Ten Greatest Old Temples in the World

Golden Reclining Buddha
Golden Reclining Buddha

You’ve gotta see these special places!

 

Many people are fans of all things old, particularly buildings, bridges, statues, monuments and temples. That’s why museums are so popular, of course. As for temples, they tend to show a cultural and religious expression that people find fascinating and educational. As defined by Webster’s II New College Dictionary, a temple signifies the presence or the worship of the divine, or at least comprises a special place for some people.

Please read on about these wondrous temples.

Close-up of the reclining Buddha
Close-up of the reclining Buddha
Mother-of-pearl feet of the Buddha
Mother-of-pearl feet of the Buddha

1. Wat Pho Temple of the Golden Reclining Buddha

 

The Wat Pho Temple is located in Bangkok, Thailand, and is part of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. The most spectacular attraction of this temple complex is the Golden Reclining Buddha, a statue 46 meters long, 15 meters high and covered in gold leaf. The bottom of the statue’s feet – each three meters long - are covered with 108 mother-of-pearl illustrations of the characteristics of the historical Buddha or Supreme Buddha, who was born around 500 B.C.E. (Historical accounts differ regarding the exact date of the Buddha’s birth.)

Work began on the Wat PhoTemple in 1788. It was restored during the reign of King Rama I (1824-51) and most recently in 1982. The Golden Reclining Buddha is designed to show the Buddha’s passage to the state of being known as nirvana, an end of reincarnation and human suffering, also called the end of the world.

Ggantija temple of Malta
Ggantija temple of Malta
Tarxien phase of monuments
Tarxien phase of monuments

2. Megalithic Temples of Malta

 

The temples of the Maltese islands comprise the world’s oldest free-standing structures – at least a thousand years older than the famous Pyramids of Egypt. Constructed as early as about 4,100 B.C.E., these megalithic buildings show the cultural evolution of Neolithic people in this Mediterranean area. The use of the trilithon, so evident in places such as Stonehenge, is prominent in these temples.

The Tarxien phase of building marks the apex of cultural development for these ancient temples. A rich variety of pottery, some of which polished, decorative techniques including the use of volutes, as well as the inclusion of D-shaped areas or apses in the temple complexes, identifies this glorious period. This culture of megalithic builders survived until about 2,500 B.C.E., when the culture disappeared.

 

3. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

 

Built around 1,500 B.C.E., the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut is part of a complex of temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile River, a placed called Deir el-Bahri, just across the river from the city of Luxor in Egypt. Hatshepsut was one of only a handful of female pharaohs, and considered to be one of the most successful, male or female, as well as the longest ruling (21 years) of any indigenous female pharaoh.

Hatshepsut’s temple is considered the closest the Egyptians came to building what is known as Classical Architecture. The temple appears ancient yet has a modern linearity, making it easily accessible to crowds of people. Hatshepsut was also considered one of the greatest builders of ancient Egypt, as the grandeur of her temple certainly shows.

 

Sandstone statue of an Apsara
Sandstone statue of an Apsara

4. Khajuraho Group of Temples

 

The Khajuraho group of monuments and temples is perhaps the most eye-catching of any on this list. Located near the town of Khajuraho in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, these temples, built of mortarless sandstone, comprise images from the architectural and artistic splendor of the Hindu and Jain religions. Built over a period of 200 years, the temples were constructed from about 950 to 1150 C.E.

The various statues on display in these temples are decidedly sensual in nature and often sexually explicit. The men are frequently shown in a state of sexual arousal and the women, called celestial maidens or apsaras, are voluptuous and seemingly willing to please. Various states of sexual intercourse are shown as well, so these temples are not for the prudish or easily offended. Interestingly, only the exterior of the temples present what have been called the apogee of erotic art; apparently the interiors were considered too sacred to display such imagery.

 

Temple before restoration
Temple before restoration

5. Temple of the Niches

 

The Temple of the Niches is perhaps the greatest building, temple or huaca (Spanish for special place or thing) at the archaeological site of El Tajín, located near the city of Veracruz in Mexico. Since nobody knows for certain who built El Tajín, experts think it was constructed by the Totonacs, Xapaneca or Zapotecs. The city was completed around 600 C.E. and flourished until about 1200.

The architecture of the temple is unique; it has seven stories with niches in each story, a total of 365 niches, one for each day of the year. Some experts think these deep niches imitate caves, often considered doorways to the underworld by the various civilizations throughout Mesoamerica, particularly the Maya. Originally the temple was covered in stucco and painted a bright red. Such an awesome sight it must have been!

