European Capital Cities

The Caldea, a modern day spa in Andorra la Vella, was photographed by dibhe in 2005.
The Caldea, a modern day spa in Andorra la Vella, was photographed by dibhe in 2005. | Source

What is a country?

There are a number of definitions of “country”—an area of land, the whole land or area of a nation or state, land with farms and small towns, a rural region, the people of a nation or state, the land of a person’s birth or citizenship.

My definition of “country” is more comprehensive: “a political division—a sovereign state—with a centralized government which is enclosed within a specified land boundary and which has the authority to enter into relations with other sovereign states.”

What is a capital city?

A country’s capital city is, in most cases, the official seat of government, as defined by law or the country’s constitution.

How many countries are there in Europe?

Depending upon who is doing the counting, and whether countries partially in Europe and partially in Asia are counted, there are anywhere between 44 and 50 countries in Europe.

Europe

The following chart, presented in five sections, lists 50 European countries, the capital cities, and interesting facts about each city.

COUNTRY
CAPITAL CITY
FACTS
Albania
Tirana
Tirana has been occupied since prehistoric times, as much as 10,000 years ago. Roman ruins dating to the 3rd century AD have been discovered in the city.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
At 3,356 feet (1023 meters), Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe. It is located in the Pyrenees mountains, between Spain and France.
Armenia
Yerevan
Yerevan has been continuously occupied since it was founded in 782 BC by King Argishti I.
Azerbaijan
Baku
Baku is the largest city on the Caspian Sea and in the Caucasus region.
Austria
Vienna
Known as the “City of Dreams” because it was the birthplace of Sigmund Freud, the world’s first psychoanalyst, Vienna is the number one destination in the world for international conventions.
Belarus
Minsk
Situated on the Svislach and Niamiha Rivers, Minsk is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an association of former Soviet Republics.
Belgium
Brussels
Founded by a descendant of Emperor Charlemagne, Brussels is home to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is the de facto capital of the European Union (EU).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
Known as the “Jerusalem of Europe,” Sarajevo has a Catholic church, Orthodox church, mosque, and synagogue in the same neighborhood. It was the second city in the world to have an electric tram network operating throughout the city.
Bulgaria
Sofia
Sofia began life as a Thracian settlement in the 5th to 4th century BC. The history of the city is very complex, with many factions fighting over it and seizing it throughout the centuries.
Croatia
Zagreb
The Roman town of Andautonia, dating to the 1st century AD is the oldest settlement in Zagreb.
Palmenhaus in the park of Schloss Schönbrunn in Vienna, the captial of Austria, was photographed by Manfred Werner on June 4, 2006.
Palmenhaus in the park of Schloss Schönbrunn in Vienna, the captial of Austria, was photographed by Manfred Werner on June 4, 2006. | Source
COUNTRY
CAPITAL CITY
FACTS
Cyprus, Republic of
Nicosia
Nicosia has been inhabited since 2500 BC. In 1960, the city became the capital of the Republic of Cyprus.
Czech Republic
Prague
Prague was the sixth most visited city in Europe in 2011. It is a cultural center in central Europe, with theaters, galleries, movie houses, and 10 major museums.
Denmark
Copenhagen
Situated on the islands of Zealand and Amager, Copenhagen is one of the world's most environmentally friendly cities.
Estonia
Tallinn
Situated on the Gulf of Finland, Tallinn is 50 miles (80 kilometers) from Helsinki, Finland; Stockholm, Sweden; and Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Finland
Helsinki
King Gustav Vasa of Sweden founded Helsinki in 1550 AD as a trading post to compete with Tallinn, Estonia.
France
Paris
Situated on the River Seine, Paris is one of the greenest, most livable, and expensive cities in Europe.
Georgia
Tbilisi
Although Tbilisi is know to have been inhabited as early as the 4th century BC, a city wasn't established until the 4th century AD.
Germany
Berlin
Berlin was settled in the last decade of the 12th century. There are more than 170 museums and galleries in Berlin, five of which are located on Museum Island, the northern half of an island in the Spree River. These five museums are a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Greece
Athens
Athens is one of the world's oldest cities. Its recorded history goes back more than 3400 years.
Greenland
Nuuk
Nuuk is the northernmost capital city in North America.
Nikater photographed these street vendors in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, on June 10, 2010.
Nikater photographed these street vendors in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, on June 10, 2010. | Source
COUNTRY
CAPITAL CITY
FACTS
Hungary
Budapest
The Budapest area was settled by Celtic tribes in the 1st century AD.
