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Cats vs Dogs- Which makes a better pet?

Updated on June 19, 2013

Cats vs Dogs

It has always been perhaps the most common debate amongst pet owners, the whole "Which makes a better pet, a cat or a dog?", but is there any validity in this argument? Is one animal considerably better than the other or is it merely an issue of opinion. In my seaches on this subject, I have found valid arguments for both sides demonstrated in a very scientific manner and others which take on a much more comical opproach to validate their side. I will take the former approach rather than the latter as it is difficult to take someone seriously when their discussion is laden in sarcasm and insults towards the other side. This is, without a doubt, a classic example of the proverbial "apples and oranges" comparison, of which I am unable to fully understand as they are both delicious fruits and both have there place in a balanced diet. Likewise, cats and dogs are both intelligent mammals that make wonderful pets and have their place in any loving family. With all the above being considered, a search on this topic is usually not for the purpose of helping one to decide which animal they would prefer as a pet. Instead it is mostly for the purpose of strengthening their opinion towards one side or the other. Being that cats and dogs are the two most common household pets, most people have been around them their whole lives and already know the differences between the two. We're not talking rocket science here, we're taking common sense, but it's still enjoyable to make the comparison anyway. However, if you are one of those people that greatly dislikes one and loves the other, you are more than likely dismissing the positives of the other, unless of course your experience is limited. If that is the case than it is unfair to make judgement when you have no basis for an accurate comparison.

TRAINING AND HOUSEBREAKING

Personally, I grew up with both dogs and cats and currently have a dog and two cats (and six fish) and absolutely love them all, even so I still do have an opinion of preference backed by valid arguments. First, I will start with the subject of training and housebreaking. Dogs, on one hand, have an advantage here as they are able to be trained with relative ease compared to a cat. Dogs can be trained to do "tricks" and be obedient in order to appease their master(s), a welcoming asset indeed. While it's great to have a dog that obeys and can do tricks, I don't think of this as being an advantage necessarily as compared to cats. Where a dog requires training in order to be a good pet and can become ruined without it, a cat, on the other hand, doesn't have those same requirements. Housebreaking a dog can often be a long and messy process, whereas a cat will instinctively find a place to dig and bury their refuse. In general, all that is required to do with a cat is show it the litterbox and the rest is history. Even after housebreaking a dog, there may be the occasional "accident" which can be quite an annoyance, especially if it becomes more than occasional. In my dog's case, the door to the patio is always open and there appears to be absolutely no reason for this type of behaviour, thankfully it's not an issue any more. Perhaps it's a plea for attention or a spiteful act but despite the reason, it's an annoyance to say the least, one that you should never encounter with a cat (as long as you keep a clean litterbox). The other side to this is that dogs can be trained far more easily than a cat which can be considered a sign of respect. In my house, I am the alpha male and my dog Kiko respects that and (usually) obeys my commands. It is this respect and obedience that makes dogs so desirable. Cats do whatever it is that they want to do with no regards to you as they are much more independent and see you as more of an equal than a master. However, it is their independence that often makes cats so desirable, they are low maintenance. I'm going to have to give this round to cats for their low maintenance, instinctive litterbox behavior, and for the fact that they don't require training. While you may have to coax your cat to use the scratching post instead of your couch, this is a minor offset in my opinion. You may argue that since this is the subject of training and certainly dogs being more trainable should win this category hands-down, it does take time and patience to achieve a proper-mannered pup. All that is required for cats is a little attention and a clean litterbox.

PERSONALITY

I feel that the personality of a cat is closer to our own personalities and cover a wider gamut of emotion (emotional intelligence) than a dog. This can be seen by the various, and almost schizophrenic, mood changes that a cat shows thoughout the day. A dog's mood and personality seems to be more predictable as they are either placid and relaxed or energetic and playful most of the time. Yes, I know that they experience fear, sadness, boredom, etc. but with less shades of grey in between as compared to a cat. This is not my opinion but my observations and I am not alone on this. This diverse emotional intelligence gives cats an edge when it comes to communication. A dog barks in only a few given scenarios at most whereas a cat will actually talk to you, the question is "Do you know how to listen?" If you only use your ears than "I'm hungry" will sound the same as "pick me up Daddy" but the clues are in the body language. Sometimes it's hard to tell what cats are saying or what they want but I find their communication far easier to understand than trying to read the blank stares of a dog. Some people may consider this to be ludicrous and disagree with my observations but you may take this with a grain of salt, it is coming from my personal experience and from that I derive that cats are easier to understand. Of course, it may be taken into account that this is no fault of the dog, I may not be able to read them as well as other's can. One thing that scares me about dogs is that they have an irratic side that comes out when they feel threatened, you just don't know what they'll do next. When you offer your hand to a dog to greet them so they can get to know your scent, are they going to bite you or offer you their paw? This is a threat that you will likely never encounter with a cat because when a cat is scared or threatened, they will run away or give a tell-tale sign (hissing, arched back with raised hair, etc.) that they want to be left alone. Being that dogs are pack animals, it is imperative that they are able to communicate with other dogs and it is this social behavior that makes dogs so vastly different than cats. With a dog you get huge doses of unconditional love and affection, often times too much, but this is part of why they are considered to be man's best friend. A dog's attention, affection, and loyalty are second to none. Also, it is much easier to gain a dog's trust than a cat's, cat's are very picky and spread their love and affection carefully and evenly. Again, I think this makes a cat's personality closer to that of a human's. I have met some people with dog-like personalities and let me tell you, it's annoying to have a loud, over-excited person constantly in your face, trying to get your attention- most people are not like that and with good reason. I admire the independence and communication skills of a cat but also love the playfulness and loyalty of a dog. I am going to have to call this one a draw. This is one of those categories that is entirely dependent on the personality of the owner. I have always considered myself a cat person but dog's are more fun in general even if their affection and playfulness is excessive at times.

