Jordan's History in Photographs

INTRODUCTION

Jordan - sandwiched between several of the world's political hotspots, with borders in common with Israel, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia - is only a small country, similar in size to Portugal and Austria, or such American states as Maine, Indiana and South Carolina. However, Jordan has a historic and cultural significance which is out of all proportion to its size. The Middle East is where civilisation as we know it first developed, so Jordan, like most other countries in this region, has a long history of settlement. Moreover, Jordan lies on the ancient trade routes between Europe, Arabia and North Africa, and the far East, and is surrounded by countries influenced by three of the world's most significant religions, Judaism, Christianity and of course Islam. Consequently, this small country has been shaped by a more diverse range of different societies than almost any other country on Earth.

This page gives a brief overview of the timeline of Jordan from prehistory to the 20th century, concentrating on a few of the great buildings, monuments and the artifacts left to us by the many nomads, settlers and conquerors who have passed through this area throughout the past 10,000 years.

The legacy of two of the societies featured - the Nabataeans and the Umayyads - are covered in more detail in other pages by the same author (see my links later on this page).

All photos of Jordan's historic sites on this page were taken by the author

The stone walls and remains of Neolithic dwellings at al-Beidha in Jordan
The stone walls and remains of Neolithic dwellings at al-Beidha in Jordan
Today the site can be easily visited, and is worth a visit, for the chance to see stone constructions more than 4000 years older than the pyramids.
Today the site can be easily visited, and is worth a visit, for the chance to see stone constructions more than 4000 years older than the pyramids.
At al-Beidha there is a reconstruction of how the Neolithic dwellings may have looked 7000 BC
At al-Beidha there is a reconstruction of how the Neolithic dwellings may have looked 7000 BC

PREHISTORIC JORDAN 100,000 BC TO 4500 BC. NEOLITHIC AL-BEIDHA

Jordan has been inhabited for many thousands of years. Indeed, it would have been one of the very first areas through which early Stone Age people migrated after first leaving Africa about 100,000 years ago. Little remains of such early colonisation, but with the development of agriculture about 8500 BC came the establishment of settled communities with permanent shelters or buildings, and the first relics which have survived the test of time. During this time, plants such as barley and wheat and lentils were first cultivated. Then, approximately 6,000BC, the first livestock - sheep, goats, cattle, and maybe pigs - were also domesticated.

Possibly the oldest known settlement from this era is at al-Beidha in south-west Jordan. al-Beidha dates back to the Neolithic Period of 7200 BC, and here the remains of stone-built walls dividing circular rooms and square buildings have been uncovered. This area seems to have been under more or less continuous occupation for many centuries, albeit with several distinct periods of reconstruction. And during this time, the people may have developed radically from a lifestyle as hunter-gatherers, to become growers of early cereal crops, and eventually pastoral farmers of goats.

Ain Ghazal is a large Neolithic village site, on the banks of the Zarqa River near Amman, Jordan. This site, like al-Beidha, was also occupied around 7000 BC, but may have survived even longer into the era when pottery was first crafted, as some of the earliest known statuettes of human figures in the world have been found here.

Ancient petroglyphs - rock carvings - in Wadi Rum. The age of these carvings by nomadic travellers seems uncertain, but undoubtably date back thousands of years. In this image are a man with a spear, camels, and the now extinct Arabian ostrich
Ancient petroglyphs - rock carvings - in Wadi Rum. The age of these carvings by nomadic travellers seems uncertain, but undoubtably date back thousands of years. In this image are a man with a spear, camels, and the now extinct Arabian ostrich
Ancient inscriptions in Nabataean and Greek on the wall near the 'Obelisk' Tomb on the outskirts of Petra - detailing the names of tomb occupants
Ancient inscriptions in Nabataean and Greek on the wall near the 'Obelisk' Tomb on the outskirts of Petra - detailing the names of tomb occupants