Iceland
Reykjavik
Founded circa 870 AD, Reykjavik is the world's northernmost capital city.
Ireland, Republic of
Dublin
Dublin was under Viking control from the 9th through the 12th centuries.
Italy
Rome
Rome, situated on the Tiber River is built on seven hills — Palatine, Aventine, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal.
Latvia
Riga
Riga, founded in 1201, is the largest city in the Baltic states (Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania).
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
Vaduz, founded in 1322 by the Counts of Werdenberg, doesn't have an airport or train station.
Lithuania
Vilnius
The population of Vilnius is so diverse, Lithuanians account for less than 60% of the population.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City was developed in the 5th to 10th centuries AD (the Early Middle Ages) around Luxembourg Castle.
Macedonia, Republic of
Skopje
Skopje is the birthplace of Mother Teresa.
Malta
Valletta
Valletta was named for Jean Parisot de la Vallette, a French nobleman who defended the island against invasion in 1565.
This photograph of Mitteldorf at Altenbach Street in Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein, was taken by Andrew Bossi on July 13, 2007.
This photograph of Mitteldorf at Altenbach Street in Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein, was taken by Andrew Bossi on July 13, 2007. | Source
COUNTRY
CAPITAL CITY
FACTS
Moldova
Chișinău
Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, Chișinău, the birthplace of the author's maternal grandfather, has a population in 2012 of close to 800,000 people.
Monaco
Monaco
Located on the French Riviera, the Principality of Monaco is the most densely populated country in the world.
Montenegro
Podgorica
Since Podgorica was part of the Ottoman Empire unitl 1878, many examples of Turkish archtiecture can be found in the city.
Netherlands
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the official capital city. The Hague is the seat of government.
Norway
Oslo
Oslo, founded by King Harald III circa 1048, was destroyed in 1624 by a fire. The city's location was moved after the fire, and its name was changed several times.The name Oslo was restored in 1925.
Poland
Warsaw
Nearly 85% of Warsaw was detroyed during World War II. The Old Town section of the city is actually a replica of that which was destroyed during the war.
Portugal
Lisbon
Lisbon is the westernmost capital city in Europe, and the only one on the Atlantic Ocean.
Romania
Bucharest
Located in the center of Bucharest, Parliament Palace is the second largest building in the world.
Russia
Moscow
Moscow, founded nearly 900 years ago, was the capital of the former Soviet Union, in addition to currently being the capital of Russia.
San Marino
San Marino
The City of San Marino and the Republic of San Marino were founded by Saint Marinus in 301 AD.
Zserghei photographed the Stone Church of Saint Theodora from Sihla in Chișinău, the capital of Moldova, in 2006.
Zserghei photographed the Stone Church of Saint Theodora from Sihla in Chișinău, the capital of Moldova, in 2006. | Source
COUNTRY
CAPITAL CITY
FACTS
Serbia
Belgrade
A prehistoric culture existed in what is now Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC.
Slovakia
Bratislava
Bratislava is the former capital of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
There were many marshes in the Ljubljana area. In the second millennium BC, people lived above the marshes in stilt houses.
Spain
Madrid
Madrid is the third largest city in the European Union and a major financial center in Southern Europe.
Sweden
Stockholm
Stockholm is built on 14 islands.
Switzerland
Bern (Berne)
The earliest evidence of people living where present-day Bern is located is no earlier than the 12th century.
Turkey
Ankara
Civilization in Ankara can be traced to the 2nd millennium BC.
Ukraine
Kiev
Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, was founded in the 9th century.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
London
Great Britain is comprised of England, Scotland, and Wales.
Vatican City
Vatican City
Vatican City is a land-locked city-state completely with the city of Rome, Italy.
Alexander Noskin photographed the Ukrainian National Theater — Zhovtnevy Palace (October Palace) on August 15, 2005.
Alexander Noskin photographed the Ukrainian National Theater — Zhovtnevy Palace (October Palace) on August 15, 2005. | Source

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Comments 44 comments

Docmo profile image

Docmo 4 years ago from UK

Superb list with nice ,useful details Daisy. I have only been to 10 out of the list and hope to visit more. I really like your geography hubs and quizzes as they take us on a fabulous journey from our armchairs. Votec up of course!


tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

Wow! I can't even remember all the countries, never mind the capitals! Lots of good information here and since I was never good in geography this is a great education for me. Voted up, useful, and interesting.