INTELLIGENCE

Unlike the personality argument, this one is much easier to measure in scientific terms. Sorry dog lovers, cats are measurably more intelligent- yup, it's true. I'm not just talking about the higher emotional intelligence of a cat, but actual IQ which has been proven in a battery of different tests. Ok dog lovers, before you get yourselves in an uproar you must consider the definition of intelligence to which I am referring. When I say measurably, I am talking about how we, as humans, measure intelligence through traditional IQ tests, those concerned with memory and problem solving. A cat is very adaptive and can quicky adjust to it's situation and surroundings using some of the keenest set of senses with perhaps the broadest perceptive ability in the animal kingdom, stronger even than our own. This not only makes for a better solitary hunter but allows a cat to know where they are at all times. It is not unusual for a cat to find it's way home from miles away and I have even read about a cat that did so from nearly 3,000 miles away. I don't think that this story was an exception, I believe every cat has this same ability. Dogs, on the other hand, can get lost on the same street that they live on and would really only be able to find their way home after seeing something they've encountered numerous times or catching a familiar scent. This is because a dog's greatest sense is that of smell, a cat's greatest sense is the sum of the whole, all senses working in perfect balance and harmony. To be more precise on what I mean by "measurably", I will include a quote from http://www.itchmo.com/thanks-for-the-memories-cats-and-their-ability-to-remember-2423 stating; "A test comparing memory retention of cats versus dogs (that age old rivalry) was conducted by Dr. Maier, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan and Dr. Schneirla, curator at the Dept. of Animal Behavior, American Museum of Natural History. Both species were shown a number of boxes and taught that food could only be found under one box with a lighted lamp on top. When the training was completed, researchers lighted the lamp briefly. To test the animal’s memory, the researchers prevented them from going to the box for a period of time. Cats returned to the correct box as much as 16 hours later, exhibiting a power of recall superior to that of monkeys and orangutans. The dogs’ recall lasted no more than five minutes." This is just one example of a cat's superior memory but the problem-solving side of the debate proves to be a bit harder to measure. My cats have always been able to open doors and will go for the handle if the door is latched while my dog will just sit there and whine, waiting for either me or my wife to open it. There is no doubt that intelligence can be measured any number of ways but as far as tangible intelligence as we know it goes, cats definitely have the upper hand. I have read arguments in favor of dogs and they just aren't convincing enough to me. Some psychologists say that dogs are more intelligent because they have a more complex social structure. We as humans have both loners and social butterflies and agreeing with the above hypothesis would be like saying that a party girl is smarter than a writer who spends their days inhabiting a cabin in the middle of the woods. To be fair and not totally go off the beaten path, many species of fish live in schools and I don't think that they are any smarter than the species that don't, it's merely a survival instinct and nothing more. Common sense is another area of intelligence which can be interpreted as instinct and both cats and dogs have there respective instincts which cannot be compared, both are winners for different reasons. To sum it all up, cats are better problem solvers with better memories and dogs are better at understanding people and their emotions. Dogs have been with humans much longer than cats and have a better understanding of us in general but I don't think cat's will change with time, cats are cats and they aren't going to change their ways for us, we will change for them if anything. Again, the advantage here goes to the cats for conclusive evidence showing their superior memory and problem solving skills.

CLEANLINESS

Well, here's an easy one. Cats are definitely cleaner than dogs, almost to a point of compulsiveness. Dogs are wonderful creatures but damn they're dirty. If you have cats, you will notice that they are always cleaning themselves and it shows. Indoor cats never have any offensive odors eminating from their bodies aside from their stinky breath. Dogs however, require bathing at least twice a month (we bathe Kiko once a week or more) or else they will just plain stink with greasy textured hair instead of soft. Even if your dog never rolls around in the grass or in waste (which they absolutely love doing), they will still developed an offensive odor. I believe that this is because a dog, much like a cat, will bath themselves with their tongues. Why cats don't stink because of this is beyond me but it may have a lot to do with the content of their saliva. A dog's saliva contains natural anitbiotics which help heal open wounds and repel parasites, perhaps this is the single cause for the offensive odor- a great evolutionary adaptation if not the most pleasant. Dogs also are living garbage disposal units, they eat anything and everything. I can't say that this is always a bad thing but I have caught Kiko eating cat vomit, hairballs, droppings out of the litter, dirt and plastic. Indeed, dogs are disgusting creatures. Some people will say that cats smell worse, more specifically their litter, but if the litterbox stinks than the obvious solution would be to scoop it or change it- problem solved. Hair can also be a problem with both cats and dogs and I don't think that either one has any advantage over the other in this department but I do find more cat hair on the floor, funiture and my clothes than dog hair. This is, however, a breed specific issue as Kiko is a short-haired breed that sheds very little. Obviously, longer haired breeds will be much more problematic. One last problem to be considered is that of drooling, dogs generally drool more than cats. This is usually minor except in some breeds, like Saint Bernards for example, whose mouths flow like small rivers. My cat Manny does drool but it is rarely anything more than a drip or two. On the topic of cleanliness, cat's can celebrate an overwhelming victory.