THE BRONZE AGE AND EARLY IRON AGE JORDAN 4500 BC TO 63 BC

During the era known as the Bronze Age, the development of copper ore smelting and manufacture of bronze tools, were to be added to the skills of stone masonry, agriculture, animal husbandry and pottery manufacture. North Africa and the Middle East were in a state of some upheaval at this time. This was the period of Egyptian pharaonic rule when all of the great pyramids and temples of Egypt were being constructed. Jordan was subject to invasion from Egypt and several other regional powers, but was still home to its own, distinctive peoples. Three of the most significant local kingdoms were established around 1000 BC in different parts of Jordan, and these were the kingdoms of Edom, Moab and Ammon, and each of these became wealthy through trade, copper mining and agriculture. This wealth in turn attracted the attention of, and incursions by, other emerging empires at this time - first the Assyrians, then the Baylonians, and then the Persians. Finally it was Alexander the Great and his Greek armies who arrived and conquered the region in 332 BC. The Greeks would hold sway in the region for centuries to come.

Ironically, little survives in Jordan to this day of this great empire; instead it was left to a relative backwater of ancient civilisation which emerged at this time to leave us the most remarkable of all Jordanian architectural treasures - The City of Petra.

Detail from the facade of the Monastery Building at Petra
Detail from the facade of the Monastery Building at Petra
The Monastery Building
The Monastery Building
The Palace Tomb at Petra
The Palace Tomb at Petra
One of the rock cut rooms at Little Petra
One of the rock cut rooms at Little Petra

THE NABATAEANS - PETRA

Even before the invasion of Alexander the Great, an obscure tribe of nomadic traders had begun migrating into Jordan out of Arabia. These were the Nabataeans. Little is known about the Nabataeans; though an apparently literate society, they left very little in the way of written documents, and even inscriptions on temples and tombs such as those illustrated above, are rare. The Nabataeans' precise origin is unknown, and the lifestyle they pursued is unclear, and even whether they were just one tribe or several tribes of a similar habit is uncertain. They were undoubtably wanderers, seemingly stateless for much of their history, yet accepted without too much hostility through the various empires in which they drifted. Their society seems to have been built on trade and commerce rather than empire building, and they supplied goods to India and China, and to the European empires of Greece and Rome, goods including copper and iron, spices, perfumes and medicines, silk and cotton. As nomadic traders, almost nothing in the way of houses or temples or fortresses was built to last.

And yet, in the space of a few decades after settling in southern Jordan and making their base in a secret rocky canyon, the Nabataeans remarkably created one of the most distinctive cities of the ancient world. Quite why this happened, and why they adopted a more sedentary lifestyle with a city capital remains a matter of conjecture, but what is clear is that the city soon became a major site. In Rome, it was known as Petra, and 2000 years later it is regarded as one of the Wonders of the World. For several centuries Petra survived as a vibrant city but it eventually declined after incorporation into the Roman Empire, diversion of trade routes away from the area, and a series of earthquakes, which led to its abandonment.

This unique site is really much too big a subject to be dealt with here, but an overview can be found on my page, Petra, Jordan; a Travel Guide.

LITTLE PETRA

A few kilometres north of Petra lies al-Beidha, the Neolithic site described above. But within walking distance of this stone age settlement, Nabataeans established a commercial suburb of Petra in the first century AD. Much smaller than Petra, but very similar to the main site cut as it is into the walls of a canyon, this is widely known as Little Petra.

A fragment of just one of the world famous Dead Sea Scrolls - thousands of Biblical and other Hebrew texts mostly written in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC,  hidden long ago in caves in the region of Qumran, and only rediscovered in the 20th century
A fragment of just one of the world famous Dead Sea Scrolls - thousands of Biblical and other Hebrew texts mostly written in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC, hidden long ago in caves in the region of Qumran, and only rediscovered in the 20th century
A recently erected monument on the site where, according to the Bible, Moses saw the 'Promised Land' before he died. Today you can look out over this area, just as he would have done.
A recently erected monument on the site where, according to the Bible, Moses saw the 'Promised Land' before he died. Today you can look out over this area, just as he would have done.