ThoughtSandwiches profile image

ThoughtSandwiches 4 years ago from Reno, Nevada

Daisy,

I have yet to pop over to the other side of the pond but feel pretty confident that I would have known most of these had they occurred in a quiz format. That said...I had no idea that Greenland had any cities let alone a capital city named Nuuk. Once upon a time Denmark owned Greenland...is that still the case?

Thanks,

Thomas


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 4 years ago from Taos, NM

Daisy: What a wonderful article! I love the list - it is so practical. The photos are all beautiful. I like that you give a little tidbit about each capital city. Voted up!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mohan (Docmo),

Thanks for reading my article and being the first to comment in it. I appreciate your continued support of my writing.

This Hub was time-consuming to research, but. at the same time, a lot of fun.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (tillsontitan),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it.

Some of the names of the capital cities were new to me. I learned a lot by writing this Hub.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Thomas (ThoughtSandwiches),

Can you really say with confidence that if you were given a list of the 50 countries, you would know the names of the 50 capital cities?!?

Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark. In June 2009, the Danish government transferred more power to the Greenlandic government.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Suzannah (suzettenaples),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I would have liked to provide more information about each capital city, but I didn't want my Hub to be any longer than it already is.


ThoughtSandwiches profile image

ThoughtSandwiches 4 years ago from Reno, Nevada

Daisy,

Well I believe I said "most" of them but yeah...that would be the result of a childhood spent pouring over maps of World War Two. The practice has set me up well for playing Jeopardy, taking quizzes (about European capitals), and winning the occasional bar bet...lol.

Interesting info on Greenland...Thanks!!

Thomas


david92 4 years ago

This is a great share. Thank you for the information. I was planning to travel some of these places myself too.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Thomas,

Thanks for visiting again. It sounds as though you would do well if I were to create a capital cities of Europe quiz.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

david92,

Welcome to HubPages. It's nice to meet you.

Thanks for reading my Hub and commenting in it. Which European countries were you thinking of visiting?


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 4 years ago

Daisy, I enjoyed this hub topic and only wish I could visit some of these capital cities. You have written this well, the research is excellent and it is interesting. Voted up.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Dianna (teaches12345),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in. I appreciate your very kind words and your continued support of my writing. You never know...you might visit some of the 50 citites some day.


Glimmer Twin Fan profile image

Glimmer Twin Fan 4 years ago

What an awesome list Daisy and very useful too. With so many changes to Europe over the years it was interesting to see some of the countries.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Glimmer Twin Fan,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my Hub and commenting in it.

Opinions vary over how many countries there are in Europe. I decided to use the maximum number I could find and verify.


david92 4 years ago

Thank you Daisy Mariposa for asking. I have to visit Turkey, Rome, and Paris, but i am still open for one more place to visit.


alocsin profile image

alocsin 4 years ago from Orange County, CA

What, no quiz ?!

A nice overview of Europe and its capital cities. I hadn't heard of quite a few of these countries, let alone their cities. Voting this Up and Interesting.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Aurelio (alocsin),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I appreciate your continued support of my museum- and geography-related articles and quizzes.

I had heard of all 50 countries, but some of the capital cities were new to me. I had originally planned to include a quiz in this article. The research required to obtain an interesting fact or two for each of the 50 capital cities was very time-consuming. I visited at least two or three Web sites for each city, looking for something I thought my readers would find interesting.

The bottom line...I ran out of time. I might add a quiz in the future.


alocsin profile image

alocsin 4 years ago from Orange County, CA

It's a great hub, even without the quiz.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Aurelio,

Thanks for stopping by again. I know you've done a lot of traveling. How many of the European capital cities have you visited?


James A Watkins profile image

James A Watkins 4 years ago from Chicago

I thought there was going to be a quiz! And I was ready for it.

Your Hub is excellent. I enjoyed reading it very much. You are a marvelous teacher. Thank you.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

James,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it.

I had thought about adding a quiz to this Hub, but time was a factor. I wrote this article during my sixth and final month of the HubPages Apprenticeship Program. I was anxious to write and publish my eight required articles well before the end of August, so I didn't want to take the time to include a quiz.

Now that I'm one of the 18 people to have completed the program and I'm an Apprenticeship Alum, I have the time to revise the article and add a quiz.


John Sarkis profile image

John Sarkis 4 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

Hi Daisy, I loved your article. I'm a bit into history and founded very informative and well written.