SERVICE

This area goes to the dogs, exclusively. Dogs are natural born protectors, guards if you will. Your dog will instinctively protect you and your house 'til the day they die and are happy to do so. I mean, who needs a security system when you have a dog, that would be overkill in most cases. Dogs have been used for generations to serve and protect and have a vast range of breed-specific talents that benefit mankind. With dogs, the master's wellbeing comes before their own, a demonstration of selflessness to the extreme. Cats are only looking out for themselves, except in rare cases- very rare cases. A cat will only help you if it benefits them in some way but that's not to say that they wouldn't if they knew how, it just isn't in their instinctual behavior. I live in the Philippines which is a very dirty, trash-ridden country with an overwhelming cockroach and rat problem but in my house, it's no problem at all. This is where cats have their purpose, keeping out unwanted intruders of the smaller kind. I have had cats give me baths on my head, arms, and legs and it is truly an honor to know that a cat cares for you and views you as one of their own but this really isn't a benefit of service and falls into the personality category- a trait that they share with dogs. Again, this is a no-brainer, dogs win this one with ease as their service-oriented and protective benefits are very numerous to say the least. 
 By looking online you will find that this is an endless and futile debate and some people just plain have it all wrong. From what I can see, people seem to think that cats are anti-social and pretentious but I have rarely encountered this in most of the cats I've owned. In fact, I think quite the opposite. I've had fun cats, shy cats, smart cats, etc. and while each and every cat or dog has their own unique personality, I think that cats are much more diverse and are as different from one another as humans are from one another. Most of my cats are home at my parents house and I miss them dearly but the two that live with me here are no slouches. In fact, my cat Manny is, without a doubt, the coolest and most interesting cat I have ever encountered. I would be as bold as to say that his personality is head and shoulders above ANY dog I have ever known. He plays fetch, tag, hide and seek, play fights with Kiko, can fish change out of the change jar, sleeps in my pants when I'm on the toilet, verbally alerts me when Homer (my other cat) escapes from the patio, climbs up doors and windows and even wrestles with me without getting pissed off- been doing that one since he was a kitten (see video "Psycho kitten" @ http://vids.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=vids.myvideos. Not only that but he is also more talkative than any other cat I've known. If you think that cats only meow when they want food, well...you're wrong. My cats usually want to say hello and often they make great alarm clocks and rarely let us sleep in. They are truly exceptional cats but take into consideration that I raised them by hand and spend all day, every day with them. If you want to see the full potential of your cat, you must spend as much time with him/her as you would a dog. It's often not a fair playing field for cats because people seem to think that because cats are so independent, they don't need as much attention. This attitude could be the very reason why people think cats are snobby and anti-social. Homer, my other cat, was nowhere near as playful and friendly as Manny when he was a kitten and finally after several months, all of my love and attention has paid off- he is a total sweetheart, following me around, rubbing against my legs and talking to me throughout the day. In fact, he pays more attention to me than even my dog Kiko, as strange as that may sound. None of this should be taken as an insult to Kiko, he is a great dog and my wife and I always feel that we've been blessed to have him. Of course, we spend a lot of time with each and every one of our animals (even our fish) and they gladly return the favor. With animal care you simply must follow the "What you give is what you get" ideology or otherwise you will have a sub-par pet and wonder why you were cursed with a dud. In conclusion, both cats and dogs have their strengths and weaknesses and it really comes down to personal preferrence. I am a cat person but I definitely love Kiko equally as much as Manny and Homer. What dogs lack in grace and cleanliness, they more than make up for in friendliness and dependability. What cats lack in playfulness (with people) and obedience, they more than make up for in gentle affection and intelligence. Whichever pet you choose, be happy with your choice and give them all the love and attention they deserve. If you choose to have both, do not show favoritism and always remember, what you give is what you get. 

Cats vs Dogs

The Epic Battle
The Epic Battle
The Coolest Cat on the Planet
The Coolest Cat on the Planet
A True Rarity
A True Rarity

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    • Stacie L profile image

      Stacie L 8 years ago

      Good hub. Cats do make better pets.

    • profile image

      Mike 7 years ago

      Great post. Thorough

    • keith-daniel-scot profile image

      keith-daniel-scot 6 years ago from barberton

      good post im new and all cats are a good house pet but i pick dogs cuz they can play more but the bitting is that that bad

    • profile image

      gina 6 years ago

      i hate cats

      i love dogs

    • profile image

      Skullpool 6 years ago

      personally, i think CATS ROCK AN ROLL but my cousin's dog Henry is cute, but pretty scary when he gets over-excited because he's so big. Dogs are good, cats are BETTER!

    • emmad7 profile image

      emmad7 6 years ago from bendigo

      I have both cats and dogs too. I equally appreciate both animals but in different ways.

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      Greg 6 years ago

      The reason cat's don't stick despite licking themselves is that cat's salvia, unlike dogs, has a powerful deodorant in it. As a lone hunter, a cat relieves on the element of surprise and it needs to be as undetectable as possible.

      For Dogs, they hunt in packs, and it is desirable that some of the pack stink. The prey will detect this and run away from it. What the prey doesn't know is there is another group of clean, undetectable dogs waiting to strike.

    • profile image

      Cat on dogs body 6 years ago

      Cats are not more intelligent than dogs. that's absolute rubbish. Most studies suggest the opposite.

    • Lucky Cats profile image

      Kathy 6 years ago from The beautiful Napa Valley, California

      First..Gina...grow up!

      Now..to this hub. AMAZINGLY WELL WRITTEN, fair and balanced. You have really 'researched' your topic and I appreciate the effort. Yes, cats are incredibly, unbelievably intelligent, individual, unique, discerning, clever and unique. Yes, dogs are loving, loyal, faithful, dependable and intelligent. And both these descriptions can be interchanged. I have many cat sand dogs; love them all...but, will admit I am a 'cat lady.'

      You are very correct when saying that many accept the stereotypical image of cats without seeing the individual animal..they are really quite amazing.

      Thank you for this fun and great article!! UP! AWESOME! USEFUL!

    • profile image

      Lucky Dogs 6 years ago

      Lucky Cats, you look like a cat, thats why u are a cat person.

    • profile image

      daniel 5 years ago

      dogs are waaaaaaaaaaaaaay better than dogs.

    • profile image

      daniel 5 years ago

      dogs are waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay better than cats.

