Green Space

Green Space

The evolution of this lens is logical only in hindsight. I threw two random words together and decided to make a lens about it. The lens was somewhat thrown together but over time it made more and more sense. I had been aware of Kim Stanley Robinson's Red Mars, Green Mars, Blue Mars trilogy. I had been aware of the Greenpeace movement. I had been aware of the Mars settlement activists calling for the greening of Mars. I had been aware of the Dune novels and their theme of Fremen patiently hoarding water and planting vegetation on arid Arrakis over many generations -- somewhat the opposite of the Sahara Desert which paleontologists say was once the Sahara Forest. In a time of deforestation, the need for greening the Earth is a necessary one for survival and, with humanity's movement into space, the desire for greening the universe is more than a necessity. If asteroids are nature's way of asking: "How's that space program coming along?" ; then comets are starry messengers and novas are bearers of news. In the cosmos, we humans do not kill the messengers, the messengers kill us. But this lens is not about gloom & doom space survivalism, it is about a better-than-we-thought future beyond just space suburbs. It is an ever expanding, ever improving future that includes farms, forests and oceans on other worlds. I hope you like this lens.


Space is not just about looking through telescopes. It is a real place that astronauts have been and eventually everyone will be able to live there. But to live on other worlds, we have to make them more like Earth and that means planting trees and grass and gardening and farming.

No, we are not talking about a postage stamp-sized lawn or a little garden in your window box. We are talking about taking on the entire cosmos and turning it from dead to living. We are literally talking about the greening of other planets, other natural satellites (including the Moon of Earth), and other asteroids.

Silent Running

This movie is a warning of what could happen if we don't value green on Earth or anywhere else.

Nothing Lives in Space



humans live on the surface of planet Earth

No One Lives in Orbit Permanently

but we are junking up Earth orbit

And It's Only a Matter of Time Before a Spacewalker Will Be Hurt

(or killed) by hyper-velocity space garbage

Overview of Worlds Being Considered for Terraforming

Mercury Terraformed by ~ChronosCat

go to

to buy a quality image of this

Who would have thought? This overlooked planet turns out to be a better place to live than Mars. It has water and a temperate zone. Also, Mercury has a magnetosphere while Mars does not. Sorry about that Elon.

The dark side of Mercury is actually cold. In between the hot sunny side and the cold dark side is a habitable zone. Apparently, all those comets that come and swing past the Sun have been leaving water vapor in space that condensed and froze on Mercury.

artist's conception of a terraformed Venus

Terraformed Venus

Venus map after terraforming

Editor's Note -- I will be changing the Venus text below several times in the coming months as I receive technical advice. For now, I will make minimal changes and updates.


It is said that Venus has a bigger and denser atmosphere than Earth despite having less gravity to hold an atmosphere and being closer to the Sun than Earth. The Sun blew away any atmosphere Mercury had. The good news is that Venus could theoretically be terraformed far faster than Mars. Mars needs a runaway greenhouse effect to warm up that cold planet -- followed by using plants (flora and vegetation) to convert the carbon dioxide into breathable oxygen. Venus is much simpler. Trigger an ice age. The problem is: How do you produce an Ice Age or nuclear winter without leaving behind radiation or radioactive waste? Obviously not a dirty nuke or we'll have to wait millennia before the radiation levels were low enough to make it habitable. But other types of nukes, such as neutron bombs and EMP bombs, do not throw up dust into the upper atmosphere. When super-volvanoes like Krakatoa on Earth throw dust in the upper atmosphere, little ice ages occur. I am not advocating cracking the crust or mantle of Venus to set off supervolcanoes because that kind of seismic activity is likely to make Venus hotter.

The counter-argument is that yes, violent seismic activity that breaks up the crust of Venus will delay surface settlement. Certainly, hitting it with rocks big enough to make a deep impact will create tectonic plates floating on a liquid interior. Venus does not have a liquid metal interior or it would have a magnetosphere and Venus does not have a magnetosphere. We have to create a magnetosphere for Venus or we are just kidding ourselves about long-term habitability. All settlers will get cancer because the planet will not be able to protect them from the sun's X-rays and gamma-rays and cosmic rays. You don't even need to worry about UV and sunblock because you will be dead. That sums up the counter-argument for Venus and, for that matter, Mars. I know I just made a lot of people mad who hoped to settle on Venus sometime in this century. Not gonna happen.

The counter-counter argument is we can settle Venus right now. Here is how.

1. We build cloud cities like Stratos in Star Trek suspended not by anti-grav (technology we don't have yet) but by helium and hydrogen which we might be able to get from Venus itself. We also build Venus-orbiting space stations.

2. We also look into towing a large asteroid into orbit around Venus so that Venus will have a small moon. There is no reason why a small (even minuscule) tidal force will not help the cause of stirring up Venus' interior so that Venus creates a magnetosphere by the gentle method instead of the violent method above in the counter-argument.

3. We use these cloud cities and we use orbiting craft to seed the atmosphere with colorants (like soot) to produce an Ice Age and with extremophile bacteria engineered to do the work of changing the atmosphere into a more nitrogen and oxygen rich mix like Earth used to have before the oil companies decided to F it up. 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon and drastically the carbon dioxide that cause the runaway greenhouse effect. [I wish someone would publish some research into the contribution of argon to life on Earth. I suspect that this third most abundant inert gas makes some positive contribution that science has yet to discover.]

4. Tourists will be able to visit and, subject to how much room there is, settlers will be able to stay at terraforming stations while the terraforming is in progress whether we install magnetosphere (as detailed above) or not.

5. When surface temperature drops enough so that metal no longer melts, the first surface settlers will come down from the cloud cities, the space stations and perhaps even Venus' new moon and build second home.

6. Underground on Venus might be cooler than above ground and this offers its own unique terraforming possibilities. Settlers living underground on Venus would be shielded from the sun's deadly radiation while terraformers continued their efforts to boost the strength of the planetary magnetosphere. It is said that Venus actually has a magnetosphere but so weak as to be useless. So our job as terraformers is to strengthen it without killing the settlers in the process with nasty volcanic eruptions and venusquakes. After all, the whole point of a magnetosphere is to save lives.