I second what James said as I thought there'd be a quiz. Some of your previous articles have test/quiz, so I was expecting the same on this one.

Take care - voted up

John


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

John,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it.

I bow to the demands of my readers. Aurelio Locsin, James A. Watkins, and you all expected to see a quiz, and Docmo Kumar (Mohan) commented that he enjoys my geography quizzes.

I'll add a quiz at the end of this article as soon as I get a chance. I can't create a separate quiz Hub, because if I did I would run into a *duplicate content* issue with the HubPages filters which compare the text on newly published works with that on previously published articles.

I appreciate your continued support of my work.


mary615 profile image

mary615 4 years ago from Florida

Oh, my...you really put a lot of time and energy into writing this Hub. I wish I had paid more attention to my Geography lessons when I was in school. I was amazed at all these countries!

I voted this one UP, etc.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mary (mary615),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. I appreciate your very kind words.

After I received my degree in Fine Arts in college, I received occupational certificates (30+ credits each) in both Travel Management and International Business. It was when I was studying for those certificates that I learned a lot about geography and culture in other countries.


DeborahNeyens profile image

DeborahNeyens 4 years ago from Iowa

Wow, Daisy, what a comprehensive hub. You must have out a lot of work into this one!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Deb (DeborahNeyens),

Thanks for reading and commenting in my article. This Hub probably took me as long to research as did selecting and documenting the information about the paintings in my Women Painters article.

Some of my readers inquired about a European capital cities quiz. To avoid a potential *duplicate content* problem, I'm going to have to add the quiz on to this Hub rather than publish the quiz separately. I'll try to work on the quiz "soon"...probably at the beginning of next month.


KDuBarry03 4 years ago

You can tell there was much work and effort delivered here. Great job, Daisy! I have to say, I'm a little shocked to read that Stockholm is built on 14 islands; can't imagine the effort put into it.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 4 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Keith (KDuBarry03),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. This Hub and the Women Painters article which was my 100th Hub took me the longest to research and write.

I had a consulting contract several years ago during which I lived and worked in Stockholm for six months. When you take a break from your school studies, look at map of the Stockholm archipelago, the islands and islets along the east coast of Sweden. There are approximately 30,000 of them.

There wasn't very much of a feeling of being on a series of islands when in Stockholm, except when traveling on the Tunnelbana (Subway / Underground) and there were several minutes between Tunnelbana stops. You knew you were traveling from one island to another during those times.


Ratatoesk profile image

Ratatoesk 3 years ago

Thank you for this pretty useful hub :-)


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Andreas (Ratatoesk),

It's nice to meet you. Thank you for reading my article and posting your comment.


Sunshine625 profile image

Sunshine625 3 years ago from Orlando, FL

I stopped by to visit Dublin, Ireland in honor of St. Patricks Day. I also visited many other European cities. Thanks for the virtual trip!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Linda (Sunshine625),

Thanks for taking my virtual tour of the capital cities of Europe. What a great idea to visit the capital of Ireland in honor of St. Paddy's Day!

This Hub is second only to my "Woman Painters" article in being the most time-consuming to research and write. I kept hoping that no new countries would be formed while I was writing my article, so I could complete it in a timely manner.


Vacation Trip profile image

Vacation Trip 3 years ago from India

Excellent hub with beautiful photos. I must say you have put a lot of effort. Voted up.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Susan (Vacation Trip),

It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I appreciate your very kind words.

The photographs are all from Wikimedia Commons. If I don't use my own photographs in my Hubs, that's where I find the best images with legal attribution.


vocalcoach profile image

vocalcoach 3 years ago from Nashville Tn.

This is an excellent and very well done hub. I enjoyed every bit of it. Always wanted to visit Europe and with your help I have. You've put so much into this and really go the extra mile. Voted up and all the rest plus sharing and pinning.~Audrey


AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 3 years ago from California

What a great list--but this just made me realize how little I have traveled!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Audrey (vocalcoach),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing and pinning my Hub. I appreciate your very kind words and support of my writing. I hope you get to have a "non-virtual" tour of Europe some day.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Audrey (AudreyHowitt),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. There are so many places to which one can travel. The 50 countries in Europe are just one aspect of it.


AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 2 years ago from California

Such a useful list!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Audrey (AudreyHowitt),

Thanks for visiting again. I appreciate your support.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 16 months ago from England

Hi Daisy, reading this while eating my lunch it gave me the opportunity to read all about the capital cities which I didn't really know before, so fascinating stuff! great hub, nell

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