    • profile image

      ben 5 years ago

      dog rule

    • profile image

      Joanne 5 years ago

      I'm afraid I lean more towards dogs than cats, especially since I just read 3 articles on cats and their body language. It was a little scary. We had a very special dog who could never be replaced. He brought our family so much happiness. It isn't so much which makes a better pet, a cat or a dog, it is the happiness and love that you get from them.

      www.petsareagift.com

    • profile image

      ryan 5 years ago

      good argument dogs are more fun but cats are less work thats what i think is what it comes down to im not always home and im lazy so in my opinion cats are best for me but i wouldn't mind a wiener dog

    • profile image

      Anon 5 years ago

      If the comments on this thread are anything to go by, dog lovers are not only annoying, they're ignorant too.

    • profile image

      trenchant 5 years ago

      I've lived with cats and dogs and cats are infinately smarter. Sometimes I've been amazed at how smart cats are, whereas I've only been amazed at how dumb dogs can be.

      Dogs give affection in an in-your-face, pay-attention-to-me kind of way and the constant attention seeking can be tiresome, really tiresome. Cats are wonderfully loving but they do it an quiet, peaceful, undemonstrative kind of way.

    • profile image

      bowen 5 years ago

      cats are way better

    • profile image

      Oscar 5 years ago

      stupid

    • profile image

      enrique 5 years ago

      dogs are cooler. I mean really all you cat lovers dogs are coller. Have dogs go get dogs. dogs are mans best friend. for Example dogs have jobs. THEY help people with jobs and cats they dont help people with jobs. They dont have any jobs. So dogs are better.

    • profile image

      soupie 5 years ago

      Seems it's true, dog lovers are stupid indeed. Stupid, stupid, stupid.

    • profile image

      Karin 5 years ago

      Obviously the dog people are going to be put down here since this is a cat biased article. However, I will say I never actually finished reading it. I got to the point where it talked about putting your hand out to a cat and knowing what to expect, with dogs on the other side and not knowing how they will react. That is total BS and depends on the person. If I go to pet a cat I have NO idea what they are going to do. They will sit their perfectly content being pet, then without warning will hiss and scratch/bite you. Dogs on the other hand give warnings. A low postured head, white eyes, ears back, panting. If it progresses they might growl, then snap and try to bite.

      This "debate" about dogs and cats is completely fruitless as it is absolutely about opinion.

    • profile image

      Cam 5 years ago

      This is a great comparison! I'm thinking of getting a cat but still considering heavily about it. I heard from others that cats stink more than dogs and taht they have more microscopic worms and diseases but I think with proper sanitation this can be under control. And I also intend to keep my cat indoor most of the time so I'm good to go. I'm just envious your dog and your cat can sleep together in peace! That can never happen to me! I own 3 Siberian huskies, and they love to hunt cats!

    • profile image

      M. Brewer 4 years ago

      I loved your post. I like both animals. I just find a cat fits into my daily grind better right now.

    • profile image

      gymnast 4 years ago

      cats are waaaaaaaaaaaaaayyyyyyyy better than dogs

    • profile image

      hojp 4 years ago

      that help me a lot tanks

    • profile image

      kizzy 4 years ago

      Nice biased post

      Cats are ok but Dogs will always be superior

    • profile image

      ALANNA 4 years ago

      IF YOU DON'T LIKE CATS YOU SHOULD BE PUNIHED!!! CATS RULE AND DOGS DROOL CATS CAN HEAR BETTER THAN DOG AND CLIMB BETTER THAN DOGS AND CAN RUN FASTER THAN DOGS AND IF CATS LOVE ME THAT MEANS THEY WILL LOVE YOU TOO

    • profile image

      petpet818 4 years ago

      each pet has always an advantages and disadvantages. i love cats because they are more cuter and clean than dogs. i love dogs because, like they said,its "the mans best friend" and yes it is. i have 3 dogs in my lifetime, they are more fun to play, they care for their master, they guard you everywhere if you are with them and they will do their job to be the best of all BEST FRIEND of us. so, cats are better and dogs are EXCELLENT!!!

    • profile image

      Amon 4 years ago

      that is very rude of u to write such a thing you should get punished oh and one m ore thing cats drool and dogs rule gooooooo dogs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      Stephieee 4 years ago

      I am definitely a cat person. I liked the article... but the comments are the best part.

    • afriqnet profile image

      Joe Njenga 4 years ago from Nairobi Kenya

      For me dogs make better pets than Cats, I would only consider cats due to their independence, Otherwise am a dog person. Your hub is very useful

    • profile image

      MargaretQueens 4 years ago

      I love both honestly. The problem is I have less time on my hands and cats are less time consuming. I also pity cats because they are the 'underdogs' (Seems a little contradicting doesn't it? Well you get what I mean.) when it comes to this battle. They're seen as pests more often than dogs and there's the stereotypical 'crazy cat lady' branding which is just rude. I like to keep an openand would gladly accept a dog into our household but the personalities of a cat are the personalities I find in my friends and in me as well.

    • profile image

      Cats rule dogs drule 4 years ago

      Cats rule dogs drule end the fight. Cats are way better than dogs and dog ppl just don't know how AWESOME!!!! Cats are.

    • profile image

      Alicia 4 years ago

      I really want a cat, but my family hates them:(! they'er dog people.

    • profile image

      Girlz Rule 4 years ago

      As well as girls, DOGS RULE. Cats are so mean when they are older. I know kittens are cute and huggable and lovable, but dogs are way batter. As puppies, they are also cute, huggable and lovable too. But they remain all those things as well as gain loyalty and respect for their owners. Cats just hiss and purr and sleep and poop. Dogs rule! Cats drool

    • profile image

      PC 4 years ago

      I used to think that I didn't like cats for the last 30 years of my life as I've always been told since I was little that cats are bad! I grew up with dogs but never a cat in my life until recently I adopted one. I have to say that for those who has never owed a cat should not jump into conclusion and vice versa for anyone who has never had a dog. I love dogs and in the last few months of being a new cat owner, I found out so much good characteristics about (at least my) cat and I have to push back the misconceptions that I've had about cats. We have to understand that dogs, cats and even goldfish, etc are not the same animal, all have different characteristics, even different human being, we just need to accept the inherit characteristic and live with each other with respect and love. Afterall, "hate" is an overly strong word!