BIBLICAL JORDAN

This page is concerned primarily with the archaeological history of Jordan. However, there will undoubtably be interest for many in the Old Testament sites of ancient Jordan, even though today there may be rather few relics of Biblical significance to be seen. The stories of the Old Testiment range through the entire area of the Middle East, and many of the events and places described were in the region of Jordan. These include Mount Nebo, where Moses is said to have seen the Promised Land, and the possible sites of Sodom and Gomorrah, as well as the banks of the River Jordan where Jesus was later immersed by John the Baptist.

One tangible remnant of the Old Testiment does exist - fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls are today housed in the National Archaeological Museum in Amman.

The South Theatre in Jerash, one of the great provincial cities of the Roman Empire
The South Theatre in Jerash, one of the great provincial cities of the Roman Empire
The Triumphal Arch, entrance to Jerash, built in 129 AD in honour of the Emperor Hadrian's visit
The Triumphal Arch, entrance to Jerash, built in 129 AD in honour of the Emperor Hadrian's visit
The restored perimeter of Jerash's hippodrome, where chariot racing would have taken place.
The restored perimeter of Jerash's hippodrome, where chariot racing would have taken place.

THE ROMAN ERA 63 BC TO 324 AD. THE CITY OF JERASH

It was Inevitable that the Middle East would attract the attention of the fast burgeoning Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, and when Roman General Pompey conquered the region around 63 BC, ten great cities, which became known as the Decapolis League, were founded throughout the Middle East to form Rome's Eastern frontier. Three of these cities are to be found within the borders of modern day Jordan, and all were former Greek settlements, further developed and expanded under the influence of Rome. Two of these sites were Gadara (now redeveloped into the town of Umm Qais) and Gerasa, which became Jerash. The third was known to the Greeks as Philadelphia (the original city of that name), and this was to become the modern day capital of Jordan, the city of Amman.

Hiowever, at the time of the Romans it was Jerash which was pre-eminent as one of the great provincial cities of the Roman Empire. Reconstruction of Roman Jerash on the site of Greek Gerasa began in the first century BC, and soon the city was flourishing as trade links were established with the Nabataeans and new roads were built between the cities of the Decapolis.

Ornamental Corinthian Roman column at Jerash
Ornamental Corinthian Roman column at Jerash
1st century colonnades surround the Oval Plaza
1st century colonnades surround the Oval Plaza
The late 2nd century Nymphaeum, or public fountain near the Temple of Dionysus. The large bowl collected the waters of the fountain
The late 2nd century Nymphaeum, or public fountain near the Temple of Dionysus. The large bowl collected the waters of the fountain

JERASH - A ROMAN CITY

The modern visitor to Jerash enters via the Hadrian's Triumphal Arch. Just inside the city is a hippodrome where more than 15,000 people could have watched chariot racing entertainments.

Other sites encountered as one walks round the paved. colonnaded streets include the great Oval Plaza, and the market place, the Temple of Dionysus, and the Nymphaeum. Two theatres at the north and south ends of Jerash, and an impressive Temple of Artemis in an elevated position overlooking the rest of the city, are other significant buildings within the ruins of Jerash.

In its hey-day, the city may have had a population of about 20,000, but from about the 3rd century AD, Jerash was beginning to lose its importance as sea trade across the Mediterranean grew to replace the overland trade routes. However, it was the decline of the Roman empire itself, invasion by Persian forces and increasing Islamic influence in the 7th century, and a succession of earthquakes in the 8th century, which ultimately led to the downfall of Jerash. The city was finally deserted by the 9th century, though a modern town of the same name has grown up outside the Roman city walls.

The Temple of Artemis at Jerash, dedicated in 150 AD
The Temple of Artemis at Jerash, dedicated in 150 AD
These columns of the Temple of Hercules imaged at sunset, overlook Jordan's capital city
These columns of the Temple of Hercules imaged at sunset, overlook Jordan's capital city

ROMAN AMMAN

Amman itself, capital of modern day Jordan, became a member of Rome's Decapolis League in 30 BC. Prior to this the city under the Greeks was named Philadelphia, but there had been settlements here since Neolithic times, and it was first recorded in the Bible as Rabbath-Ammon.