7. Because Venus is such a nasty place, we terraformers could try techniques like nantotechnology that normally would be insane insurance risks. I really think that Mars could produce deadly new germs because of biotechnology and nanotechnology that would spread back to Earth because of all the traffic expected between those two worlds. But because Venus is unpopular with people and because the bugs we would be experimenting with would be cooked by Venus if they mutated and turned bad, I honestly do not think that there is much risk of back contamination of Earth. And because I raised the issue myself, I think precautions would be taken to make sure that back contamination does not occur. So the path would be clear to use techniques that would accelerate terraforming of Venus so fast that it could be ready for surface settlment in years or months instead of millennia or millions of years.


older unrevised content:

Going on the hypothesis that darkening the upper atmosphere of a planet cools it (this has not been proven that I know of), the simplest way to go would be to simply dye the upper atmosphere of Venus with an inert black dye. Perhaps dump some pure carbon soot out of orbiting spacecraft. Still some researcher needs to look into the effect of colorants on planetary temperature.

A thermonuclear weapon is not the only way to get the nuclear winter effect. We could toss dust or even dye into the upper atmosphere of Venus from orbit. Perhaps grind up a Venus-resonant asteroid into dust and use that.

Of course it is against international law to use a thermonuclear weapon in space. I am all for obeying the law because I don't like nukes anyway. In fact we need to ban RTG's before the outer planets and their moons get contaminated and make terraforming out there that much harder..

The trade-off of grinding up a Venus-resonant asteroid is that we might decide that Venus needs a moon -- it has none at present. Life on Earth has benefited greatly from having a moon. Not only does it provide a convenient night light but life depends on tides and human biological cycles (not just in us women) are monthly. Imagine history if there were no months. Months are a direct result of the lunar cycle. Some religions are built on a lunar calendar. Some of you are saying that we would be a lot less crazy and a lot less lunatic without a moon. I say ask medical researchers. We probably will not know the answer until colonies have lived on planets without a moon -- like Mercury or Venus.

The way to preserve our options is to leave the largest Venus-resonant asteroid alone in case we decide to tow it into a regular orbit (like Earth's moon) around Venus. There are plenty of smaller asteroids that we can powder for cooling Venus and no one will miss them.

There are other options. Nasty nanotechnology with unforeseen consequences. Or my favorite which is using biotechnology to let microbes do the work as they did on early Earth. Though much faster. The atmosphere of Venus is very white and perhaps a color shift might help cool down the planet so that bacteria could do the work of preparing the planet for settlers in a matter of months. Not years. Not decades. Not centuries.

The right germs could convert much of that superheated atmosphere into cool ocean. Venus is, of course, what Earth will be like if we let the climate change deniers have their way -- runaway greenhouse effect.

There are still other technologies that could be used to terraform Venus. Astroengineering, huge shade, chemical catalysts, towing comets, modifying its orbit; huge machines on the ground sequestering greenhouse gases while releasing oxygen, nitrogen, and argon; and technologies yet to be developed.

The rumor is that the Chinese are interested in Venus. If the Chinese paid me, I could make the planet livable at a far lower price than they could.


How to make it snow on Venus

an article

Coming in the months ahead.

Earth and comparative sizes of terraformable worlds

Green Space

Editor's Note -- Long before I ever got the idea for this lens, I long felt that if Greenpeace had a presence in Antarctica and in the oceans, that there should be a Greenpeace presence in space to keep an eye on polluters and warmongers. There isn't a presence and not only is there a lot of space junk (as NORAD, space insurors, and other organizations that track the stuff can testify) but despite international treaties, there is talk of militarization of space. The finger is pointed these days at China which has been shut out of the International Space Station because China steals intellectual property.

In any event, I thought back in pre-Challenger disaster days that one should call a space-based watchdog group Greenspace. So now you know the complete story of Guide to Green Space. Up in the introduction, I somehow omitted the fact that greenspace (as one word) and green space (as two words) had and have two distinct histories. The word greenspace has to do with protected areas of undeveloped land, urban parks, green belts, and greenways. There are numerous organizations called "Greenspace" but not one (that I know of) has anything to do with the universe beyond Earth. The very word space has been latched onto by everyone from advertisers to artists to mean pretty much meaningless nothing -- it just sounds catchy to people who do not use words with precision. I can understand when mathematicians use the word space because they are talking about space in an abstract way that ultimately helps everyone else. I can also understand when real estate people use the word space because the Earth's moon, other moons, other planets, the stars, the galaxies, the superclusters, and even other universes are all very real physical places that you can touch. Space is in fact real estate in exactly the same way your Realtor uses the terms space and real estate. That being the case, we need to keep space clean and green and for peaceful purposes such as national parks, forests, farms, suburbs, cities, factories, mines, and spaceports. I am not against the industrialization and colonization of space nor am I against factories and mines -- that should be obvious. I am against factories that pollute and strip mines and clear cutting that results in erosion and clogging of streams and fish kills. I am very much for the death penalty for polluters and people who start genocidal wars.

I hope that there are no intelligent species out there because I know my species and I know how homicidal we are. One look at a history book or the current news is all the convincing you need. However, if we disccover other people out there, then we should have the sense to avoid them (or give them wide berth) because the mathematics tells me that they will either be technologically millennia behind us, in which case they will be slaughtered like The Tasmanians (the Australian Aborigines of the island of Tasmania who were literally hunted like animals and completely wiped out of existence) or they will be technologically millennia ahead of us -- in which case we will face genocide. I was saying this stuff years before Stephen Hawking but I am glad one of the world's smartest scientists agrees with me.

Our code of ethics ought to be to only claim unclaimed space out there and to only inhabit uninhabited space. This code could keep us alive. Just as some are saying asteroids, meteorites and comets are a reminder to have a back-up world in case the Earth is destroyed, likewise we need to be aware that First Contact may not be our initiative. Some other civilization may unexpectedly show up in ships. Only the United Nations' Office of Outer Space Affairs seems to take this possibility seriously but thank God that they do. They actually have an ambassador on standby. Look it up if you do not believe me.

Meanwhile, someone should get a Greenspace or Greenpeace in space started. My plate is full (you have no idea). We should not put the entire burden of looking after the Solar System on government. Taxpayers, voters, citizens, civilians, consumers, the public, in other words, people like you need to participate to keep an eye on dodgy nations like the USA, Russia and China (North Korea and Iran too). Americans as individuals, Russians as individuals, Chinese as individuals, and the nationals of most any other nation tend to be decent people. It is their governments that need watching.

The Greening of Orbital Debris (Nick Johnson)

Terraformed Moon by Michael Taylor

the greening of the Moon

When we start colonizing the moons (satellites) of other planets, then we will have to get used to calling our moon by its proper name -- Luna.