    • profile image

      PC 4 years ago

      I think there is no point arguing which pet is better. It may be more appropriate to think about which pet is more suitable/adaptable for individual as all of us are different. We can use the unbiased analysis (like the experience shared by the author of this forum), etc to determine which one is more suitable for each of us.

    • profile image

      shedevil8 4 years ago

      A dog is a mans best friend because they are the same dumb and sometimes trainable and their dirty as f**k. So its obvious i love cats cause they do a long list of good and wonderful things.

    • profile image

      Macintosh 4 years ago

      Dogs are MUCH better than cats!

    • profile image

      zangana 4 years ago

      where did you get that cats are more intelligent than dogs it's completely WRONG!!!

      http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/...

      http://speakdogblog.com/2011/07/31/dogs-vs-cats%E2...

      100%it's scientifically proven that canidae are smarter than felidae

      and my personal opinion is DOGS ARE MAN'S BEST FRIEND! and CATS ARE FOR PUSSIES!

    • profile image

      ZANGANA 4 years ago

      there is not even a single work done by a cat....dogs can even do cats job catch mouses like jack russel terriers and have you ever seen A CAT TO RESCUE SOMEBODY IN AVALANCHES OR CATS PULLING A SLEDGE OR A POLICE CAT OR A BLIND GUIDE CAT....NO WAY DOGS ARE HILARIOUS

    • profile image

      steve 4 years ago

      JUST READ THE COMMENTS AND YOU WOULD KNOW HOW CAT PEOPLE ARE RUDE JUST TELL ME WHY DOG PEOPLE ARE STUPID?

      LIKE THESE ONES:

      Anon 8 months ago

      If the comments on this thread are anything to go by, dog lovers are not only annoying, they're ignorant too.

      OR:

      soupie 5 months ago

      Seems it's true, dog lovers are stupid indeed. Stupid, stupid, stupid.

      WHY? WHY? WHY? FIRST LEARN TO RESPECT THEN TO WRITE COMMENT ABOUT PEOPLE AND THIS PAGE IS NOT TALKING ABOUT DOG PEOPLE AND CAT PEOPLE IT'S ABOUT CATS AND DOGS

    • profile image

      animal lover! 4 years ago

      Yeah, sure, dog people are stupid. Is that all you have to say about it? Go to an advanced placement class, see how many like certain animals... I'm in it and I am telling you, dog people, apparently, are achidemically smarter than cat people. And that just shows how smart you are? Desperate to make a point, so you attack our intelligence? Why don't you get a REAL point and then blog again! Any kind of animal couldn't help stupid! Of course, that does prove that cat people are less agreeable. (and dogs really do hear better than cats, though they may see better.) I rate cats at my #3, so don't say that it's because I've never had one or it's because I am "dog exclusive". i also have a horse, along with my 3 dogs! I like any animal except monkeys.

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      Jewel 4 years ago

      They are just as good as each other

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      Donna 4 years ago

      I have a 3 month kitten name Mya who I love with all my heart, cats rule !

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      awesome101 4 years ago

      shut up you cat lovers! we all know you're haters that sit in front of a computer and testify against the truth.

    • profile image

      gerontosaur 4 years ago

      People are stupid. Neither cats nordogs will ever be as STUPID as people. Most comments on here would make a turnip blush

    • profile image

      gerontosaur 4 years ago

      Well I think that YOU'RE stupid, gerontosaur!!

    • profile image

      gerontosaur 4 years ago

      YOU'VE JUST PROVEN MY POINT YOU IDIOT!!!

    • profile image

      animal lover! 4 years ago

      Despite what cat people say, cats DO NOT hear better than dogs. They SEE better, which is obviously not as good for protection.

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      Animal lover 4 years ago

      Im both a cat person and a dog person In my opinion dogs are a mans best friend, always sticking next to u n loving u no matter wat u do, on the other hand cats are lovable and evrything but they don't give u as much love n affection as dogs they just wait for u to give them food and go on to do their own thing .... So dogs r much better for me but cats are ok too :)

    • profile image

      CATSrule!! 4 years ago

      CATS CATS CATS CATS DEAL WITH IT

    • profile image

      hawre 4 years ago

      my Savannah cat would eat any dog any day

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      catzs 4 years ago

      Cats are way better! Dod get fur eveywhere they stink and they do poos in your backyard

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      Miranda 4 years ago

      The amount of love you give to an animal is generally the amount they give back to you. Any animal can possess positive characteristics, whether it is a cat or dog. So if you have had a bad experience that just might reflect upon you. Both animals are amazing.

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      jackie 4 years ago

      I love dogs I had cats and they are smart but my dog makes me happier im proud to say im more of a dog person but it depends on how you are and what characteristics you like

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      david 4 years ago

      dog rule so cats can just bogger of

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      Commenter21 4 years ago

      This is the most biased article ever! Dogs can't open doors? Are you insane? There are millions of dogs for the service of saving lives and helping the disorderly.

      My dog learnt how to shake in less than 5 minutes, when I taught her the path to escape twice she already had it memorised, and got a call from a council twice so we had to get a fence put in, and she can still walk down something that's the width of her. Not to mention that she can jump 10 times her body height - so can whippets.

      So yeah, dogs are real unintelligent. Pfft. Yeah right. And this stuff about dog mauling? Let's talk about all those feral cats now, shall we?

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      lsdkjhf;asdhfiie 4 years ago

      dogs are more intellegent

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      DOG LOVER!!!!!!!!! 4 years ago

      DOGS ARE MORE INTELLEGENT THAN CATS

      DOGS RULE CATS DROOL

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      kjflkdjfds 4 years ago

      ok i did not read it it is too long but i love dogs

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      hollyleaf 4 years ago

      my new kitten 'willow' is very smart so that counts for all cats cats rule dog drool go cats!cats can hear better and are 10 times more smarter then dogs!

