Can a Dog Smell Fear in Humans?
You may have been repeatedly told when you were a child "never show fear to dogs as they can sense it." How true is that? If you put that advice to test by trying your best to appear confident every time you encountered unfamiliar dogs on walks, chances are you have seen this method work as the dogs left you alone. After several uneventful encounters, (and the powerful relief, courtesy of negative reinforcement) you may have therefore grown up thinking that dogs are blessed with some mystical, perhaps paranormal powers that allows them to read your soul. You may have also grown up fearing dogs because in a corner of your mind you may have felt that dogs are seeking weakness, and if you show weakness, as when exhibiting fear, they will take advantage of your weakness to chase you down.
Dogs Can Sense Other Dogs' Fear
So are dogs capable of sensing fear? Apparently, they are well versed in sensing fear in other dogs. When I worked for a veterinarian's hospital we were often told that dogs can sense fear in other dogs and react accordingly. I saw many dogs who as soon as they stepped in the hospital, they were very hesitant, some even bolted out the door refusing to come inside the examination room. Was that because they associated that place with some past painful procedures? Could be, but it couldn't be proven that all those dogs had such direct negative experiences.
Turns out, several dogs tend to act anxious at the vet's office because they communicate their fear and the fear passes along from one dog to another as efficiently as word of mouth. How can they do that without talking to each other? It's not like Rover is warning other dogs by saying: "Don't get in there, they will give you shots!" The communication in this case, is not verbal, but rather a gift of the dog's almighty nose. Actually, let's call it a form of teamwork between a dog's nose and another dog's rear-end.
This secret code of communication relies on pheromones. Pheromones are chemicals that are meant to trigger a social response in members of the same species. Dogs are equipped with a vomeronasal organ (also known as Jacobson's organ), a special organ located in the nasal cavity which is purposely made for the detection of pheromones. When a dog is frightened, he secretes alarm pheromones signaling danger which send other dogs into high alert. These alarm pheromones are released by the dog's anal glands and trigger an immediate behavioral response in the receiver dogs sitting in the waiting room. According to Alexandra Horowitz, author of the book "Inside of a Dog" the anal sacs release involuntarily when dogs are frightened or alarmed, and despite those secretions being cleaned up with antibiotic soaps in veterinary offices, from Rover's perspective, those secretions still "reek of epic dog fear." Interesting, huh?
When you smell coffee brewing, you're breathing in coffee molecules which bind to olfactory receptors in your nasal passages. Emotional states, including fear, are not typically regarded as capable of generating scent-laden molecules.— Nancy Diehl, an equine scientist at Penn State
So Can Dogs Sense Fear in Humans?
So if dogs can sense fear in other dogs, can they sense fear in humans? While dogs are capable of detecting fear in other dogs, one must recognize that the goal of anal gland secretions is alerting other dogs of danger, rather than in eliciting aggression. Thankfully, us humans don't have anal glands so dogs won't detect any involuntary secretions from down there, but can dogs sense fear in humans in other ways? Can perhaps dogs detect the smell of sweat? And when it comes to their other senses, can they hear our hearts beating faster or our increased breathing rate? Can they see our pupils dilate? Can they detect a surge in body chemistry such as adrenaline? Can they detect the release of glucose in the bloodstream? For sure, these questions have likely perplexed humans for years and are sure some interesting questions that are worthy of investigating. For a great part many questions will remain unanswered, but here are some interesting thoughts.
Does Fear Have a Smell?
We can't deny that dogs are blessed with amazing senses. Dogs have a remarkable sense of smell and it wouldn't be surprising if dogs could smell fear. First though we must precise that it's wrong to question whether a "a can dog smell fear" as fear is an emotion, and an emotion doesn't have a smell. Rather, the correct question should be "can dogs smell the byproducts of fear?" While fear is an emotion, one cannot deny that when a person is fearful certain odoriferous changes take place. The question is therefore, can dogs smell such odoriferous substances?
According to Jack George Thompson author of the book "The Psychobiology of Emotions" an animal may be capable of detecting a new odor, but that odor will not provide much details about which emotion is causing it. It's therefore unlikely that an olfactory cue wil provides enough information for the animal to determine it's linked to fear. On top of that, it is unlikely that such an olfactory cue would be enough to incite aggression in the animal.
Nancy Diehl, an equine scientist at Penn State, seems to agree that it's unlikely that the smell of your fear could trigger a dog to react aggressively. She states "it is widely acknowledged that pheromone communication via the accessory olfactory system is possible only within animals of the same species. This limitation makes it impossible for any animal to smell fear in members of different species."
This suggests that just because a dog may sense an odor, doesn't mean he'll be more likely to attack you. Chances are, more concerning is what you do when you are fearful as certain behaviors could trigger a behavioral response in dogs that may result in aggression. In the next paragraphs, we will be looking at some examples of fearful behaviors that could get humans in trouble around unfamiliar dogs.
Five Behaviors You Want to Avoid Doing Around Unfamiliar Dogs
Let's face it: telling a child or person to hide their fear when an unfamiliar dog approaches, won't likely work. Fear is an emotion that can be difficult to control and trying to not be fearful can actually make the fear worse. Ever tried to keep cool when a rattlesnake is just a foot away? Much more productive can be educating about behaviors that shouldn't be performed when around dogs. Telling a child to "be a tree" as suggested by the the Dog Gone Safe bite prevention program may be more productive. Following are some behaviors you want to avoid doing when you're around unfamiliar dogs.
- Avoid Direct Eye Contact
- Avoid Making Erratic Movements
- Avoid Screaming
- Avoid Turning Your Back to the Dog
- Avoid Running Away
So What is a Child to Do Instead?
The best thing to do around an unfamiliar dog is to stand motionless while keeping the hands folded around the chest. Avoid direct eye contact, look away. Act boring, just stand there like a street lamp. When the dog loses interest and is at a distance, slowly walk away. But what if the dog knocks you down? In that case, roll into a ball and be still as a log, suggests Dr. Barbara Sherman, a veterinary behaviorist at NC State University.
The Bottom Line
It's natural to fear dogs you do not know. The fear may be triggered from a past negative experience with dogs, a fear of not having a situation under control, simply not knowing this species well or actually having a phobia of dogs (cynophobia). While dogs may be capable of detecting changes in odor in fearful humans, this doesn't mean that they are capable of linking the odoriferous secretions with fear. However, when odor changes are combined with certain fearful behaviors humans display, there are chances that these may elicit aggressive behaviors in certain dogs.
Disclaimer: Dogs are animals and there are still many things we do not know about them. Scientific proof is still lacking on many subjects. Always best to play it safe around dogs and consult with a dog behavior specialist as needed.
- University of South Carolina: Smell myths: Can animals really smell fear?
- NC State University: Behaviorist Urges Awareness to Protect Children from Dog Bites
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- Can you Reinforce Your Dog's Fear?
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- A Guide to Dog Behavior Modification Techniques and ...
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- How to Help a Dog Fearful of Loud Noises
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