Likewise, when we move out to other stellar systems, then we will have to start calling our sun by its proper name -- Sol. We call our neighborhood of nine planets, asteroids, Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud the Solar System because the star that holds it all together is Sol. Earth is Sol III. So when some newbie speaks of "other Solar Systems", gently correct them. There are no "other Solar Systems". There is only one Solar System and you live in it. The nearest stellar (meaning star) system to ours is the Proxima Centauri System -- Alpha Centauri as most people know it.


Humans and our ancestors have been looking at this in the day and night sky for thousands of years but now we are looking at it differently. Get used to calling it by its proper name Luna so that when someone refers to "The Moon" and a space traveler responds: "Which moon? The Solar System is full of moons and other stellar systems are full of moons." you are not the one who sounds like they know nothing about space. You read one of Toni Roman's lenses to get up to speed.

Once in a Blue Moon

This is how we got the expression. The moon does turn blue under certain atmospheric conditions.

Image courtesy NASA>


Editor's Note -- You're going to love this if you are into gazing at The Moon (Luna).


credit: Gregory H. Revera

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

terraforming Mars

well, that's Life

The Greening of Mars - by James Lovelock and Michael Allaby

All rights reserved by Mars book covers: Science Fiction & Fantasy

After Greening Space, the Next Step Is Blue (oceans)

T shirt image looks a lot like Earth to me

terraforming Ceres

Further out than Mars. Why bother?

1. the largest asteroid (former asteroid)

2. spherical

3. strategic location between inner and outer Solar System [as Realtors say: "Location, location, location."]

4. easy access to asteroids for mining

5. more fresh water (H2O) than Earth since most of our water is salt water and more can be had from passing comets

terraforming Jupiter

A supramundane planet under construction over Jupiter according to the concept of Paul Birch. The vast habitable strip over the tropical regions, supported by a cage of dynamic compression members, could be extended to englobe the entire planet. Built at the 1 g level, its surface area would be up to 316 Earths.

Editor's note -- Most terraformers understandably look for worlds (planets, moons and asteroids) close to Earth in size and geology both for the solid surface as well as the reasonable gravity. But some terrafomers are willing to take on the gas giants. There are ways to build habitats that have gravity closer to 1G and not the bone-crushing gravities you'd expect on a gas giant. The problem with terraforming a gas giant versus terraforming Venus or Mars is that on Venus or Mars, once the work is done, you can turn off the machines and Mother Nature will sustain herself without our help like on Earth. Of course, on Earth, our pollution is killing Nature and ultimately us -- which is why some of us are looking to get off planet in the first place.

Image by Mamoru Ito, from Shoji and Ikkie Hasegawa's Space Art web pages

Galilean moons of Jupiter


I hear that this project pays terraforming engineers well. Or will pay them well.

Ganymede is in the neighborhood of other notable Jovian moons like Europa (which could harbor an ocean under that ice) and Callisto (which is the best place in the Solar System for an interstellar starport). The upper atmosphere of Jupiter is said to be full of Helium-3. Jupiter is also useful for the slingshot effect in speeding craft on their way to the outer Solar System & beyond and braking craft returning from there. One advantage of living on Ganymede is the gravity. Your muscles are less likely to atrophy here because the gravity is stronger than most moons in the Solar System.

Drawbacks of Ganymede are said to be nasty quakes but at least it does not have volcanic eruptions like Io and the radiation and radio noise from Jupiter may be slightly less. Early in the history of the Solar System, Jupiter failed to become a star or even a brown dwarf. If it had, then the Solar System would have been a double star system. A popular subject in science fiction is lighting up Jupiter.

If engineers lit Jupiter and converted it to a star, then on the positive side all terraformed moons around Jupiter would have better daylight and warmth. On the negative side, any life on Europa would likely be wiped out or have to do some rapid evolving to survive; the Earth might cease to have a nighttime as we've known it since time immemorial; and that means that nocturnal creatures on Earth would have their cycles screwed up; and most of the ecologists on Earth would be very upset. By the time planetary and stellar engineering became possible, most people on Earth would likely be environmentalists still pissed at us ancestors for leaving them with a used-up planet to repair. Earth might be like Dune (Arrakis). Would lighting Jupiter screw up efforts to reverse climate change on Earth and restoring Earth to pristine condition?

Europa - scientists believe it already has an ocean under that ice

Since it is already blue, we only need to green it.



Obviously this is a depiction of a terraformed moon of Jupiter because that planet in the sky has a great red spot.

Since the Great Red Spot is in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, this moon must be tilted as much as Uranus or we are in the moon's southern hemisphere or both.


Could macroengineers build a nanotube shell around Saturn and terraform it?


Saturn has about ninety-five times the surface area of Earth, but only ninety-one percent of its gravity.

photo credit: Wikia user Falc0nB13

terraforming Titan - or, no wonder the movie Titan A.E. failed at the box office

Many assumed that this movie was based on a video game because of the hype. Those of us interested in astronomy since childhood naturally thought that the world being created at the end of the motion picture was a terraformed moon of Saturn since the name of the film was Titan.

It turns out that the flick was based on comic books and that Titan was the name of a ship.

The other reason that people overlooked the name of the ship was obvious to everyone except the makers of this movie: If Earth is destroyed, then one of the places the human race would head to start over is Saturn's moon Titan. Even the title says "Titan After Earth". Why were they surprised that the movie flopped with all this built-in misinformation?

a depiction of Titan - Copyright All rights reserved by Ochre Jelly

obviously that's Saturn in the sky

If you want to license go to

Overview of Worlds Being Considered for Terraforming

Wouldn't it be nice to smell clean air?

And isn't it a shame that we need to go to another world to do it?

That we even need to build another world to do it?

(This planet needs a change in management because we have very bad so-called "leaders" financially backed by very bad people.)

Space Farms and Space Agriculture

A fantasy piece showing a space farm & farmer!

Art by Paula

Editor's note on image -- If the air is good enough for the crops, it is good enough for the farmer. He or she does not need that spacesuit.

The Astronaut Farmer

What does the horse breathe?

no lens about Green Space is complete without hydroponics


terraformers at work?

Green Space - part two

Triton has a tinge of green already but that is probably the camera and the way the photograph was processed.

Why do we want to green way out here past Mars and even past Saturn?

One, because it is cold (d*mn cold) and therefore more of a challenge.

Two, because someone was stupid enough to say around terraformers "that's impossible" -- a phrase certain to provoke a determined response.

the terraforming of Triton

It turns out that Triton is warming up. Planetary scientists don't know why yet. Once they figure out the mechanism of this process of global warming, then perhaps terraformers can enhance it and let Triton warm up to 72 degrees Fahrenheit and 22.222ºC.