Upper gallery of Angkor Wat
Upper gallery of Angkor Wat
Aerial view of Angkor Wat
Aerial view of Angkor Wat

6. Angkor Wat Temple Complex

The temple complex of Angkor Wat is considered the world’s largest religious building. Built in the first half of the twelfth century by Suryavarman II, the temple is supposed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devatas in Hindu mythology. It was intended to be both a temple and a capital city.

Angkor Wat is located in northwestern Cambodia and dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, one of the supreme gods of Hinduism. The temple complex displays the art and architecture of the fabulous Khmer Empire, which ruled much of Southeast Asia from the ninth through the thirteenth century. In the late thirteenth century, the use of the temple complex changed from Hinduism to Theravada Buddhism, a dedication that continues to the present day. As with many ancient temples throughout the world, looters and vandals have damaged much of this glorious temple, often hacking off the heads of statues!

Replica of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee
Replica of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee

7. Temple of Athena Parthenos (The Parthenon)

 

The Parthenon is synonymous with Classical Greece culture. Constructed from about 447 to 432 B.C.E., during the so-called Golden Age of Greece, the Parthenon was built for the goddess Athena, the patron deity of Athens. It’s considered the culmination of the Doric order of Greek architecture.

Unfortunately, the Parthenon is showing its age, having been blown up in 1687 while being used as an ammunition dump by the Ottoman Turks; it’s also been picked over by souvenir hunters for centuries. Interestingly, this marvelous building contains few if any straight lines or right angles, as it was built for beauty rather than exactitude. In 1806, the British, captivating by such beauty, carted off much of the temple’s statuary, since being called the Elgin Marbles. If this “loot” is returned to Greece one day, perhaps the Parthenon will look better than it has for a very long time!

 

8. Temple of the Jaguar or Temple I at Tikal

 

The Temple of the Jaguar is one of the finest pyramids built by the Maya civilization, the classic period of which lasting from 250 to 900 C.E. One of the major structures at Tikal in northern Guatemala, this temple was named after the lintel that shows a king resting upon a jaguar throne. Incidentally, Tikal is considered one of the finest Mayan city states, rivaling such marvelous sites as Copán, Uxmal and Chichén Itzá.

Constructed about 730 C.E. and over 150 feet high, this impressive pyramid is the funerary temple for Jasaw Chan K’awiil I, who ruled Tikal from 682 to 734 C.E. The tomb was built in the ground first and then the pyramid-temple set upon it, which is a common architectural technique of the Maya civilization. Much of the site was looted in the late 1800s, but fortunately many of its artifacts have been preserved.

9. Dilwara Temples

 

The Dilwara Temples are located two and a half kilometers from Mount Abu in the state of Rajasthan in India. These five temples are built entirely of marble and considered the best example of Jain architecture in all of India. Some compare their excellence with that of the fabulous Taj Mahal.

Constructed between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, each of these temples were dedicated to a Jain Tirthankara, one of 24 people who have attained enlightenment and whose teachings form the canon of Jainism. These temples provide a pilgrimage site for adherents of Jainism, whose origin stems from the ninth to sixth centuries B.C.E. and seems closely aligned with the tenets of Buddhism.

 

Artist's rendering of Gobekli Tepe
Artist's rendering of Gobekli Tepe

10. Göbekli Tepe


A list such as list has to include the world’s oldest temple. Göbekli Tepe, located in southeastern Turkey, is perhaps 12,000 years old – that’s about 7,000 years older than Stonehenge – 1,000 years older than Jericho – older than dirt, one might say!

Built during the Mesolithic period - that is before the development of agricultural based societies - Göbekli Tepe comprises many acres of T-shaped pillars. These monoliths are decorated with carved reliefs of animals - lions, bulls, boars, foxes, gazelles, asses, snakes and other reptiles, insects, arachnids, and birds, particularly vultures and waterfowl, as well as abstract pictographs representing sacred symbols, some of which are found on Neolithic cave paintings in other places. In real life, the vultures could have represented the practice of excarnation or the sky burial, as practiced by Tibetan Buddhists and Zoroastrians.

 

Final Words

Let’s hope all of these temples are preserved in perpetuum so humans in the future can learn much about the development of human civilization. Of course, there’s always the possibility that somebody from another world will come here and want to see them too!

Please leave a comment.

 

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Comments 26 comments

CYong74 profile image

CYong74 5 months ago from Singapore

Wonderful hub. You covered the whole world and so many cultures.


Ak 10 months ago

What about Tanjavor temple in Tamilnadu, India (south).