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      CatLover91 4 years ago

      Dogs stink. Cats are cute, clean and elegant.

      Yes dogs do greet you by licking your face. But I Personally find that disgusting as I have no idea where their tongues have been. Probably licking some other dogs ass or their own feces as they're dirty creatures. Yes, cats are independent. But that's what makes them special. If you get to know a cat well enough and pet it and feed it etc then it will love you and show affection. You also don't need to take them out for walks and bath them. Sorry dog lovers, but truth hurts doesn't it?

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      cool 4 years ago

      dogs crap in other peoples yard cat rule dogs drool

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      cats rule 4 years ago

      Dogs f*** on other peoples hands **** gross man **** disgusting **** dogs ******* gross it c**** on my hand

    • profile image

      dog f*** 4 years ago

      B**** please cats rule

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      jRold 4 years ago

      I love dogs **** cats! They gross and s******

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      da dowg fayn 4 years ago

      Dogs are the best man yo doggg mayn yaw gowt wah iam kayinf maynnnnnn yeeee maunynynyn.moma at shyt mayn gowd dowegss role mannnnyn sheyyttttttt mayñññññññññññññññhhdhhddn **** cats maynnnnnnnnnnns

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      da dowg hatas 4 years ago

      mraaaaayaa crimas mayn righ naw man shyyyyt saginnn panx dow to da flo

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      gown may dawn mayn 4 years ago

      Day mayn wrowng his meynt tdat mayn caynt openyn da dow **** m mayn dawn ******* **** mayns da hata mayñññññññññññññññññññññññññ dowgggghggghghgjg play hatas ççççççççççorplatas ggbñinos øòôóõóöõòõóóõóõóöòöòóöóòóõõó.or.uk.gov.ude

      tex

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      Mary 4 years ago

      I will disagree with the cleanliness, the training and the communication.

      Cleaniless.... My cats keep throwing every thing on the grown. Including plates of food, glasses full of juice, etc... While my dog won't touch anything, even when I'm absent.

      I disagree in the training. I did train a lot my cat, I've put a lot of efforts... but it stills throws everythng it sees and scratched the dooros to the point it is now pointless to close it !

      Communication... When my cat is hungry in the morning, it scratches my feet, meow as hell and everything. The first times I had no clue of what it wanted. Also, it never stops meowing ! While my dog, when it is hungry, bring me directly his empty bowl. That is quite clear to me.

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      sushine 4 years ago

      dogs are a lot smarter and funner than stupied cats are. cats lick them selves so cats are smelly. dogs show more owner ship because they show how they feel than cats do.dogs love there person while cats dont know where they are. cats always go away and walk out the house like my neighbor's cat. so dogs are better.

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      You know, 4 years ago

      It doesn't really matter how we choose or use our waays, the more you love the harder it is to choose. The dogs are fun and cute and smart. While the cats, are cute smart and easy to play with. However, both are called "pets" which is the term for an animal you luv and that's is your opinion because, you can have a smart dog and a dumb cat or a dumb dog and a smart cat... also, you love them just like a family member! It is wrong to judge a women from a man, simply from a dog or a cat. STOP THIS ARGUMENT! I LOVE DOGS AND CATS! WATS THE DiFFRENCE????????

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      Sarah Carlsley 4 years ago from Minnesota

      I would much rather have a cat than a dog. They require so much less work, and smell less. Plus, they don't ruin everything!

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      Jason Guo 4 years ago

      Cats are WAY BETTER.

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      olivia 4 years ago

      cats are so much better!

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      diksnot 4 years ago

      whoever made this article is retarded and doesn't know shit about dogs or cats... and its funny how cat people have such a strong opinion on the matter... dog people are like yeah kewal whatever trevor.. happy to love all animals equally i am.. one thing that is true about self proclaimed cat lovers is that they are assholes generally... they have no care for people until they need to use them... they make harsh claims about people.. how many cats have saved peoples lives?

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      hey 4 years ago

      Worst, cat-biased atricle ever! If it's so obvious you like like cats more than dogs, why even bother to make this blog?? I have to say I am not 'super dog freak' but I definitely prefer them :/ dogs are much more loyal. My dads two cats left him to go live with the neighbours cuz they had better fricken food! His dogs, however stayed with him through thick and thin. And anyways, if you like cats so much more, why the heck'd you have a dog!?

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      hey 4 years ago

      Worst, cat-biased atricle ever! If it's so obvious you like like cats more than dogs, why even bother to make this blog?? I have to say I am not 'super dog freak' but I definitely prefer them :/ dogs are much more loyal. My dads two cats left him to go live with the neighbours cuz they had better fricken food! His dogs, however stayed with him through thick and thin. And anyways, if you like cats so much more, why the heck'd you have a dog!?

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      Yuluo 4 years ago

      ... So, cats win every everything in this blog apart from service? The dog wins the ''service'' section, so you write a few sentences on HOW they win it, before going straight back to how awesome cats are and what THEY do? How lame :( After you tell us how intelligent and smart and amazing cats are, you only give a few sentences of respect to dogs, even when it's won a question? Uh, almost every single cat i've seen hisses at me when i try to pet it, and runs away. The ONLY time i've seen a cat act nicely is when it's owner is holding a can of cat food. Dog's are the best, they are ALWAYS loyal to you, and as much as people say, they don't want just the food, they want companionship.

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      tia 4 years ago

      thanks for the info I needed that

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      YOLO 4 years ago

      Dogs droll liatarilly

      Cat rule they were worshiped

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      YOLO BRO 4 years ago

      Dogs :(

      Cats :)

      I agree with you YOLO :) by the way nice name :D

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      YOLO BRODUDE 4 years ago

      Ahhh it is kind of creepy that all of the "YOLO"s are commenting but cats

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      YOLO BRODUDEBOSS 4 years ago

      Cat memes :) not a single dog one cause there are none

      1.nyan cat

      2.keyboard cat

      3.ceiling cat

      4.long cat

      5.basement cat

      6.monirail cat

      ect.