Pluto ! - Now that's ambition.

Pluto Terraformed

A rendering of one way Pluto and Charon might be terraformed.

Editor's Note -- I don't think this is the best technique for terraforming Pluto but Wyrmshadow gets an A plus for trying when most people would not even try.

Mirrors, fusion, tidal friction, greenhouse gases & Greenhouse Effect, and genetically-modified flora that can tolerate extreme cold. There must be more than these five techniques for very, very cold worlds. Let's face it: Pluto is, relatively speaking, less of a challenge than Sedna and other worlds at the remotest precincts of the Solar System that make Pluto seem like Venus by comparison. Come on, use those brains for thinking!

Remember, we are terraformers. Our goal is not to adapt humans to dead worlds (like those transhumanist sociopaths) but to adapt worlds to humans and bring those worlds to life. Nature is our friend. Ecology is our friend. Life is our friend.

That's why we call it green space.

The Greening of Other Stellar Systems

This is Io -- not the best candidate for terraforming. Ganymede and Callisto are better choices. Sooner or later, we will head for the stars and terraform the planets around them and the moons around those planets (and perhaps terraform a few asteroids as well).

When we move out to other stellar systems, then we will have to start calling our sun by its proper name -- Sol. We call our neighborhood of nine planets, asteroids, Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud the Solar System because the star that holds it all together is Sol. Earth is Sol III. So when some newbie speaks of "other Solar Systems", gently correct them. There are no "other Solar Systems". There is only one Solar System and you live in it. The nearest stellar (meaning star) system to ours is the Proxima Centauri System -- Alpha Centauri as most people know it.

Terraforming Other Stellar Systems

Please suggest links.

Terraforming a planet (Part 1)

10 Most Earth-Like Alien Planets

Ten Alien Planets Most Similar To Earth

Captain Malcolm 'Mal' Reynolds

"Here's how it is: The Earth got used up, so we moved out and terraformed a whole new galaxy of Earths. . . "

Firefly's opening narration gets the math slightly off

A galaxy of Earths would number in the hundreds of billions. The Firefly "universe" is one stellar system with only dozens of worlds in the so-called habitable zone of not too hot and not too cold. It is _NOT_ hundreds of billions of worlds.

The math is off but they get an A for high production values.

Eagle Nebula (M16): Pillars of Creation

Whoever decided to call this Hubble image the Pillars of Creation was a genius. Some say that this image alone justified every penny of taxpayer money because it makes your jaw drop and for one brief moment all the nonsense going on on Earth shrinks to insignificance and you feel like exploring the cosmos with Doctor Carl Sagan.

Whoever named it the Eagle Nebula was obviously blind. I insist upon calling it the Leopard Nebula because it looks like a leopard jumping upward to get the idiot hiding in the tree who named it the Eagle Nebula.

None of this has anything to do with green space. Except, some of the glowing gases are greenish and . . .

Can you imagine the real estate prices on any world that has a good view of this beauty in the night sky? Talk about green as in money !!!

GreenSpace Student Space Settlement Design Contest Winner

Green Space opera

Music for the Greening of the Universe

Editor's Note --

There is green music as in eco-friendly and there is space music but there is no hybrid of the two that I have discovered yet. Still looking.

If you are a musician and decide to make green space music or to start a green space music group, then let me know and I will be happy to give you free publicity. If you do, please join the Green Music Group coalition or the Green Music Alliance so that visitors to this lens know that you are legitimate and not a phony. Your space credentials are your own business. I suggest surfing through a list of space societies. You will know the list you use is good if it includes The Planetary Society and The Mars Society. Amateur astronomy clubs are your best bets. It is hard to go wrong with them and they usually have very helpful members who are happy to welcome new people. And, best of all, EVERY region has an amateur astronomy club -- just ask a reference librarian at your public library or at the nearest planetarium.

excerpt from 2061: Odyssey Three

The Greening of Ganymede

"Rolf van der Berg was the right man, in the right place, at the right time; no other combination would have worked. Which, of course, is how much of history is made.

He was the right man because he was a second-generation Afrikaner refugee, and a trained geologist; both factors were equally important. He was in the right place, because that had to be the largest of the Jovian moons - third outwards in the sequence Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.

The time was not so critical, for the information had been ticking away like a delayed-action bomb in the data banks for at least a decade. Van der Berg did not encounter it until '57; even then it took him another year to convince himself that he was not crazy - and it was '59 before he had quietly sequestered the original records so that no-one could duplicate his discovery. Only then could he safely give his full attention to the main problem: what to do next.

It had all begun, as is so often the case, with an apparently trivial observation in a field which did not even concern van der Berg directly. His job, as a member of the Planetary Engineering Task Force, was to survey and catalogue the natural resources of Ganymede; he had little business fooling around with the forbidden satellite next door.

But Europa was an enigma which no-one - least of all its immediate neighbours - could ignore for long. Every seven days it passed between Ganymede and the brilliant minisun that had once been Jupiter, producing eclipses which could last as long as twelve minutes. At its closest, it appeared slightly smaller than the Moon as seen from Earth, but it dwindled to a mere quarter of that size when it was on the other side of its orbit.

The eclipses were often spectacular. Just before it slid between Ganymede and Lucifer, Europa would become an ominous black disc, outlined with a ring of crimson fire, as the light of the new sun was refracted through the atmosphere it had helped to create.

In less than half a human lifetime, Europa had been transformed. The crust of ice on the hemisphere always facing Lucifer had melted, to form the Solar System's second ocean."


Silent Running
Silent Running

DVD -- This movie is like the 2011 TV series on FOX named Terra Nova in that it depicts a dying Earth. The difference is that Silent Running comes from 1972 when it looked to the film makers that we would pave over all forests and wipe out all vegetation and flora on Earth. Inexplicably, people on Earth are okay with a lifeless planet, perhaps living under domes with artificially purified air. We never find out because this movie never shows us Earth. Instead this movie is the story of the plant life of Earth which survives on botanical ships in orbit near Saturn. Naturally the Republicans, Democrats or whoever back on Earth order budget cuts and the last plant life must die because they are not going to pay astronauts to look after anything green. Instead of simply abandoning the ships to let the plants fend for themselves perhaps on Mars or some other suitable world, they actually blow them up !!! It is this level of stupidity that makes this movie hit home because we see ourselves. Humans are actually this stupid. We see it every day when we watch Congress. This is pretty much where the movie starts. And I almost forgot, we environmentalists are supposed to be murderers. Yeah right. Explain why certain CEO's of polluting companies are alive, well and not in prison serving life sentences or on death row? For all this, Silent Running is a classic that I hope is not a prophecy.



