Nicaragua is boundered dy Honduras from North, by the Carribean Sea from East, by Costa Rica from South and by the Pacific Ocean from West.
The country has lots of rugged mountains with volcanoes. Some active ones are, for example, the volcano of Momotombo ( 4,126 ft ) and those on the Omepete Island. Nicaragua is broken up into two highlands and lowlands areas. There is a volcano plain along the Pacific coast and a broad valley inland from the Pacific coast what is tectonically active and where earthquake faults and volcanoes being. The fertile volcanic soil and the mountain slopes makes this area the most settled part of the country. Its largest city and capital, Managua located here. Between the lakes and the Pacific Ocean is the isthmuslike ridge, called Mosquito Coast what starts at Honduras and extends in Nicaragua downward to San Juan River. This is region of swamps and jungles drained by River Coco. It also has a hot, humid plain along the Carribean coast.
Its population is composed mainly from four ethnic groups; the negroes (9%), the Indians (4%). This group is divided into two groups, the scattered and the semi-independent tribes of the central highlands called Indios Bravos. Finally there also being the white people (10%) and the Mestizos (remainder 77%). The population concentrated on the triangular area between the lakes and the Pacific Ocean. About 25% of the total population living in the cities or the towns. Its whole population in 1994 was 4,096,689. The life expectancy in also 1994 was 61 male by 67 female, the literacy rate in 1991 was 57% and the per capita of GDP in 1995 was $1,600.
In Nicaragua the agriculture is the major economic activity. The cattle raising, daining and gold mining compete as principal occupations. The Nicaragua exports mainly gold, coffee, but also exports rubber, raw cotton, cabinet woods and hides and skins. Their local crops are the corn, sugar cane, cacao, rice, tobacco, bananas and some others what are not the major ones. The Nicaraguan industry include alcohol, cigars, cigarettes, textiles, leather rubber goods, cement, and the dairy products. The imports are those what the country can't produce, such as machinery, cotton goods, petroleum products, chemicals and iron and steel product. The transportation is concentrated almost entirely in the western part of the country. There are no railroads or highways into or in eastern Nicaragua.
In Nicaragua there being emergency democracy. The Congress has 42 deputies, a senate of 16 members, plus some past presidents. The constitution is outlawed by the Communist Party.
The first man who explored Nicaragua was a Spanish man called Gil González de Avile in 1521. He landed at the western coasts. He was followed by another Spanish explorer called Fernandez de Cordoba in 1522. Lots of immigrants fled the country after the exploration and Nicaragua became a Spanish colony. In 1838 a union called the Central American Federation what formed in the 1820's, broke apart. So the countries, it contained, includes those in Central America and Mexico, dissolved thus Nicaragua, with those other ones, became a independent country. With this independence Nicaragua was freed not just from the union, but also from Spain. In the following years William Walker became the president. After that the brilliant Liberals came to power in 1893 and was the leader of the country until 1909. By 1913 under the presidency of Adolfo Díaz order had been restored and Nicaragua's finances placed in charge of American experts. The United States Marines was on power from 1912 to 1925. Adolfo Díaz become president again in 1929. Now he was the real leader of the country. In 1937 Somoza became president and had the possition until 1947, but in that time (in 1947) he retained the president of war, controlled the whole National Guard and ruled the country through puppet presidents. Then the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) formed to fight the Somoza regime, ousted Somoza in 1979. The United States promoted subversive activity against the government in 1982 and actively supported the counter-revolutionary forces. The United States' president, Ronald Reagan, denounced the Sandinista government, but the FSLN won the assembly elections. In 1987 a Central American peace agreement was co-signed by the Nicaraguan leaders but the agreement failed in 1988. Nicaragua held talks with the Contra rebel leaders. Then a hurricane left 180,000 people homeless. The Demobilization of the rebels and the release of former Somozan supporters took place in 1989, the cease ended. In 1990 the FSLN was defeated by the UNO (National Opposittion Union), the United States-backed coalition, Violeta Chomorro was elected president.
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