The ancient city had been built on a hill called The Citadel, and here the Romans added a temple during the reign of Marcus Aurelius between 161 and 166 AD. This was designated the Temple of Hercules, and although much of the stonework has since been used for other building projects, some of the ruins can be seen here today.

(Within walking distance of the temple is a National Archaeological Museum; many of Jordan's relics are housed here, including the Dead Sea Scrolls.)

The Temple of Hercules on The Citadel with modern Amman in the background
The Temple of Hercules on The Citadel with modern Amman in the background
This mosaic floor was laid in the 6th century AD in the Church of Preacher John on Mount Nebo, and only rediscovered in the 20th century during restoration work in the area
This mosaic floor was laid in the 6th century AD in the Church of Preacher John on Mount Nebo, and only rediscovered in the 20th century during restoration work in the area
Part of another mosaic from the Church of Preacher John on Mount Nebo. Many ancient churches on Mount Nebo feature mosaic floors, often illustrating hunting or pastoral scenes
Part of another mosaic from the Church of Preacher John on Mount Nebo. Many ancient churches on Mount Nebo feature mosaic floors, often illustrating hunting or pastoral scenes
Part of the Madaba map which depicts Turkey, Jerusalem, Jericho, the Dead Sea, Egypt and the Nile, and many other Biblical locations,
Part of the Madaba map which depicts Turkey, Jerusalem, Jericho, the Dead Sea, Egypt and the Nile, and many other Biblical locations,

THE BYZANTINE CHRISTIAN ERA 324 AD TO 630 AD

In 324 AD the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine I established Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, and Christian teachings began to spread rapidly in the region. Soon the religion was to become established as the accepted faith throughout Jordan.

In Aqaba in southern Jordan, remains of a building believed to be the oldest known church in the world have been discovered. During the 4th and 5th centuries, many other churches were built. and decorative Mosaic floors laid in these churches are among the more attractive relics of Jordan's history.

One particular town south of Amman is especially celebrated as a result of a discovery made during excavations in 1896 in the local Church of St George. An extensive floor mosaic, originally consisting of more than two million separate tiles, proved to be the very earliest map of the Bible lands in existence. The Madaba mosaic map was laid on the floor of the Byzantine church between 642 and 670 AD.

Although Madaba was abandoned following an earthquake in 747 AD, the region remained a focus for Jordan's Christian community, and was later resettled. Today a sizeable proportion of the town's inhabitants are Christian.

A fine peacock mosaic from Mount Nebo
A fine peacock mosaic from Mount Nebo
One of the 24 U-shaped towers which fortified the outer defences of the walled city of Ayla can be seen at the top of this photo
One of the 24 U-shaped towers which fortified the outer defences of the walled city of Ayla can be seen at the top of this photo
The remains of Ayla's mosque. This is believed to be the first prayer hall, and dates from the Abbasid era, of the 8th and 9th centuries AD
The remains of Ayla's mosque. This is believed to be the first prayer hall, and dates from the Abbasid era, of the 8th and 9th centuries AD
One of the roads and an archway at Ayla
One of the roads and an archway at Ayla

THE RISE OF ISLAM 630 AD TO 1095 AD

From about 630 AD, a new faith - Islam - was emerging throughout the Middle East and North Africa, and unified by this new faith, Arab tribes began to overthrow Byzantine rule in many parts of the region, also supplanting Greek and Latin as the official languages with the Arabic language. By 661 AD a new empire - the Arabic Umayyad Empire - had been established, and Damascus in Syria was designated as capital of the region.

AYLA

The rise of Islam led to the growth of the first Islamic cities in Jordan in the 7th century AD, and the ruins of one of the earliest of these can now be seen in southern Jordan by the Red Sea. Excavations as recently as the 1980s have revealed the mosque, streets and gatehouses of the ancient walled settlement of Ayla. Ayla prospered until around the 12th century, but a combination of attacks by Bedouins and Crusader forces, as well as the earthquakes which have blighted so many civilisations in this part of the world led to its decline. Subsequently Ayla was buried and lost from view for centuries under the development of the modern resort of Aqaba.