WALL-E is the first and probably the last time the Disney corporation ever stepped back from corporate greed and took a sober look at where consumer culture is taking us -- to a future of trash, wastelands, obesity and stupidity. The robots are the sympathetic characters, or at least WALL-E is. I am not sure about that evil EVE who blasts everything that moves, just like humans. But the humans are morphing into blobs because these couch potatoes can't be bothered to get off their levitating couches, zero gravity has atrophied their muscles, and they eat all day long. This movie is scary because we all know of people who have eaten so much junk food that they are grossly morbidly obese and literally cannot fit through their own doorway to get to a hospital for liposuction. Most such souls cannot or will not get out of bed and take to wearing nothing because their clothes don't fit and nothing in the store will fit them.

Editor's Note: Actually this is more of a warning to Americans than the human race at large because other countries are going green and have national programs to encourage walking, running and bicycling and low carb diets.

Firefly: The Complete Series
Firefly: The Complete Series

DVD -- In addition to 14 episodes, there are deleted scenes from Serenity, Our Mrs. Reynolds, Objects in Space.

Featurettes: "Here's How How It Was: The Making of Firefly," "Serenity: The 10th Character," "Joss Tours the Set"

Alan Tudyk's audition

Gag reel

Joss sings the Firefly theme

Easter egg: Adam Baldwin sings "Hero of Canton"

Editor's Note -- I was perhaps one of the last people on Earth to see this series years after cancellation but apparently one more viewer would not have saved it from FOX stupidity in attracting the best talent and then throwing it away. Even if i had watched the first run, it was shown out of order and incomplete. After years of hearing fans rave about it, I finally saw it as it was meant to be seen: In order from beginning to end including the movie. I found it sad on two levels.

1. Seeing actress Summer Glau and knowing that she is all grown up and will never be that young girl again . . . In that way it made the cancellation of Sarah Connor Chronicles (SCC) sting even more because that show also has a young star (Mackenzie Brooke Smith) who will not be an eight year old again and so the series could not pick up where it left off without casting a new eight year old and Mackenzie was perfect. Likewise Summer Glau cannot play a high school student convincingly anymore due to stupid network executives who make all decisions based on faulty ratings that don't take recording, college systems and other non-Nielsen outlets into consideration. But back to Firefly which fought the same battles before SCC. I don't mean to ignore the other cast members. Perfect casting for all nine regular cast members. To sum up, it is sad to let go of something you love knowing that they will not make more episodes. The goal of commercial TV producers is to make at least five seasons in order to have a successful syndication run. Seven is ideal. Writers think shows give out creatively if they push into an eighth season and beyond. A common complaint (probably justified) is that a show needs three seasons before it hits its stride. M*A*S*H, another series about war, was at the bottom of the ratings like a lot of other hit shows that also began at the bottom in the first couple of seasons. M*A*S*H left the air with the greatest broadcast ratings of all time up there with the Super Bowl and Gone With The Wind's TV premiere. Firefly did not survive its first season if a season is supposed to be around 26 episodes -- enough for one repeat each for all 52 weeks of the year. The fact that we are still talking about it means that it beat Star Trek's original run of three seasons in the sense of making a maximum impact with the fewest episodes. Sort of the opposite of Doctor Who which has been in various incarnations since 1963. So Firefly is not coming back despite the willingness of all the original cast and Joss Whedon to do it because FOX is evil.

2. The other thing that makes me sad about Firefly is that fans are unaware that government (the US government) today actually does mind control experiments and psycho-surgery on adults and even children. I am not talking about conspiracy theory. You can go look the matter up if you are interested. They are so bold about it that they don't even bother to hide their contempt for morality, ethics and simple decency. And this has nothing to do with the current administration. This stuff is buried deep in the military-intelligence complex. Do your own depressing research. Then you also will come away sad and also have to pretend that the noise on the national news is important when really bad stuff is going on in the name of "national security" and Homeland Security. If the phenomenon of denial interests you, then a good place to start is to read George Orwell's 1984.

Now are you starting to understand the desperation of people to get off Earth and get as far away from the governments of the USA, Russia (worse than us), and China (totalitarian) as possible? This is the bedrock under the topsoil of Green Space.



The movie adapted from the TV series.

Green Space - part three: future modules

4. other worlds as a baseline for researching the toxic effects of pollution on Earth on humans

5. Will it ever snow on Venus?

13. Should we promote helium extraction from the upper atmosphere of Jupiter as a way of preventing strip mining of the moon? Or should we even care since the lunar surface is going to change anyway as we green it? Beyond greening the moon, we will finally "blue" it when we turn lacus into lakes, mare into seas, and oceanus into oceans. This will wipe out the way the moon looks now anyway. [Oceanus Procellarum will become an actual Ocean of Storms. Is that cool or what?]

23. faster ways of installing atmospheres

24. natural parks and other preserves

25. Redwoods on the Red Planet: forests on Mars

26. Dune: The Fremen Dream of Forests on Arid Venus

27. Germs: War of the Worlds and The Martian Chronicles [Why look for life if you are going to kill it?]

28. preventing space militarization and the environmental damage it brings

29. Quarantine -- how to avoid pandemics after visiting other worlds [They need not be indigenous germs. They could be germs from Earth that mutate from cosmic radiation in space and we unknowingly bring them back to Earth.]

30. What can we learn from the movie Avatar?

31. How soon can we create an ocean on another world? Are there oceans of water elsewhere in the Solar System besides Earth and Europa?

32. space ethics: we should only claim and inhabit unclaimed & uninhabited real estate

NASA/National Geographic/Discovery Channel's "The Green Mars" : - A Textbook Example of How NOT to terraform.

(and perhaps a good reason to cut NASA's budget to zero)


Import ammonia, hydrocarbons,and fluorine? This is called pollution. I suspect the petrochemical/fracking industry cooked up this devil's brew. Witch's brew is too kind a term. As for hydrogen, a waste of taxpayers' money since hydrogen makes a beeline for the top of the atmosphere and leaches off into space.

The sane way to do it? It is called agriculture and it is free. Simply encourage foresters to plant as many square miles in forest as possible and farmers to grow crops and ranchers to raise bison or cattle which release greenhouse gases. This way you make money terraforming Mars instead of burning up tax dollars. Leave it to government to find the most expensive way possible and leave it to government to listen to the fossil fuel industry that has already wrecked one planet and now wants to wreck another. Instead of hiring them as consultants, how about throw them in a federal penitentiary instead?


