  8. Negative impact on the travel and tourism industry of increases in fuel prices and airline fees
  9. Effect on travel and tourism from natural and manmade disasters and world political disruptions
  10. Changes in tourism demand resulting from increased travel by emerging nations

FOR 2013 (initial draft, published in 2012)

  1. Repercussions on the travel and tourism industry resulting from the global economic slowdown
  2. Concern for safety and security remains an important issue for the travel and tourism industry
  3. The transformative impact that travel and tourism has on global socio-economic progress
  4. Negative impact on the travel and tourism industry of increases in fuel prices and airline fees
  5. Importance of maintaining a destination’s social, cultural, natural and built resources
  6. Effect on travel and tourism from natural and manmade disasters and world political disruptions
  7. Influence of increased use of electronic and other technologies on the travel and tourism industry
  8. Changes in tourism demand resulting from increased travel by emerging nations
  9. Greater interest in potential long term consequences of climate change on tourism
  10. Need for increased national/local leadership in tourism policy and strategic planning

FOR 2012 (published in 2011)

  1. Repercussions on the travel and tourism industry from the global economic slowdown
  2. Concern for safety and security remains an important issue for the travel industry
  3. The transformative impact tourism has on global socio-economic progress
  4. Negative impact on the travel industry of increases in fuel prices and airline fees
  5. Importance of maintaining a destination’s social, cultural, natural and built resources
  6. Effect on tourism from natural and manmade disasters and world political disruptions
  7. Influence of increased use of electronic and other technologies on the travel industry
  8. Changes in tourism demand resulting from increased travel by emerging nations
  9. Greater interest in potential long term consequences of climate change on tourism
  10. Need for increased national/local leadership in tourism policy and strategic planning

FOR 2008 (when this Hubpage was first created)

  1. Safety and Security in Tourism
  2. Best Practices for Managing Sustainable Tourism
  3. New Developments in e-commerce tools in tourism
  4. Effect of Climate Change on Tourism
  5. Influence of the World’s Economy on Tourism
  6. Tourism Policy and Planning
  7. Tourism Education and Training
  8. Marketing Quality Tourism Products and Experiences
  9. Partnerships and Strategic Alliances in Tourism
  10. Impact of Natural and Other Disasters and Health Concerns on Tourism

FOR 2020 - A German marketing research institute identified 10 tourism trends for 2020 (published in 2006; source):

  1. Health-Holidays
  2. Mass-Adventure-Tourism\
  3. High-Convenience-Tourism
  4. Social & Creative Travel
  5. Cheap Chic
  6. Eco-Tourism
  7. Home-Tourism (local products and speciality goods)
  8. Sport-Tourism
  9. Spiritual Tourism
  10. Educational and Cultural Travel

Hmmm ... nothing on location-based services and tourism ???

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Comments 6 comments

countrywomen profile image

countrywomen 8 years ago from Washington, USA

WOW!! That's quite an exhaustive list. Btw Health/Medical Tourism esp in countries like India is it part of the existing list? Good job keep it up.


alew profile image

alew 8 years ago Author

Thanks. I added these. There is some debate as to whether Medical Tourism and Health Tourism are the same thing. Most of the people at a conference I was at recently though they were not. -- Alan


countrywomen profile image

countrywomen 8 years ago from Washington, USA

Whenever I see people on Discovery Channel like Samantha Brown...,and Iam envious of their job of a reporter/anchor for travel programs. I love the job were you get to travel, meet new people, see new places, experience best service and at no cost to me. Basically I get paid to enjoy. Nice hub keep it up.


AndyBaker profile image

AndyBaker 7 years ago from UK

Yeah - really nice list.

Thanks for this hub.


OdessaGuide profile image

OdessaGuide 4 years ago from Odessa, Ukraine

This is the most complete list of travel types I have ever seen!

Thank you.


kashmir-ladakh profile image

kashmir-ladakh 3 years ago from usa

Really good work done by you thanks for describing all the new forms of tourism which were unknown to me.

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