A gateway and walls at Ayla
A gateway and walls at Ayla
Qasr al-Kharrana - one of the desert castles
Qasr al-Kharrana - one of the desert castles
One of the wall paintings at Qasr Amri (see main picture below). A 1300 year old camel !
One of the wall paintings at Qasr Amri (see main picture below). A 1300 year old camel !

THE RISE OF ISLAM - THE UMAYYADS AND OTHER DYNASTIES

The most impressive, and interesting archaeological treasures from this time are the so-called desert castles of the Eastern Jordan. Although some of these buildings originally date back to Roman times, while others are more recent constructions, the majority were designed to facilitate travel and trade through the Jordanian desert under the reign of the Umayyads, and these include rest houses, trading centres, bath houses, and fortresses.

A separate page of mine is devoted to The Desert Castles.

A succession of Islamic dynasties held sway in Jordan over the centuries from 630AD to 1100 AD. Despite their very impressive legacy, the Umayyad rule lasted for just 100 years, before the Abbasid dynasty seized power, and moved their capital from Damascus to more distant Baghdad. In 969 AD the Fatimid dynasty took control, though challenges to their authority from rival Muslim factions continued.

Soon however, the Fatimids were to find themselves embroiled in a far wider conflict with Christian forces for the very heart and soul of the region.

Qasr Amri, a bath house dating from the reign of Caliph Walid I in the early 8th century, has been designated a World Heritage Site for the frescoes which adorn its walls
Qasr Amri, a bath house dating from the reign of Caliph Walid I in the early 8th century, has been designated a World Heritage Site for the frescoes which adorn its walls

IF YOU WISH TO KNOW MORE ABOUT JORDAN ...

Imposing outer wall of the crusader fort
Imposing outer wall of the crusader fort
Vaulted ceilings and an arched opening at Kerak
Vaulted ceilings and an arched opening at Kerak
Large building believed to be a mansion within the walls of Kerak Castle
Large building believed to be a mansion within the walls of Kerak Castle

THE AGE OF THE CRUSADES 1095 AD TO 1263 AD. KERAK

The Middle East now held major significance for three great religions, and European powers felt compelled to try to retrieve the Holy Land, and specifically Jerusalem in modern day Israel, for Christianity. The first of the crusades to liberate the region was launched in 1095, and was notably successful, because Jerusalem was indeed recovered. Of course it would never be enough just to try to hold on to this one city - so a second crusade began in 1147 to gain more territory in the Middle East. More importantly, it was clear that defensive outposts were needed throughout the region if the routes to and from Jerusalem were to be protected, and so began the age of Crusader fort construction.

Among the most significant of these was the Jordanian stronghold of Kerak south of Amman. Built on the orders of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1142 for the defence of Christanity, and to collect taxes for the governance of the area, in 1176 AD Kerak Castle came under the control of Crusader knight Raynald of Chatillon, infamous for his aggressive brutality towards the Muslims of the region.

However, entering the field at this time was a great Muslim general called Salah al-din, known in the west as Saladin, who founded the Ayyubid dynasty after the death in 1171 of the last Fatimid Caliph. Saladin took the war to the crusader knights. After a series of seiges and battles, Kerak eventually fell to the Muslims. In 1187 AD, Raynald of Chatillon was captured and executed on the orders of Saladin, and soon afterwards, Jerusalem itself fell once more to the Muslims.

This was by no means the end of the crusades. Richard the Lionheart of England led a third crusade in 1189 to retake Jerusalem, but soon it became apparent that despite some victories against the Muslims, his army could not take Jeruselam and feasibly hold it long term against Saladin. An uneasy truce was signed, and this allowed Christian pilgrims full access to the Holy sites, but Jerusalem - and also the land of Jordan - would remain in Muslim hands till the 20th century.