Water from nearby asteroid. They mean Ceres. Why wreck one world when you can wreck three? (Earth, Mars and Ceres) This is a recipe for an interplanetary war since settlers in the Main Asteroid Belt will not appreciate strip mining Ceres -- the only terraformable world there. Mark my word, Cereans will kill Martians and Earthers who try to loot them. The lords of London did not bother to consult the American colonists either and they got themselves kicked out as a result. This is repeated history, simple psychology, and basic geography.

It might cost more but a better source of a lot of water would be to hijack a passing comet. Or go to the Oort Cloud and help yourself. There must be trillions of huge snowballs out there. Tow one or a dozen or a hundred back. Mars is not the only thirsty world. Venus could use them too.

Artificial rain? Doh!!! How about natural rain generated by planting a lot of trees? This is basic botany and hydrology. It is called the water cycle. I thought rocket scientists were supposed to be geniuses. Apparently not.

heating up the planet

Orbiting space mirrors? I proposed the same thing -- for worlds further out from the sun. Mars might do better with a runaway greenhouse effect from exploiting the existing carbon dioxide. Or maybe not. Its atmosphere is already 95.32% carbon dioxide.

Nuclear weapons? Are they insane? Wait centuries for radiation levels to come back down. Did Iran or North Korea come up with this crackpot idea? No. Too crazy even for them. It could only come from the mad fools in the French and American nuclear power industries. Perhaps they are looking for a place to put radwaste and the sun seems too logical. And shutting down the fission industry is way too logical.

Imported fossil fuels? Yep, if I had any doubts who is really behind this scheme, that bullet point removed all doubt. See all previous comments. I don't need to waste my breath.

Guided asteroids to hit Mars? Initial friction followed by a nuclear winter or ice age. I thought that we were trying to heat up Mars. It would be better to smack those asteroids into Venus and cool it down. Scratch that. Comets delivering water ice to Venus so that planet can cool and get water at the same time. Venus needs global cooling (an ice age) and Mars needs global warming (a runaway greenhouse effect) except that Mars already has a carbon dioxide atmosphere but still isn't hot. I suggest that colonists live at the bottom of Valles Marineris in pressure domes until the atmosphere can be thickened (more pressure) and enriched with oxygen and either argon or nitrogen (maybe both).

And yes, I am aware that some of the chemicals that I dismiss breakdown to nitrogen but in the meantime Martian colonists will be killing terraformers who try the more toxic approach. That is because colonists live there and have a different perspective. They might decide to retaliate against Earth and since I live on Earth, I don't want to see an interplanetary war.

planting Mars

Synthetic microbes? Let's see. Radiation plus microbes equals mutation that makes its way back to Earth. It is called blowback. Did anyone at NASA read The Andromeda Strain? Remember that Mars does not have a magnetosphere or ozone layer which protect Earth. The ozone layer can be created but building a magnetosphere? It helps to be God.

Genetically engineered seeds? I am no fan of Monsanto. Check with organic farmers if you want to know why. I happen to have a farm background and I suspect few people at NASA understand farm life.

Having indicated my doubts about biotechnology, I should own up to the fact of being a student of genetic engineering and having a vested interest in the industry. I just think Venus is a much safer testbed of exotic technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology than Mars. Venus is such a hellish place that any bugs that make it back to Earth and turn it into gray goo kind of paid their dues. You have to respect any lifeform (extremophile) that tough. Mars on the other hand is likely to be less of a controlled laboratory environment and more of an airport and Ellis Island with avian flu and immigrants coming and going. The analogy is not to that experiment with amino acids and a spark in a closed flask. Mars will be an open system continuous with Earth in exactly the same way that a virus can jump from Hong Kong to Vancouver or from Port au Prince to Miami by overnight flight. NASA had better consult CDC instead of Monsanto. Remember, this is the planet of political correctness. AIDS could have been stopped by a quarantine but it was deemed politically unacceptable. Other diseases have less politics. True, it took a long time to find effective medical response. And that is the point. Some super-Ebola germ from Mars would not care about human politics.

And the germs could go the other direction and kill off colonists with compromised immune systems. Colonists could legitimately suspect Earth of sending biowar germs at them whenever they became inconvenient. Smaller populations are always at the mercy of larger populations. Like China for example. Almost two billion. All I am saying is that the natural approach to terraforming is a lot less suicidal than releasing new technologies into the ecosphere which now includes the entire Solar System and will eventually spread to other stellar systems.

The Search for Life? We evil humans would just kill it if we found it -- assuming that we could even recognize non-DNA lifeforms. We are not really looking for life out there. We are seeding it. The Mars rovers could easily bring germs from Earth so I have a jaundiced eye when I read of finding evidence of fossil microbes.


Laser propelled spaceships? I can think of faster modes of propulsion.

Building cities on Mars? One good idea. I'll give them that. But just make sure that the cities are eco-friendly and not the sources of pollution that Earth cities are.

That settlement at the bottom of Valles Marineris will be drowned at the first rain so drill it into the heads of the people there that it is a temporary work camp not a permanent city. It is okay to make temporary camp at the bottom of the grand canyon of the red planet but when it transitions from the green planet to the other blue planet, all permanent Martian cities need to be on mountain tops.

3D printed homes? 3D printing is the latest trend (no fad) but listed here, it sounds like the technology flavor of the day. NASA ignored faster building techniques twenty years ago when they were developing the International Space Station and, as a result, it caused cost overruns. All those external tanks could have been a hundred space stations by simply letting them go into orbit but since someone outside of NASA came up with the idea, they dismissed it. Inflatables is an idea from the first years of the Space Age. Echo 1 was before I was born but I know my space history. NASA doesn't. So it is Bigelow Aerospace that is developing inflatable space stations for orbital hotels. I would bet on Bigelow to build a hotel on Mars before I would bet on NASA. NASA just thinks it is a for-profit company (the way it steals intellectual property). Bigelow actually is a for-profit. The point of this is not to dump on NASA (as much fun as that is) since they do great unmanned projects but to point out that bureaucratic solutions are the result of the influence of K Street lobbyists (fossil fuel industry). 3D printed homes? We already have a manufactured home industry that makes pre-fabs on an assembly line. We also have robot on assembly lines. But I don't want robots colonizing Mars or any other world. I want humans colonizing worlds that are made safe by having comfortable temperature, no radiation, and air that may be better than that on Earth.

I also want the colonies to declare independence from Earth from Day One and have strong economies and to be net exporters of food rather than a drain on Earth and my taxes. I want colonists to flip the bureaucrats the bird and tell them to go to hell. Even if it means that they are also flipping the bird at me, a terraformer.