      CATS ARE B0$$ and really it is weird how all the yolos are commenting

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      YOLO BRODUDEBOSSNOOB 4 years ago

      [@+$ and it is really really weird how the YOLO people are all cat people and have close names :/

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      Holly 4 years ago

      If cats are smarter than dogs. Why do dogs understand physics better. When you kick a ball that the dog wants, the dog will stand in the direction the ball will go depending on the position of your foot. Cats won't do that.

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      Nathanael 3 years ago

      Personally, and this is just my opinion, I think cats are better. When deciding which of the two are "better", you have to ask, better in what sense? You have to prioritize what matters in your pet. Here's why I think cats are better than dogs.

      1. Cats are much more mannered than dogs, as least typically. They do not make obnoxious noises, lick people's faces or knock people over by jumping on them.

      2. Cats do not need to be trained. Dog lovers often say that you can train a dog, so it is better, but in reality you HAVE to train it, at least usually. Dogs need to be taught to not bark, bite, and some go the extra mile of teaching it to do tricks.

      3. Cats can poop in a litter box. Dogs must go for walks. There are exceptions to this, I'm sure, but most often a cat gets familiar with the litter box with ease and dogs wait for their owner to walk them outside, else they poop on the floor,

      4. Cats are more independent. Again, I'm sure there are exceptions. But a cat is very capable of being left alone for a weekend as long as it has a litter box and some food. A dog, however, will be looking out the window with a sad face, bored and lonely as it waits for its master to arrive (not to mention the crap it will leave behind).

      5. Cats cost less. It's true statistically. Cats cost less initially, require less food, and also keep their toys in better condition (not necessarily GOOD condition, but certainly better).

      6. You can sleep with a cat. This isn't too significant, but it's true. Most cats are willing to climb with you in bed. Dogs on the other hand are simply either too large, or don't want to. Again, I'm sure there are exceptions.

      7. Cats can be played with indoors... and outdoors. Dogs require lots of space ,and the ones that don't aren't usually too playful. Cats can be played with indoors using laser lights, and outside with things like toy fishing rods.

      8. Cats are smaller. This may seem minor, but the size of a pet is very important. For one thing, small children should not be around animals that are too large and powerful for them to control.

      9. Cats are cuddly. To some people, this is insignificant, but to many it matters. Most dogs, if you try to cuddle with them, will either not fit on your lap, walk away, or thing you are "playing" with them. Now, some cats are not, but those are the outcasts. I'm talking about the majority here.

      10. If you have food, odds are your dog is going too as well. Dogs are very pesky when it comes to them obtaining your diet. If you pull out meat, a dog is likely to jump on you or follow you around until you give it to them. Cats, on the other hand, might jump on you, but their jump is not as powerful, and they do it less often. In addition, cats are simply more often satisfied with their OWN diets. Dogs demand that you give them yours.

      So this is why I believe cats make better pets than dogs. These "more often" examples I give are based off of numerous experiences and stories told by people I know. They are not based off of true statistics (except for the finances). If you disagree, just tell me your opinion.

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      Avery 3 years ago

      I say both animals are great, but those who say dogs are better are wrong.

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      droe 3 years ago

      Dogs are much better than Cats

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      sarae405 3 years ago

      I have a cat and dogs can get real anoughing then cat(that I can't stand)if you have a big dog then it would be hard to do stuff with it like if it wants to get on your lap and your shouldn't(never)let it on your lap.cats are quit and doesn't get loud so your noubors could hear it.but I want mouse

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      hulkultimatedestruction123 3 years ago

      cats: dogs:

      help blind people help blind people

      calm pressure sniff out things

      nice and fluffy stay by your side

      used for guarding very defensive

      very loyal all they want is attention

      the truth is that cats are better because they don't drule everywhere like dogs. want a loyal companion? get a dog.

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      Michelle 3 years ago

      Each animal whether canine or feline serves its own need with a human and they both form unique bonds with its owner. Love them both!

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      littlewierdo 3 years ago

      CATS ARE BETTER NO MATTER WUT

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      3 years ago

      Even though dogs are lovable they have flees and parasite and yucky things like that and also calling someone a dog is an insult.

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      Samantha 3 years ago

      Dogs are better they save people's lives

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      Bobby 3 years ago

      Cats don't want to play with you

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      Crystal 3 years ago

      Dogs rule they do stuff bad there just trying to have fun cats hiss and fight cats don't have any love

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      Billybob 3 years ago

      Dogs are way better than cats. Cats are not even a centimeter cool.

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      Cole 3 years ago

      Qq are better they sometime shed but you don't see it they love people

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      jskramer@ymail,com 3 years ago

      Through out My Life I have had Cat and Dog pets, each and every one

      had a different personality. In essence a person-to-person relation with

      a Cat is more revealing. As to the Dog Vs Cat predator... a same size Cat will make mince meat of a same size Dog. Sorry All, that is natures way.

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      Yu2ki 3 years ago

      people are so weird. dog lovers, cats actually are smarter. protest all you want, it's true. dogs may have evolved more than cats, but it is a common misconseption that "survival of the fittest" means "survival of the strongest". it doesn't. it means the animals that thrive are the most suited to the environment. the fact that dogs have evolved more than cats does not mean they are smarter. it means they took more time than cats to suit their environment, and developed slower.

      cats can't do jobs?a lot of people say that, but if people had stopped burning cats in the time of the black death, the disease might have been eradicated. dogs can catch rodents, but nowhere near as efficiently as cats. cats are also nurses. oh yeah, dogs may pull people from avalanches, but a cats purring will help heart problems, anxiety, high blood pressure and insomnia. they are used to comfort patients in many hospitals, and have helped a lot of people survive serious trauma and accidents by lowering their blood pressure and heart rate.

      but cats are better at being cats, and dogs are better at being dogs. this is just my opinion.