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 2 years ago from California Author

Thanks for the comment, Orchia. I'll check out your temple. Later! Okay, I did. Yes, Borobudur could certainly be on this list. Thanks!


Orchia profile image

Orchia 2 years ago from Indonesia

wonderful temple, but if feel that you have missed one very old temple that has to be in the list.

check this temple : http://vacationspotindonesia.wordpress.com/2014/05...


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 3 years ago from California Author

Thanks for the comment, sunilkunnoth2012. I really enjoy writing about temples, pyramids and just about anything ancient, actually. Later!


sunilkunnoth2012 profile image

sunilkunnoth2012 3 years ago from Calicut (Kozhikode, South India)

Fantastic article with fine photos. You have done a great job by sharing your knowledge here. Voted up with pleasure.


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 4 years ago from California Author

Thanks for the comment, theking2020. I'd like to visit a few of these places too. Later!


theking2020 4 years ago

Wow found a new goal to visit one of this temples every year they all have an incredible history as well as the architectural design is truly incredible.


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

Thanks for you kind words, kittythedreamer. I would like to visit every temple on this list - or at least one or two of them. Hey, if you want to learn more about the Maya, just read a couple more of my hubs. Later!


kittythedreamer profile image

kittythedreamer 5 years ago from the Ether

Kosmo ~ I voted this hub up and beautiful! These ancient temples are absolutely breathtaking! My favorite, of course, has to be the Mayan temple of the jaguar. I want to learn more about the ancient Mayans. Also, the temple of hatshepsut has always intrigued me, the pillars there are unbelievable. Great job. I so wish I could visit each one of these.


celeBritys4africA profile image

celeBritys4africA 5 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

One vote up. An awesome hub.


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

Thanks for the tip, Surfraz. I haven't heard of that temple you mentioned. I'll have to check that out and your father's profile too. Later!


Surfraz profile image

Surfraz 5 years ago from India

Really a very beautiful and informative hub but if feel that you have missed one very old temple that has to be in the list. Bragadhiswar temple built by King Raja Raja Chola @ Tanjore in Tamil nadu India. Though I do not have that good knowledge about old temples, i have heard it from my dad that its too old and so on. His profile is here

http://hubpages.com/@sukkrantrichy


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

Thanks for compliment, Docmo! I truly love all those old things and places. And the last comment that people from another world might want to see these temples has rung the bell with lots of folks. Later!


Docmo profile image

Docmo 5 years ago from UK

Beautifully designed and compiled, Kosmo. Great listing and would love to visit them all.. highly readable and loved your last comment about others coming to visit these temples from across space and time. Gave me an idea for a story - I'll be sure to acknowledge you! voted up!


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

Thanks for the compliment, indiatraveltourist! Later!


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

You gotta love those temples. Thanks for the comment. Later!


PaperNotes profile image

PaperNotes 5 years ago

I surely would love to visit these temples have I got the means.


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

I'm glad you saw the Golden Reclining Buddha, particularly those mother-of-pearl feet! Hope you make it to Angkor Wat one of these days too. Later!


calliemorris profile image

calliemorris 5 years ago from London

Great hub Kosmo! I went to Wat Pho a couple of years ago - beautiful... The mother of pearl feet on the Buddha was definitely pretty special! Next on my list absolutely has to be Angkor Wat, always regret not hopping over to Cambodia while on my travels! Amazing photos too... Voted up :)


Mike Outdoors profile image

Mike Outdoors 5 years ago from Somewhere in Canada

This is a very interesting hub indeed!


canton 5 years ago

you have done your homework.

I like your ("Final Words") last statement most of all.

Its more true than you are aware


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

There's always something we don't know, eh Genna? That's why people read our hubs. Anyway, I'd really like to see that replica of the Parthenon, wouldn't you? Hey, the aliens only produced Yankee Stadium. Later!


Genna East profile image

Genna East 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

"Of course, there’s always the possibility that somebody from another world will come here and want to see them too."

Yes, if they didn't have a hand in buildng them in the first place. Kidding aside, I had no idea that there was a full-scale replica of the Parthenon in Tennessee. (Where have I been?) Interesting hub.


Kosmo profile image

Kosmo 5 years ago from California Author

I'm certainly an enthusiast for all things old. I'd really like to see the Golden Reclining Buddha, one of many found throughout the world. Thanks for your comment, Lynda. Later!


lmmartin profile image

lmmartin 5 years ago from Alberta and Florida

A lovely hub, Kosmo. Amazing the amount of wealth, human labor, artwork and thought man has put into his places of worship through the ages. Lynda

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