Hello? This is what we want. Independent, self-reliant, self-sufficient people. Why? Because when Earth gets in a jam, they will be able to send us help. Space colonies are like children. They grow up in less than twenty years. You have to let them go and make lives for themselves. They are welcome to come home and bring the grandchildren but not stay too long. Empty nest my foot. Parents love getting their house back. The Earth is overpopulated and space colonization is a better solution than war or genocide.


If you total up the money in the illustration, then it comes to $3.9 Trillion. The national security establishment of the USA burns through that amount of money in one year. So we could easily afford this all by ourselves without asking other nations. But we won't. Thank God. Not just because it would put the United States back into the debt hole that the Tea Party is trying to get us out of (mostly because they are trying to distract from more important issues like reversing climate change because they are still in denial). Canada is a partner with the United States on many space projects other than the Canada Arm. NASA frequently collaborates with the European Space Agency. There are deals with the Russian Space Agency and the Japanese Space Agency and et cetera. So cooperation in space is how things get done on the governmental level. China is excluded because they steal intellectual property. In the private sector, multinational space projects have to make a profit. Or at least satisfy investors if no dividends are paid. And the third sector (nonprofit NGO's) so far just hitches a ride or buys the cheapest commercial launches or builds its own launchers. The third sector might seem the least multinational but there are some big university space consortia out there. It is not all low-budget space foundations. So the economics of the New Worlds Order (not to be confused with the totalitarian New World Order) is already in place.

And yes, I am a long observer of the Libertarian-inspired new nations movement. It was the Robert A. Heinlein fans who were the first to stop talking about science fiction and try to build the new worlds they imagined. Scratch a space entrepreneur in Mojave and you will likely find a science fiction fan and a libertarian. Unfortunately, you also find knuckle-dragging apeman attitudes about climate change. They don't seem to comprehend that the EPA is our friend not our enemy. Breathing poison, drinking poison, and eating poison is not a good idea on Earth nor any other world. Fortunately, there are more than a few techno-hippies (who like a clean ecology) in the space entrepreneur community. It is not all D. Fens types from Falling Down.

NASA has done great work on studying climate change but they could use input from EPA scientists and NOAA scientists for terraforming. Or just turn terraforming over to me or to commercial companies or to the EPA or to NOAA or anyone but an agency that would even seriously consider fossil and fission. Plenty of wind on Mars. Wind power fine. Solar fine. Fusion fine. Fossil and fission is what wrecked this planet and put us on course to a Firefly universe with mind control straight out of MKULTRA and torture (thanks for nothing Dick Cheney) and forever war (straight out of Orwell) and AI-driven robots (as dangerous with the Laws of Robotics as without) and reavers (substitute religion that condones murder) and an uninhabitable Earth because we listened to the fossil and fission industry psychos. It only seems like a lot of unrelated matters to you because you do not see the world as I do -- one. Holistic. Whole. Just one big equation and not that complicated an equation either. Simpler than the Drake Equation.

The United Nations (hated by John Birchers, right wingnuts, and other racists who hate people of color) does few things well but easing the way to letting other worlds secede from the union of Earth is one thing that they could do well because they have helped lots of former colonies become independent nations.

The other way is Earth acting like the British in 1776 and telling the Martians to pay back the $3.9 Trillion. You already know what comes next.

See? It's simple.

Green Stars

Obviously without stars there would be no life as we know it. Sunlight drives the photosynthesis of plants and plants are usually green.

However, just as an aesthetic matter for adults and as a curiosity matter for every child who asked why the clear day sky is blue (it is green during tornado weather), we want to know about stars that are green in colour. It turns out that they are rare. According to some, they do not exist -- not even if you have seen them. The rational ones are smart enough to compromise and say that it is a matter of semantics and optics. The irrational ones make one invoke The Rule of 48: "All scientists are blind."

1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy by James S. Pickering (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1958) says that "the colours seen most often in stars are red, orange, yellow, white, and blue. There are some violet stars and a few green stars. Every shade and tone of the colours is present. There's no known colour that is not represented among the stars."

Over a half century later, apparently light pollution and bad eyesight caused by staring at computer screens instead of looking at the sky with the naked eye or through binoculars or directly through telescope has made people blind to green stars because many people testify to having seen green stars and now some authorities are calling them liars. No one looks through telescopes any more (apparently) because they use cameras and charge coupled devices and computers.

The authorities say that there are no green stars because the nearby colours on the electromagnetic spectrum (red, orange, yellow and blue) wash out or drown out the green light and so you see white. They also talk about black-body radiation.

The people who actually go look at stars say: I see a few green stars.

The authorities respond that it is an optical illusion caused by double stars (one red and one blue) have no appreciable visual separation over the distance of light years. Also the atmosphere affects the colour of star light. In space, the sun is white and not yellow as it appears from the ground. So they say.

I do not think any astronaut or even any paying space tourist will admit to seeing green stars out of the windows or while space walking because of the ridicule that would ensue. Apparently brainwashing now extends to the heavens. If they can get inside our heads and tell us what to perceive, then they can do anything. Brain research and study of the optic nerve and the human eye has shown that there are indeed scientific theories for how we see. Our brains have to mix varying levels of colour cone saturations in the eye to see the colour orange because our cones are red, green and blue. Unfortunately, for the social engineers, some cones are green. Until they can put everyone's eyes out like blind Samson, they will have to depend upon brainwashing. Fortunately for the social engineers, science has shown that humans can be programmed through mass hypnosis to see what they are told to see. Hippies know this stuff because they reject the establishment world view. A tribesman who lives in an emerald rainforest sees green all around and looking up into the clear night sky with eyes that do not require glasses (because they are healthy and their vision is 20/20) they can easily spot a green star and know how it differs from a white star. They might even see a few brown dwarfs which are supposed to be too dim to see. Us obedient conformists will never see green stars because the sky has been taken from us.

Other than double stars, forget optical illusions. You see what you see. Stars are one colour from the ground and another colour from orbit. Ground colour is what should go into amateur astronomy star charts and guides and tables and catalogues. Colour from orbit is information that should be available to space tourists since it will be of no interest to physicists who study optics. They see what they see. It is enough that we enjoy the colours if we are not doing scientific research or professional astronomy. We see what we see.

Our eyes are not electronic devices (thank God) though some people want to become Borg so that they can see like Geordi LaForge. I remember an episode of The Next Generation where Captain Picard was tortured until he saw lights that weren't there. He refused.

