Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria Holy Roman Empress
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma. By marriage, she was Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Duchess of Lorraine, German Queen and Holy Roman Empress.
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress was born May 13 1717 Vienna, died Nov 29 1780 Vienna
Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1740 – 80
Wife and empress of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II 1745 – 65 and mother of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II 1765 – 90
There was a challenge to her ascension to the throne that resulted in the War of Austrian Succession 1740 – 48
Also the Prussians and Bavarians fought with Maria Theresa seeing an opportunity to expand their own lands and further checked Austrian power
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - Early Life
She was the oldest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel
After the oldest son died the so called pragmatic sanction was finally recognized by most powers, it meant that a woman could rise to the Habsburg throne
1736 she married Francis Stephen of Lorraine
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - War of Austrian Succession
Oct 20 1740 Charles VI died leaving the Habsburg state at its lowest point of its prestige, nearly broke and beset by unrest
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress courageously took up her position and refused to negotiate with Fredrick II of Prussia who invaded the richest Austrian province Silesia, she rallied the Hungarian estates and got troops to help her cause and this gave her a reputation in Europe for diplomatic skill
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - Domestic Reforms
Influenced by the plans of Count Fredrich Wilhelm Haugwitz she decided the need to increase the professional army and reduce the powers of the estates who held the purse strings to the monarchy’s money too tightly
She also abolished tax exemptions on wealthy land owners
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress also made social reforms such as introducing text books for schools and universities, and made primary school compulsory
Most of all the biggest change to the Empire under her reign was move toward subordinating the Catholic Church to the authority of the state, even though she was deeply pious, strictly observant, and intolerant to the point of bigotry
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - Foreign Relations
She modernised the army and in an effort to regain Silesia and defeat the Prussians. In a famous reversal of alliances she broke off with England, the banker of the Habsburgs, and allied Austria with their old foe France
After the defeat in the 7 years war the fate of Silesia was definitely Prussian and all Austria was left with was a mountain of debt, so she then became a champion of peace
1779 she avoided war with the Prussians risked by her hot headed son Joseph who took over duties as vice regent when his father died
Though Francis had never been a faithful husband, Maria Theresa never wavered in her love for him and his sudden death in 1765 plunged her into prolonged grief
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress - Late Years
Although Maria Theresa pedantically supervised her 17 children's upbringing and education she was to experience many disappointments in connection with them
Only Leopold of Tuscany lived up to her expectations
One of her biggest disappointments was Marie Antoinette of France who she kept bombarding with practical advice and dire warnings of the future
She grew very ‘stout’ and in poor health in her later years and spent more and more time at the palace in Schonbrunn, whose reconstruction is owed to her
Maria Theresa Archduchess Of Austria, Holy Roman Empress died in Nov 1780 leaving behind the Habsburg Empire for her son Joseph II
Maria Theresa was a major political figure of the 18th century; she added a degree of unity to the Habsburg lands, was one of the most capable rulers of her house and according to one historian was the most human of the Habsburgs.
My name is Robee Kann, for four years I was a tour guide throughout Europe. I loved my job and I would love to hear from you. You are most welcome to message me to say hello or request a hub about a European subject. Please look at my other hubs and leave a comment for me.
Maria Theresa and Schonbrunn Palace
Want More About Maria Theresa
My Other Hubs About Austrian People and Places
Please check out my other hubs about Austrian People and Places
More by this Author
“The history of France can be used as a blueprint defining the historical, cultural and social development of what we now recognise as modern European States....” Er..., I guess. Alternatively, it can...
Modern-day Vienna, circa 500 - 15 BC., was little more than a small town inhabited by a local tribe known as the Vendi. By 9 AD a strong Roman garrison of Vindobona had been established at this strategic meeting...