Kerak Castle
Kerak Castle
The Blue Fort - once a Roman fort, then reconstructed as a Mameluke Fort in the 13th century, and still in service as Lawrence of Arabia's base during the First World War
The Blue Fort - once a Roman fort, then reconstructed as a Mameluke Fort in the 13th century, and still in service as Lawrence of Arabia's base during the First World War
The courtyard of the Blue Fort with the fort's small mosque on the left
The courtyard of the Blue Fort with the fort's small mosque on the left

THE MAMALUKES AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1263 AD TO 1918 AD

From 1263 AD two great empires were to dominate Jordanian affairs until the 20th century. The Mamalukes seized power from Saladin's Ayyubid dynasty and ruled the region of modern day Jordan, Syria and Egypt until the 16th century. This was essentially a period of relative prosperity and a period of reconstruction, improving trade and communications. One of the very best preserved structures from this period is Qasr al-Azraq or the Blue Fort, which is in the Desert Castle region.

In 1516, the Turkish Ottoman dynasty expanded their empire into the region of Jordan and they were to dominate Middle Eastern life for the next 400 years. Although a major power, the Ottomans were primarily interested in Jordan for its strategic location on the pilgrimage route to Mecca, and little development of the region proceeded during this era, other than the building of a number of fortresses to protect these routes. Limited administrative control was exercised over the desert dwelling Bedouins, and many villages and towns were abandoned over the centuries of Ottoman rule.

Ancient and Modern - 21st century Amman, as seen from the ruins of the Roman city
Ancient and Modern - 21st century Amman, as seen from the ruins of the Roman city
An image of T.E Lawrence, carved into the rock of Wadi Rum as a tribute to the celebrated British soldier's role in the  Arab Revolt against the Turks
An image of T.E Lawrence, carved into the rock of Wadi Rum as a tribute to the celebrated British soldier's role in the Arab Revolt against the Turks
Warlike and peaceful - A Jordanian tank deliberately submerged in the Red Sea to act as an artificial home for coral reef species
Warlike and peaceful - A Jordanian tank deliberately submerged in the Red Sea to act as an artificial home for coral reef species

TRANSJORDAN AND MODERN DAY JORDAN 1918 TO 2011

Although beyond the brief of this delve into the archaeological timeline of Jordan, this page would not really be complete without at least some small acknowledgement of recent history.

The 20th century began with the Ottoman Empire still in control of the region, but everything would change with the advent of World War One, in which the Turks sided with Germany against the allies. In the territory that is modern day Jordan, the legendary British soldier Lawrence of Arabia won the trust of the Arabs and helped to mobilise them against their Turkish rulers. Allied victory in the war, meant that the Arab population was at last freed from Ottoman Rule.

The country however, remained under temporary foreign authority - namely Britain. In 1923, three regions within the modern day country were placed under the governership of the Emir Abdullah, and this became known as the Emirate of Transjordan. Over the following decade further areas were added to the new state, new treaties were forged with the British, and new Arab legislative procedures were developed. Full independance was eventually achieved in 1946, and the name of the new country was officially changed to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The subsequent history of Jordan has been mixed. Initially, conflict with the equally new Jewish state of Israel, and a period of instability throughout the Middle East including Jordan, led to a number of setbacks. These included the loss of East Jerusalem and the West Bank territories to Israel, and the influx of hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees who remain to this day.

Jordan has not benefited from the general state of Middle Eastern unrest in recent decades, and the country has also not benefited from limited natural resources and limited potential for agriculture. Nonetheless, the country has modernised rapidly and undergone an extensive rebuilding programme. Increasing stability within the country in the late 20th century, recognition of Israel, and pursuit of a very moderate stance by Middle Eastern standards, has enabled the country to progress despite the inherent disadvantages of Jordan's political and geographical environment.

Above all Jordan has benefited from tourism, as people from around the world have flocked to the nation's seaside resorts at Aqaba, its natural attractions such as Wadi Rum and the Dead Sea, and of course, the archaeological treasures which have been the subject of this page.