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      6yyy 3 years ago

      Why everyone is arguing ? All animals have their own advantage and disadvantage:!!!!!!!!

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      Carl 3 years ago

      I prefer cats by a long shot. A cat can take care of itself. I can't stand when dogs bark for the sake of barking and they tear things up.

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      Nick 3 years ago

      Kinda long

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      me 3 years ago

      love cats and dogs

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      ssssssa 3 years ago

      i like dogs muuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuch more because my cat always takes Food he always takes birds and bloody rats in the house and he opens the door to the Garbage and eats it and throws it around. And cats dont care what you think about them so if you dont like Your cat like me because he goes in the Garbage he dosent give a shit.

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      max 3 years ago

      amon you a loser and a buttface

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      dogs rule! cats drool! 2 years ago

      I love dogs more than cats! its not because I did not experience one! I lived with 2 cats twice! dogs are loveable and they don't run away! one of the cats went missing! and dogs can play indoors and are so loyal! cat owners you are mean! don't you see that cats are not best at EVERYTHING! I prefer a dog because they are cute, kind, loveable, loyal, and a mans best friend of all! and dogs hearing is better than cats! DOGS RULE FOR LIFE AND CATS DROOL FOREVER! DOG 1# CAT 2#

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      Megan 2 years ago

      a cat is more peaceful and quiet to where a dog is loud and annoying so I prefer cats.

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      Alfheim 2 years ago

      Dogs are way better than cats!! Have you ever heard of a therapy cat... Didn't think so. Cats are mean, they scratch, hiss, and bite. Dogs are only mean because their idiot masters train them to be mean. All dogs will instinctively want to help you if your sad. There are no service cats either. They aren't on the front lines helping the troops fight or protect them from IEDs. They don't help law enforcement find drugs, or catch convicts. DOGS RULE CATS DROOL!!!!

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      tasneem 2 years ago

      I WAS RIGHT

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      Dog4Life 2 years ago

      The one about dogs are not as smart as cats was bs. First of all, I have read multiple studies on dogs intelligence and cats intelligence and every single time, the dog won. You just found one study that shows that cats are better than dogs, and think that is the correct answer, when it is really not. Also, you must like a quiet life. With cats you don't really do anything with them. I want a friend, not an animal I see around the house and occasionally pet. I want a companion. Don't think I know what I'm talking about? I have 4 cats and a dog, and I love my dog more than all of my cats combined.

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      Ro 2 years ago

      CATS ARE SO MUCH BETTER! IT IS JUST A FACT!

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      Anne Gillingham 2 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

      I agree with you on pretty much every point, actually.

      Dogs have their individual experiences, yes. But as far as the 'range' of reactions to things go, cats have them beat by miles.

      OK here are some contrasts:

      Is there a single dog on the planet who wouldn't prefer to sleep in his master's bed?

      --- um ... no. There isn't. No such creature.

      Is there a single cat on the planet who wouldn't prefer to sleep in his master's bed?

      --- um ... well ... yes. Every single cat on the planet has a different idea of ideal sleeping accommodations, ranging from the top of book shelves, to starting out the evening in the "big" bed and moving into the living room, and ending the night in front of the window ... to sleeping in the garage to the roof etc.

      Is there a single dog on the planet who would turn down raw steak?

      --- no. Under no circumstances would any dog on this planet reject a piece of raw steak.

      Is there a single cat on the planet who would turn down raw steak?

      --- sure. Multiple reasons for it, too. Perhaps depending on mood, presentation, hunger, what other cats are around, etc.

      Differences in dogs come about in areas of their personal talents. Some dogs are fantastic swimmers, others are awesome retrievers, diggers, guardians, etc.

      I could go on and on but my point is that cats are almost MORE individualistic than humans are.

      I don't detect radical differences in cat talents, but rather degrees of how effective they are at basic cat survival such as chasing and killing prey, and their drive to do so. Their degree of interest in hunting varies, but in general it is something that they all have "in" them.

      Cats also seem to a more complex ability to remember and plan than dogs do. I see dog brains kind of like a switchboard. You have an "on" switch and an off switch to various stimuli: sorry folks it is very obvious. Dogs have a "get" button and when they see something they want to "get" it triggers different behaviors, in order to "get" it. Then they decide which behavior "got" them what they wanted to "get" and they use that button first next time.

      Cats seem to be more complex than that. They see the things that they want to "get" from multiple angles, and analyze if the effort is even worth it.

      I also think that cats are smarter than dogs. They are far more empathic. Dogs are far too interested in "getting" stuff to think about anybody else. I have noticed that the smarter of the dogs will demonstrate leadership and caring capacities for other dogs but in general most dogs are as thick as potato soup.

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      LUMOS200 2 years ago

      I LUV my 3 month old kitten he is cute but I also love my friends dog I think both are great pets but I lie cats better

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      Alex hysmith 2 years ago

      I think that dogs are way way way better then cats.......

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      Nancy Cossident 20 months ago

      Cats Rule dogs drool!

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      Kimberly joseph 19 months ago

      Kimberly Joseph

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      Cat Lover 17 months ago

      Do you like cats or kittens more? I like cats.

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      Cat Lover 17 months ago

      I hate dogs. I love cats. Do you agree

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      Cat Lover 17 months ago

      Anyone in the conversation? Hello? Please add your comment. I have had three comments in a row. Do not be shy please. This is getting BORRING!! I'm talking to myself. Let's get talking!!! CATS RULE DOG DROOL!!! What do you think of that? Talk to me when you see my comments PLEASE!

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      Other Cat Lover 17 months ago

      I agree all of what you say!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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