The Sun (Sol) actually puts out quite a bit of green light and peaks in the blue-green but, true enough, the other wavelengths of light are also strong and white light is defined as a mix of all wavelengths in more or less even amounts. It is also true that most of the stars in the galaxy are brown dwarfs but we can't see them because they are too dim. Red dwarfs are next most numerous. The bright stars dominate the night sky but as we gain the ability to travel our home galaxy, the Milky Way, we will find a lot of stars we simply could not see from Earth. How many will be green?

What would be necessary to produce a genuinely green star?

1. a star with a very skinny bell curve almost entirely in the green wavelengths.

2. four thousand Angstroms

3. five hundred thirty (530 nm) nanometers

4. temperature of about 10,000 degrees

5. burning the right elements and at the perfect mix to produce the right spectra

6. viewing conditions would not be dark adapted because that would be using the black/white rods

7. we would need an instrument that allowed direct peering through it because digital cameras do not see the way the human eyes does, analog film comes closer but still does not perfectly mimic the eye

8. honest observers

9. observers who were not exposed to social, scientific and cultural pressure to not see green


This is a green star also known as Beta Librae.

NGC 6572

NGC 6826

also known as Caldwell 15

The Saturn Nebula

or NGC 7009


Some astronomers say that this reminds them of the Green Lantern's ring.

Galaxy NGC 1512 in Visible Light

Many people who are not amateur astronomers are unaware that stars are not all white. Just like planets and moons, they have color. The sun appears yellow. Just as there are white dwarf stars and black holes and red giants and blue supergiants; some stars shine green light. This does not, of course, imply chlorophyll or green vegetation. It is simply the color of certain stars based on the elements predominant in them. Gas giant planets take on color based on the chemicals predominant in their composition.

So we should not be surprised that galaxies have color also. in fact, if you have seen more than a few color blown-up photographs or posters of galaxies, then you probably find that their color leaves you speechless. I see the picture of this green galaxy and I still don't believe it. It must surely be some false color image to show infrared or ultraviolet or radio or X-ray details. That must be it.

I wanted to say Greenbook Comets but since my hasty editing of my lenses often results in typos that I do not spot for months, I figured that people would think "Comets" was another of my typos instead of the space humor I intended. So you see, there is a story behind almost every little detail in my lenses.

More by this Author

  • Guide to Overpopulation

    Population explosion/crowding/no elbow room/living like roaches/packed in like sardines/standing room only/squeezed/mashed/gridlock/billions of people/ Overpopulation causes all problems.

  • Guide to Intergalactic Travel

    IGT (intergalactic travel) definitive article of resources. Technical citations are missing because HubPages' policy on links regards them as "affiliates" and had to delete them.

  • Guide to Becoming a Hippie

    Please note: this is NOT a lens about being a hippie (that's a separate lens).  This is a lens about becoming a hippie.  Got it?   1.  Turn on: Just avoid drugs, drugs are for squares, hippies gave...

Greenbook Comments 2 comments

travelerme 3 years ago

I agree with terraforming most of the list except 'the Moon' and Saturn'. Saturn is the solar systems diamond while earth is the jewel of the galaxy. Mercury may have a few issues about heat and cold.

Toni-Roman profile image

Toni-Roman 3 years ago Author

@travelerme: I'd relax about Luna (_THE_ moon). Because of its proximity to Earth and its being in our night sky and sometimes day sky, the political squabbling will prevent any terraforming in the near term. Long term though, future generations will have a different opinion.

A nanotube shell around Saturn might be a way of terraforming Saturn without terraforming it. I for one do not want the rings disturbed because tourists will be paying good money to see them. The rings ought to be a Natural Park in the same way that Yellowstone is a national park. As for the planet itself, a nanotube in the upper atmosphere could provide habitat like a ring world without actually significantly altering the surface appearance of Saturn. In fact, since such a nanotube would likely be on Saturn's equator like Saturn's rings, it would enhance the rings. At least that's my take on it. The Lucifer Project is aptly named. In my original Editor's Notes, you will notice that I agree with you. The idea of converting Saturn into a star is like the aliens lighting up Jupiter in Arthur C. Clarke's 2010: odyssey two to force the evolution of native Europans. I know that turning Jupiter into a star and making the Solar System have a binary star would destroy the night on Earth and wipe out a lot of nocturnal species. For crying out loud, I got into terraforming as a means of taking the load off Mother Earth which is six billion over its carryring capacity of one billion. I did not get into terraforming to destroy the Earth or for that matter gas giants better left as gas giants. I don't know if Saturn becoming a star (torching Saturn or the technical term stellar nucleogenesis) would affect biorhythms on Earth as drastically as torching Jupiter but I'd rather not find out the hard way. Project Lucifer would entail production of a lot of plutonium for their fiendish plan and you just know most of it would fall into the hands of you-know-who. I won't say because I am trying to stay out of their meta data. So the other impact of a Project Lucifer would be enabling every nut out there.

I think there are two camps of terraformers. One camp is the ones who want to destroy more than create with construction and development methods that don't work on Earth right now (fission, use of toxic chemicals, lack of vision in choosing methods that lead to blowback, arrogance of our so-called leaders that we are leaving Earth to get away from,etc.). The other camp is the green space camp which blends ecology, environmentalism, conservation, organic farming, caution in using exotic technologies, setting aside Natural Parks whenever we come upon natural beauty and wonder, and working with intelligent thoughtful developers (inspired by Nature Conservancy's working with corporations), creating forests and oceans, only claiming unclaimed worlds, only inhabiting uninhabited worlds, and only terraforming dead worlds. While I strongly want to terraform as many planets, moons and spherical asteroids as possible in the universe (the Milky Way and other galaxies), I think we should leave alone any world where we find people. It is common sense not to commit genocide or start a war. We want humans to have a reputation as gentle, civilized and respectful of others. If we find life on Europa, then Arthur C. Clarke is right -- leave it alone and go somewhere else. I started this lens in the hope that greenspace people would get the upper hand and command the terraforming discussion so that some jackass does not drop poison and kill any lifeforms in any ocean on Europa. I'm sorry, you know me, I get on my soapbox and I have several things I need to do today.

Doggone it Travelerme, you forced me to start thinking about some sort of vision or mission statement for Green Space terraformers. I will have to do that in the coming month because I literally do not have the time right now.

As for Mercury, I never said terraform the whole planet (others might say that). I think terraforming the poles and along the terminator between night & day and terraforming underground would give plenty of room for Mercury settlers.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

    Click to Rate This Article