Architecture in modern Jordan - Amman's King Abdullah Mosque - completed in 1989
Architecture in modern Jordan - Amman's King Abdullah Mosque - completed in 1989

CONCLUSION

In the space of one day in Jordan, a visitor can see the ruins of stone age society, Nabataean civilisation, Roman colonisation, Arabic and Crusader invasion. And one can see the influences over the millenia of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Of course, it is best not to try to see it all in one day, but a week or more spent in this country will give the visitor a wonderful opportunity to see a range of sites the like of which cannot be seen almost anywhere else in the world. The visitor to Jordan will gain some appreciation in microcosm of the peoples and cultures who have shaped the development of human civilisation over the past few thousand years.

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PLEASE ADD COMMENTS IF YOU WILL. THANKS, ALUN 37 comments

Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thank you Fiskfarm for your comment (and welcome to HubPages!)


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fiskfarm 5 years ago from Smokey Mountains, Tennessee

Very professional. What more can I say! Amazing part of the world.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thank you for that comment mkrandhawa. Appreciated.


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mkrandhawa 5 years ago from India

Well researched, Beautiful photographs. Thanks for sharing.And congratulations on being hub of the day.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks a lot for your comment w3c


w3c tutorials 5 years ago

fascinating and beautiful. Thank you for sharing this with us!


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Many thanks to livelonger, jean2011, Paradise7 and LucellaDenny. All your comments are really appreciated. Cheers, and best wishes!


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LucellaDenny 5 years ago from Wisconsin, USA

I had a hard time deciding "awesome" or "beautiful" because your article is both! And so very informative. Thank you for sharing this with us!


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Paradise7 5 years ago from Upstate New York

Excellent hub! The research and information, as well as the awesome pictures, put this one on the top of the list! Thanks for sharing this with us. It really does make one want to go there and see these sights for oneself.


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jean2011 5 years ago from Canada

Well researched and written! I have voted your hub as interesting.


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livelonger 5 years ago from San Francisco

Fascinating! I've only been to Petra in Jordan, but I thought it was gorgeous. Thank you for providing so much more historical context to what a visitor would see there.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks so much Derdriu. The Madaba mosaic is certainly one of the more unusual and interesting sights to see in Jordan. I didn't find it the easiest to photograph because it's probably best to image it from above, rather than from the side, but I did the best I could. Thanks for the comment about waking up to 'Hub of the Day' - but now it's 12.50 A.M here in England, so I guess it's time for me to go back to sleep!


Derdriu 5 years ago

Greensleeves Hubs: Madaba Mosaic Map is one of my all-time favorite mosaics so I'm happy to see it here.

It's amazing that so many mysterious peoples have left their traces but we know so little about them. Such tantalizing clues and yet no definite answers!

Congratulations on winning Hub of the Day. I can, indeed, imagine how you felt to wake up to the great news!

Voted up+useful+beautiful+interesting


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thankyou charmike4 for your appreciation. Photography is one of my greatest passions so when I go travelling, the camera is the first thing to be packed after the passport!


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charmike4 5 years ago from Adelaide, South Australia

Thanks for sharing these images


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks cardeleon (and again to Sunshine) for the nice comments about the information and the photos on this page. It was certainly a nice way to wake up this morning here in England and find it was featured as 'Hub of the Day'.


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cardelean 5 years ago from Michigan

What an impressive hub. Congrats on the hub of the day. The information was interesting and the photos were breathtaking. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.


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Sunshine625 5 years ago from Orlando, FL

Greensleeves...your article brought back wonderful memories! I should have added that to my comment. I was lost in the moment :) Also congrats on being Hub Of The Day! Thanks again!


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thank you reg5566, Sunshine625 and CarltheCritic1291. I'm grateful reg5566 for your kind comments, and glad you liked the page. Sunshine, thanks to you too for your really lovely comments, and I hope my page brought back some happy memories of Jordan for you! And Carl - Wow! Your comments do my self-confidence as a writer a world of good, and will encourage me to write more. The camera I use is a Canon EOS40D (I think the name is the same in the States, but I know Canon sometimes brand their cameras differently there). I like to travel light, so I just use a couple of zoom lenses with it to cover as wide a range as possible.


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CarltheCritic1291 5 years ago

Man you are amazing, this is one of the best hubs I have ever read. You've got real talent, not only is it an article with interesting historical facts, but it almost like I am actually there. Amazing photos too, what camera did you use? (I ask that because I study film making, and camera making etc.) But yeah congradulations on your hub getting picked to be Hub of the Day, it deserves it :) Voted Up, Interesting, Beautiful, Awesome, and Useful.


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Sunshine625 5 years ago from Orlando, FL

Superb! Fascinating! I spent the summer in the area many years ago while visiting with my grandparents ...I have relatives who still live there. Thank you for the history and the shout-out to Jordan!


reg5566 profile image

reg5566 5 years ago from Santa Clarita, Ca.

Found this to be very interesting. Something about Ancient History that I find so fascinating. when I view photos or read about the area, its like am being transported to that era of time. I feel like I lived it in a past life. Thanks for sharing this wonderful information.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks for all your comments ndasika, applecsmith, davenmidtown and upal 19, and your appreciation of the info. Regarding Egypt, I think it's probably true that - Petra and Jerash aside - some of the sites in Egypt are more spectacular than some in Jordan, but I think the sheer diversity of ancient cultures in Jordan is greater. It seems almost no European or Middle Eastern civilisation has ever failed to leave its mark here.


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upal19 5 years ago from Dhaka

Too much interesting. History showed in pictures. Thanks for sharing.


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davenmidtown 5 years ago from Sacramento, California

very nice! I enjoy the detail of both the writing and the photography. It was interesting to see how different cultures left their mark on the country. I tend to think of Egypt as the historical hot spot of the region but this has given me pause. Thank you.


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applecsmith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas

Congratulations on being featured as the Hub of the day! This article is so fascinating to me, and full of great pictures and information. I would love to visit Jordan someday. Thanks for sharing!


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ndasika 5 years ago from NAIROBI

Hi Greensleeves, you have done a great job. The hub is awesome. Thanks for putting all these together, I did not know much about Jordan and this hub has helped.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

My grateful thanks to ellinachen, Les Trois Chenes, and Peter, for all your generous comments. And Ellinachen, if you do go to Jordan one day, hope you have a great time there. I spent just over one week there a couple of years ago, which was when I took these photos, and it was certainly a very interesting trip.


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PETER LUMETTA 5 years ago from KENAI, ALAKSA

Ggreat HUB, I thoroughly enjoyed it. What a history lesson! Thanks for the interesting read,

Peter


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Les Trois Chenes 5 years ago from Videix, Limousin, South West France

What a fabulous hub and wonderful pictures. No wonder it's been nominated as Hub of the Day!


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ellinachen 5 years ago

amazing, hope to have a great trip there~


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thank you so much mib56789 for your generous comment. I must admit this page took me a lot longer to complete than I had anticipated - not just putting the information together but also organising the layout to try to make it look attractive - and comments like yours are what makes it seem worthwhile. Thanks.


mib56789 5 years ago

Good morning Greensleeves! This HUB is amazingly beautiful. Beautiful in both content and its presentation. HUBs like yours improve the reputation of the HUB writing community. I've only been a member for a short while but this exciting global community is filled with "intelligence"!!


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks for the compliment leann. Glad you liked the photos; appreciated.


leann2800 5 years ago

Well researched, Beautiful photographs. Thanks for sharing.


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Greensleeves Hubs 5 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thank you so much for your nice comments Simone. Glad to hear you liked the page. For such a small country, it is the incredible diversity of relics from so many different periods and cultures which makes Jordan stand out, and that was the main point I wanted to put across with this page. Once again, thankyou for your comments.


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Simone Smith 5 years ago from San Francisco

Oh my goodness, Greensleeves. This is incredible. And fascinating. And beautiful. Please excuse me while I pack my bags for Jordan. There is simply too much amazing history there to ignore!

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